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Guided Highlighted Reading: A Strategy for Reading Complex Text International Reading Association 2012 Elaine Weber, Macomb ISD Barbara Nelson, Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "Guided Highlighted Reading: A Strategy for Reading Complex Text International Reading Association 2012 Elaine Weber, Macomb ISD Barbara Nelson, Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Guided Highlighted Reading: A Strategy for Reading Complex Text International Reading Association 2012 Elaine Weber, Macomb ISD Barbara Nelson, Consultant Cynthia Schofield, Harper Creek Schools Carrie Wozniak, Fraser Public Schools 1

2 Goals for the Session You will O Understand the relationship of GHR to the Common Core State Standards. O Know how to implement GHR, a research- based strategy for scaffolding deep reading of complex text. 2

3 Have you ever had one of those moments? 3

4 We had one of those moments! We thought we knew the all the effects of GHR: Students are able to… O summarize text. O recognize different text structures. O analyze text using the language of craft. O understand the vocabulary of complex text. O identify multiple-choice patterns and answer questions more successfully. 4

5 And why it works… O Engages students in the text O Gives students the language of analysis O Points out the salient points of text O Provides opportunities to learn the predictable patterns of text. 5

6 We did realize it provided students opportunities to reread text and the positive effect on that text… But, we didn’t realize the power of Repeated Reading on subsequent texts… 6

7 Effects of Repeated Reading book A book B book C Timothy Rasinski – IRA Webinar 2/15/2012 7

8 Repeated Reading O Wide Reading (reading one text after another only once) O Deep Reading (repeated reading of the same text) 8

9 Research has shown that students benefit from rereading texts. While the repeated reading method was initially created to increase reading fluency, researchers found that it positively impacted sight word recognition and comprehension as well. Samuels,

10 Some of the effects from research… O Repeated reading represents an educational strategy for building reading fluency in which a student rereads a passage until meeting a criterion level (Dahl, 1977; Samuels, 1979). O Research shows that repeated reading can facilitate growth in reading fluency and other aspects of reading achievement (Adams, 1990; NRP, 2000; Therrien, 2004). 10

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13 SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium Assessments of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/ Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects O Overall Claim (Gr 3-8) - Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy. O Overall Claim (High School) - Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy. 13

14 SMARTER Balanced Four Major Claims O Claim #1 - Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. O Claim #2 - Students can produce effective and well- grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences. O Claim #3 - Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. O Claim #4 - Students can engage in research/inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. 14

15 Walden by Henry David Thoreau “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately…” tE&feature=bf_next&list=SP2958A8F53619D3 F2&lf=list_related 15

16 Thoreau’s Walden 16

17 Sample Performance Task for Informational Text O Students provide an objective summary of the following excerpt from Henry David Thoreau’s Walden”) [RI.11–12.2]; O Students determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative (metaphor) and connotative (allusion) meanings [RI.11–12.4]; and O Students determine an author’s purpose (craft) in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text. [RI.11–12.6] 17

18 Guided Highlighted Reading for three purposes O Vocabulary O Summary O Craft 18

19 GHR for Vocabulary and Summary Vocabulary O In line #1, find and highlight the word that means intentionally. O In line #5, find and highlight the word that means essence. O In line #7, find and highlight the word that means of little value. O In line #8, find and highlight the word that means magnificent. O In line #10, find and highlight the phrase that means quickly decided without thought. (hastily concluded) Summary O In lines #1 and #2, find and highlight what Thoreau wants to find and what he wants to learn. 19

20 GHR for Craft O In lines #1-4, find and highlight the pronoun that is used seven times to emphasize that this passage is told from the first person point of view. O A literary allusion is a reference to a well-known piece of literature or something that is historically important. In line #5, find and highlight the allusion Thoreau uses to show that he wants to live strongly and simply. O Imagery is the use of vivid description to create pictures, or images, in the reader's mind. In lines #5 and #6, find and highlight the imagery Thoreau uses create a picture of what he would like to do to “life O Strong or vivid verbs tell the reader more about how a person does something. In line #6, find and highlight two or three strong verbs that show what Thoreau plans to do to “life.” O Repetition is the simple repeating of a word in order to emphasize an idea. In lines #7 and #8, find and highlight the pronoun referring to life that is repeated four times. O In lines #7 and #8, find and highlight the two words Thoreau uses to contrast different opinions about life. 20

21 GHR for MAIN IDEA K-I Garden Helpers From National Geographic om/ngyoungexplorer/0909/read story.html 21

22 Horses and Hurricanes Text Structure Sample Performance Task for Informational Texts: O Students identify the overall structure of ideas, concepts, and information in Seymour Simon’s Horses (based on factors such as their speed and color) and compare and contrast that scheme to the one employed by Patricia Lauber in her book Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms. [RI.5.5: Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.] 22

