2 Vocabulary WordsHyksos: A group of nomadic invaders from Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C.New Kingdom: The Period of ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the Hyksos rulers, lasting from B.C.Nubia: A region of African that straddled the upper Nile River.Kush: An ancient Nubian Kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt between 200) and 1000 B.C.Meroe: Center of the Kush dynast from about 250 B.C. through 150 A.D.
3 Understanding Connotations: The Word “Empire” Empire: Brings together several people or states under the control of one ruler.Make a list of movies, quotations or other “contexts” in which you have heard the word Empire.What thoughts or connotations are a associated with the word Empire?What makes an Empire good or bad?
4 Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt Hyksos: Invaders from Southwestern Asia take control of Egypt from B.C.Hebrews Migrate to Egypt: Abraham and his family came to the land of “Canaan”1600 B.C. Egyptians drive out Hyksos rulers: Hebrews were force into slaveryHebrews Cross Canaan
5 The New Kingdom of Egypt New Kingdom: Era Egyptian Pharaohs from B.C.Used Bronze Weapons, charioteers, archers foot soldiersHatshepsut: Women Pharaoh, ruled while stepson was too young to ruleThutmose III pushed the empire into the African Kingdom of Nubia
6 The New Kingdom of Egypt: An Age of Builders Pharaohs of New Kingdom erected “Grand Buildings”Temple of Amon-Re, Valley of the Kings
7 The Egyptian Empire Declines Invasions by Sea: “Sea People” invade Egyptians. May have been the PhilistinesTribes in Palestine and Libya raided Egyptian outposts.Egypt Never recovered from the invasions!!!Kingdom of Kush: Nubians take control of Egypt
8 The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Nubian Kingdom of KushNubia lays in the Middle of AfricaTradersCultural Diffusion with Egypt: Learned Egyptian language, Gods, Clothing, Social CustomsKing Piankhi: Overthrew LibyansShort Lived, Assyrians conquered Egypt
9 The Golden Age of Meroe Kushites moved south to Meroe Wealth of Kush: Natural Resources helped with tradeLarger amounts of RainfallLarge developments of Iron Weapons and toolsDecline of Meroe: Other African kingdoms began to peck at the Kushite kingdom
11 Main Idea QuestionsHow did the New Kingdom of Egypt Become so Powerful and Wealthy?What cultural Aspects of Egyptian civilizations did the Kushites adopt?Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians?
13 Vocabulary WordsAssyria: Southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C.Sennacherib: Assyrian King who defeated 89 Cities 820 Villages and burned Babylon (one of the most important ancient cities) to the ground. Killed everyone!Nebuchadnezzar: Chaldean King who restored the ancient City of Babylon to glory. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (One of Seven Wonders of The Ancient World)
14 A MIGHTY MILITARY MACHINE From the Northern Part of MesopotamiaTerritory was easily invaded (flat, no natural barriers)Constantly FightingDeveloped into “battle hardened” society due to all the constant fightingEmpire stretched from Banks of the Northern Tigris River all the way to Central EgyptSennacherib
15 A Might Military Machine: Cont Organized MilitarySociety Glorified MilitaryDeveloped Ironworking technology (Weapons)Soldiers in Stiff leather armorCopper HelmetsPlanned Military Conquests in Advance: Pontoons for rivers, bridgesBefore attacking Assyrians dug out city walls to weaken themWaves of arrowsBattering rams (Lord of the Rings)No Mercy!!!!! Killed or enslaved
18 The Empire ExpandsAt the peak of the Assyrian Empire the Assyrians controlled lands ranging from Mesopotamia, southern Anatolia and into the Nile River ValleyConquered People:Refusal to pay equaled exile, destroyed cities or death
19 Assyrian Culture Great reputations as warriors and as builders Nineveh: Assyria’s Capital along the Tigris River.Three miles long by One mile wide!!!!King Ashurbanipal: Collected 20,000 clay tablets for the library at NinevehGovernment:A system of Governors who reported to a central authorityEpic of Gilgamesh
20 The Empire Crumbles Power spread too thin Many enemies because of their crueltyArmies of the Medes and the Chaldeans burned Nineveh to the ground (Clay tablets hardened in the fire)Rebirth of Babylon Under the ChaldeansChaldean King: NebuchadnezzarHanging GardensOne of Seven Wonders of the Ancient WorldTerraces 75ft above the ground7 tier Ziggurat 300ft highAstronomers studied changes in the night sky
21 Main Idea Questions: PG 98 What methods did the Assyrians use when they attack enemy cities?What contributions to government administration and culture did the Assyrians make?Why did the people in the region rejoice when the Assyrian Empire was defeated?
23 Vocabulary: 3 Key Vocabulary Words Cyrus: Persian King who united Persia. He conquered neighboring Kingdoms. He was known for his “methods of governing” Cyrus prevented his generals and soldiers from destroying conquered lands and he honored local customs and religions. (Jews back to homeland and forever thankful)Satrap: A governor of a province in the Persian EmpireZoroaster: A Persian Prophet who taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil. Each person is expected to take part in this struggle.
24 The Rise of PersiaPersians based their empire on tolerance and diplomacy (opposite of the Assyrians)Present day IranOriginally Indo-Europeans who migrated southBetter Natural Resources: Copper, lead, gold, silver, etcDozen of mini KingdomsCyrus the Great Unites The Persian Empire in 550 B.C.