23 Contrast/Differences: Speed and Color 23

24 Craft: Contrast Prompts O * In line #2, find and highlight the two words that tell the difference or contrast in speed between a horse’s walk and gallop. (“slowest” and “fastest”) O * To contrast or show how horses’ gaits are different, the author describes how parts of a horse’s body moves. In lines #3 and #4, find and highlight the words that refer to parts of a horse’s body. (hoof (1 time) and leg (4 times)) O * In lines #3 and #4, find and highlight the description of a horse walking. (“…each hoof leaves the ground at a different time. It moves one hind leg first, and then the front leg on the same side; then the other hind leg and the other front leg.”) 24

25 Contrast/Differences O * The author points out that horses are named for their coat colors and markings and shows that brown horses are named for the range of their color. In line #13, find and highlight names for dark brown horses. (“bays and chestnuts”) 25

26 Comparisons/Likenesses 26

27 Craft: Comparison Prompts O * In lines #3-#5, find and highlight the signal word that is repeated four times showing that hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones are alike or similar. O * In line #3, find and highlight the two phrases containing the word “same” that show that the storms are alike or similar. O * In lines #4 and #5, find and highlight the two phrases containing the word “same” that show that the storms are alike or similar. O * In line #8, find and highlight the words the author uses to introduce more similarities or things that make storms alike. 27

28 Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Rhetorical Question A rhetorical question is a question asked merely for effect. It does not require an answer. Examples:  “Aren’t you ashamed of yourself?”  “What business is it of yours?”  “Am I talking to walls?”  “What business is it of yours?”  “What am I going to do with my life?”  ddd Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Simile or Metaphor A simile compares two different things using “like” or “as.” A metaphor compares two nouns without using “like” or “as.” Examples of similes and metaphors: S: He eats like a pig. M: He is a pig. S: She ran like the wind. M: Her running was lightning. S: You are as silly as a clown. M: You are a clown. Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Personification Personification is giving human traits to non-living objects. Examples:  “The wind was whistling.”  “The grass was dancing.”  “The car was humming.”  “The leaves danced in the wind.”  “The moon winked good night.” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Imagery Imagery is the use of vivid description to create pictures, or images, in the reader's mind. Examples  “Caught in the center of scattered light rays, Earth appears as a tiny point of light…”  “...a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam…” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Repetition Repetition is the simple repeating of a word or phrase for emphasis. Examples:  “...every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant …”  “That's here. That's home. That's us.” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Alliteration Alliteration occurs when a series of words in a row (or close to a row) have the same beginning sound. Examples: a peck of pickled peppers winds whipping wildly Coca Cola and Bed Bath & Beyond copyright Elaine Weber, Barbara Nelson, and Cynthia Schofield Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Rhetorical Question A rhetorical question is a question asked merely for effect. It does not require an answer. Examples:  “Aren’t you ashamed of yourself?”  “What business is it of yours?”  “Am I talking to walls?”  “What business is it of yours?”  “What am I going to do with my life?”  ddd Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Simile or Metaphor A simile compares two different things using “like” or “as.” A metaphor compares two nouns without using “like” or “as.” Examples of similes and metaphors: S: He eats like a pig. M: He is a pig. S: She ran like the wind. M: Her running was lightning. S: You are as silly as a clown. M: You are a clown. Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Personification Personification is giving human traits to non-living objects. Examples:  “The wind was whistling.”  “The grass was dancing.”  “The car was humming.”  “The leaves danced in the wind.”  “The moon winked good night.” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Imagery Imagery is the use of vivid description to create pictures, or images, in the reader's mind. Examples  “Caught in the center of scattered light rays, Earth appears as a tiny point of light…”  “...a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam…” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Repetition Repetition is the simple repeating of a word or phrase for emphasis. Examples:  “...every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant …”  “That's here. That's home. That's us.” Figures of Speech Identify or provide an example of Alliteration Alliteration occurs when a series of words in a row (or close to a row) have the same beginning sound. Examples: a peck of pickled peppers winds whipping wildly Coca Cola and Bed Bath & Beyond copyright Elaine Weber, Barbara Nelson, and Cynthia Schofield 28

29 Lincoln and Monk: Two texts on the same topic with different perspectives 29

30 “The Gettysburg Address” “Words We Live By” Sample Performance Task for Informational Texts: O Read and analyze how “The Gettysburg Address” and “Words We Live By” present the idea of our nation being governed by “the people,” and how the term “the people” evolved. Use evidence from the text. [RI.7. 9: Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts] 30

31 Lincoln, Abraham. “Gettysburg Address.” (1863) Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final resting- place of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a large sense we cannot dedicate,—we cannot consecrate,—we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried on. It is, rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that Government of the people, by the people and for the people, shall not perish from the earth. O 31

32 The Gettysburg Address What makes this speech complex? 32

33 Who are “We the people?” 33

34 SMARTER Balanced Four Major Claims O Claim #1 - Students can read closely and critically analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. 34

35 How did they get to be “We the people?” 35

36 It is text-based and measurable analytically 36

37 Critical? O Why did it take so long to include women in “the people?” O Were those soldiers that were honored at Gettysburg included in “the people?” O What was the real purpose of the civil war according to the Gettysburg Address? O Were “We the people” at the signing of the Constitution different from the ”of the people, by the people, for the people” called for in the Gettysburg Address? 37

38 Reading the World For Texts and Performance Tasks 38

39 Asian-Americans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes “Asian-Americans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes” by Jesse Washington, Associated Press 39

40 Will Jeremy Lin’s success end stereotypes? February 20, 2012|By Timothy Yu, Special to CNN 40

41 The Invisible Becomes Visible 41

42 Scaffold Students 42

43 Performance Task: Performance Task: The two articles, “Will Jeremy Lin’s success end stereotypes?” and “Asian- Americans rejoice as Lin smashes stereotypes.” refer to the potential impact of Jeremy Lin upon racial stereotypes. Determine the point of view or purpose of the texts and the authors’ use of rhetoric to convey their individual messages. Provide evidence from the texts. (Grade 11/12 RI 6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.) 43

44 Determine the point of view or purpose of the texts and the authors’ use of rhetoric to convey their individual messages. YuWashington Point of ViewFirst Person: IThird Person: They PurposeDon’t romanticize—Lin won’t end racism but “may be revolutionizing our culture.” Celebrate: Lin smashes stereotypes and is playing for a “whole culture” Use of rhetoric Uses his own words. Uses stronger language: ugliness, offensive, anti- Chinese slur, menacing, bucktoothed, pidgin- speaking, “ching-chong” accents, nerdy, racist taunts Quotes extensively. Uses milder language: weak, servile, a few hints of racism, Asian issues, being overlooked, bust their butt, underestimated, deceptively athletic, stereotypes, cruelly racist remark TonePersonal involvement and concern Mostly objective presentation 44

45 Possible Response With Evidence 45

46 Jeremy Lin Ben and Jerry Debuts ‘Taste the Lin-Sanity’ MSG airs Jeremy Lin fortune cookie sign 85ed1a28b536a30aa1_Taste_the_LinSanity_1.jpg 46

47 “The Jeremy Lin Effect won’t end racism” but it will make America more awake. Conscious… Aware… 47

48 Read the World Newspapers Magazines 48

49 Do-It-Yourself 49

50 “A Quilt of a Country” Anna Quindlen 1.Tolerance is the word used most often when this kind of coexistence succeeds, but tolerance is a vanilla-pudding word, standing for little more than the allowance of letting others live unremarked and unmolested. 2. Pride seems excessive, given the American willingness to endlessly complain about them, them being whoever is new, different, unknown or currently under suspicion. 3. But patriotism is partly taking pride in this unlikely ability to throw all of us together in a country that across its length and breadth is as different as a dozen countries, and still be able to call it by one name. 4. When photographs of the faces of all those who died in the World Trade Center destruction are assembled in one place, it will be possible to trace in the skin color, the shape of the eyes and the noses, the texture of the hair, a map of the world. 5. These are the representatives of a mongrel nation that somehow, at times like this, has one spirit. 6. Like many improbable ideas, when it actually works, it's a wonder. 50

51 Writing Vocabulary Prompts Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to: O Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting reference materials, as appropriate. O Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. O Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college level; demonstrate when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension From Common Core Language Anchor Standards #4, #5, and #6 51

52 Writing Summary Prompts Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to : O Restate in their own words what the text says explicitly. O Make logical inferences. O Cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions drawn from the text. O Determine central ideas. O Summarize the key supporting details and ideas. From Common Core Reading Anchor Standards #1 and #2 52

53 Writing Craft Prompts Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to: O Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. O Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. O Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. O Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. From Common Core Reading Anchor Standards #3, #4, #5, and #6 53

54 Resources Scientists Fear Spread of Exotic Snakes The snakes weigh up to 250 pounds and slither at a rate of 20 miles per month... 54


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