26 Cyrus the Great Empire totaled over 2,000 miles Military Genius “Cyrus’s most enduring legacy was his method of Governing. His kindness toward conquered peoples revealed a wise and tolerant view of Empire.”Soldiers could not destroy or burn conquered citiesHonored local customs and religionsJews returned to homeland (Thankful for Cyrus)
28 Persian RuleCyrus’s son Cambyses expanded empire into Egypt but was not respectful to Egyptian ReligionCaused wide spread rebellionsCambyses successor Darius stabilized the empireFormer member of the Ten Thousand Immortal soldiersExpanded empire into India “Indus River Valley”Empire now 2,500 miles long!!
29 Persian Rule Zoroastrianism Government Ruling in far away lands Set up regional governments (Roughly similar to the homelands of the different groups)Satraps: A governor who ruled locallyA Persian Prophet“Zoroaster taught that the earth is a battle ground for the spirit of good and evil. We each have to play a part in the battle between good and evil.”Cultural Diffusion: Judgment day, people have free will to choose good or evil.
30 Construction Projects Under Darius Royal RoadTurkey---IranIncreasedTravel, trade, money, transportation of goods/materials, TRADE, Cultural Diffusion, Communication6-7 DaysRest stopsHorse ExchangeCanal from Mediterranean Sea to Red Sea
31 Main Idea Questions How did Cyrus treat the people he conquered? What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire?What did Zoroaster teach? What similarities does it share with other “Major Religions”
33 Chapter Vocabulary: Section 4 Confucius: Ancient Chinese Philosopher who believed in 5 basic principles and filial pietyFilial Piety: Respect Shown by children for their parentsBureaucracy: A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of the governmentDaoism: A philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinking Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the DaoLegalism: A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order.Ying and Yang: In Chinese thought, the two powers that govern the natural rhythms of life.Autocracy: A government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary mannerI Ching: A Chinese book of oracles, consulted to answer ethical and practical problemsQin Dynasty: A short lived Chinese dynasty that replaced the Zhou Dynasty in the third century B.C.
34 Confucius and the Social Order End of Zhou Dynasty signaled the end of Chinese values of “social order, harmony, respect for authority”Confucius: China’s most influential scholarDeep desire to restore social order to ChinaBelieved that that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China if society organized itself around 5 basic Relationships
35 Older Brother and younger Brother 5 Basic RelationshipsRuler and SubjectFather and SonHusband and WifeOlder Brother and younger BrotherFriend and FriendThree of Confucius’s relationships were based on the FamilyFilial Piety: Respect for their parents and ancestors.
37 Confucius In Government/Beliefs Appointed to “Minister of Justice”Crime ended overnightEducation could transform a “humbly born person into a gentleman” What does he mean?Bureaucracy: A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of the governmentEducation was key to “advancing” in government
38 Confucianism: IS NOT A RELIGION Repeat with Mr. EricksonConfucianism was never a religion, but it was an ethical system, a system based on what is Right and what is Wrong!!
39 Other Ethical Systems: Daosim DaoismDaoists Seek Harmony with NatureChinese Thinker named LaoziBook: Dao De Jing (The Way of Virtue)Universal Force called the “Dao”, meaning “the way” guides all things. Only humans fail to follow the Dao.
40 Legalists Urge Harsh Rule: Legalism Founded by: Hanfeizi and Li SiCompletely different from Daoism and ConfucianismHighly efficient and powerful government was key to restoring order in societyGovernment should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony.Believe in controlling ideas as well as actionsWhy?
41 Chinese Ethical System ConfucianismDaoismLegalismSocial order, harmony and good government should be base on family relationshipsThe natural order is more important than the social orderA highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social orderRespect for parents and elders is important to a well-ordered societyA universal force guides all thingsPunishments are useful to maintain social orderEducation is important both to the welfare of the individual and to the societyHuman beings should live simply and in harmony with natureThinkers and their ideas should strictly be controlled by the governmentAmerican Society ?Hippies ?School ?
42 I ChingChinese also turned to other practices for finding answers to life’s questionsBook of Oracles: I Ching or “Yi Jing”Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, and interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle or prediction.Offered good advice and simple common sense
43 Ying and YangTwo Powers that together represented the natural rhythm of lifeYin: Cold, dark, soft and mysteriousYang: Warm bright, hard and clear
44 The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Qin Dynasty replaces the Zhou Dynasty (Legalist Empire)After 20 years of ruling Qin assumed the name Shi Huangdi “First Emperor”Put down fighting throughout China, both invaders and civil disobedienceMoved 120,000 noble familiesChina: Now 36 DistrictsMurdered thousands of Confucian Scholars
45 The Qin Dynasty Unifies China “Shi Huangdi established an Autocracy: a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner”CentralizationBuilt 4,000 miles of roadsSet standards for writing, law, currency, weight and measuresIrrigation projectsHarsh Taxes and repressive government
46 Great Wall of China Forced scholars to work on Great Wall of China Close gaps in preexisting walls to discourage attacks by northern nomadsWork on Wall or Die!!!
47 Main Idea QuestionsHow did Confucius believe that social order, harmony and good government, could be restored in China?What did the Legalist see as the key to restoring order?What measures did Shi Huangdi take to crush political opposition at home?