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Reasons for the Allied victory and the German Collapse - Blockade of Germany Blockade of Germany - Allied Weapons and TacticsAllied Weapons and Tactics.

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Presentation on theme: "Reasons for the Allied victory and the German Collapse - Blockade of Germany Blockade of Germany - Allied Weapons and TacticsAllied Weapons and Tactics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reasons for the Allied victory and the German Collapse - Blockade of Germany Blockade of Germany - Allied Weapons and TacticsAllied Weapons and Tactics - The Involvement of the USAThe Involvement of the USA WW I

2 Blockade of Germany “It (Germany’s Defeat) was moral, political and above all naval. British sea power worked by blockade and hunger…While the allied offensives lessoned the material power of Germany, insufficient food, detective equipment…sapped the soldier’s morale. Breaking point had been reached because of the strain imposed by the navy…” “VII. Do not cut off a slice more than you need to eat. Think always of our soldiers in the field, who often in some far off, exposed position, would rejoice to have the bread which you waste.” Despite the military and economic inequality, Germany managed to maintain an army in the field for four years. Germany’s ability to keep going was astounding. However, no amount of ingenuity or administrative brilliance could sustain such a war effort without the essential imports that Germany relied on. In 1914, the Allies imposed a tight blockade on Germany. No blockade can be effective, but the Allied blockade caused enormous hardship for the German economy. The lack of key imports put severe limits on the ability of the German economy to supply its armies and placed enormous strains on the home front. The blockade was a vital factor in causing the German collapse and the allied victory.

3 “It (Germany’s Defeat) was moral, political and above all naval. British sea power worked by blockade and hunger…While the allied offensives lessoned the material power of Germany, insufficient food, detective equipment…sapped the soldier’s morale. Breaking point had been reached because of the strain imposed by the navy…” German ’ s Defeat This source is originally from a book identifying the history of Britain. It is written in 1946 thus being a secondary source. It is from the perspective of Grant, AJ and Temperley who were authors of the novel ‘Europe in the 19 th and 20 th Centuries.’ This source is useful in determining the reasons for the Allied victory and the German collapse. It highlights the suffering of the Germans due to the Allied Blockade, from this source it is evident that the allied blockade effected the German’s in a variety of ways, eventually, ‘sapping their morale.’

4 The Success of Churchill's Starvation Blockade This source is highly significant and useful when evaluating the reasons for the German Collapse. It visually pinpoints the areas that were effected due to the blockade, it also features statistics and a quote which emphasizes the harsh realities of the Allied Blockade, the British blockade continued to strangle supplies and began to produce conditions of actual starvation. This source is the British perspective on the blockade, it is utilized by an American in his novel, it is a primary source, however it was found in a secondary source; Patrick J. Buchanan's ‘Churchill, Hitler and the Unnecessary War’ he uses a map to show the food riots in Germany during World War I

5 BLOCKADE POSTER This source depicts a farmer smashing the blockade. The Allied blockade of Germany during World War I had seriously hurt the war effort. It is useful in portraying how the economic blockade worsened problems in the agricultural sector. It is accurate in revealing the suffering and anguish of the Germans, as a result they are certain to have an adequate supply in the future. The text: "Farmer! You are a soldier in the battle of production." Courtesy of Dr. Robert D. Brooks. This source was discovered in a German propaganda educational website. This poster dates to early in the war, thus is a primary source. It is from the German’s view reinforcing the devastating impact of the allied blockade.

6 “VII. Do not cut off a slice more than you need to eat. Think always of our soldiers in the field, who often in some far off, exposed position, would rejoice to have the bread which you waste.” ADVERTISEMENT This source is an extract from an advertisement that was predominantly displayed on public transport, in shops, restaurants and other public places. This source was incorporated into H.W Wilson’s novel the Great War, Volume 4. This source is useful as it is exhibiting the food restrictions for the German’s as a result of the allied blockade. It was mandatory for the German’s to abide by these guidelines otherwise the death rate would continue to increase rapidly. This rationing system was initiated due to the devastating effects of the blockade.

7 Allied Weapons and Tactics “However, the fact that the tanks had now been raised to such a pitch of technical perfection that they could cross our undamaged trenches and obstacles did not fail to have a marked effect on our troops.” “…The masses of artillery were brought up close to the front line in concealment…the infantry were trained in new infiltration tactics, of which the guiding idea was that the leading troops should probe and penetrate the weak points of the defence while the reserves were directed to back up success, not to redeem failure… The ordinary lines of attacking infantry were preceded by a dispersed chain of storm troops, with automatic rifles, machine guns and light mortars.” While the Allied generals, in particular persisted with large frontal assaults long after they had proved disastrous, both sides eventually developed new tactics. The British developed the creeping barrage. Once the timing and accuracy of the artillery was assured this proved to be effective. In 1918 the combination of the creeping barrage with the use of tanks and planes proved to be a victorious method for the Allies.

8 The Creeping Barrage This image was discovered in the Australian War Memorial Website it is from the allied perspective, revealing the weapons and showing the Allies preparing for the Creeping Barrage. This source is a visual depiction of the creeping barrage. It is useful in demonstrating the preparation for the successful tactic. It illustrates the large amount of shells being utilised in this strategy. This tactic played a significant role in the Allied victory and the German collapse as the use of artillery shells caused an excessive amount of casualties.

9 The Tank “However, the fact that the tanks had now been raised to such a pitch of technical perfection that they could cross our undamaged trenches and obstacles did not fail to have a marked effect on our troops.” This source is an extract from Field Marshal Von Hindenburg, Out of My life, published in 1920. Hindenburg’s German perspective highlights the Allied tactics as being predominantly effective and skilful. This source is useful as Hindenburg is a German who outlines the positive aspect of the tank, it had little effects on the Allied troops, they continued to fight and it did not deter them, however it had a large impact on the Germans (his troops). The decision to develop tanks gave the British a technological advantage. By late 1918 the tank had become a factor in helping the allies to break through on the Western Front.

10 British Lewis Machine Gun This source is useful in portraying the British invention of a lightweight machine gun. This image visually emphasizes the valued place of a machine gun, especially the Lewis. The crucial value of the machine gun can be seen in the enormous quantities the British produced as the war went on. This weapon contributed to the Allied victory, however, it was not as significant and as powerful as the tank. This photograph was found in a United Kingdom War website, it accurately reveals the Lewis Machine Gun in action during World War I. It is in the perspective of the Allies.

11 The Break Through “…The masses of artillery were brought up close to the front line in concealment…the infantry were trained in new infiltration tactics, of which the guiding idea was that the leading troops should probe and penetrate the weak points of the defence while the reserves were directed to back up success, not to redeem failure… The ordinary lines of attacking infantry were preceded by a dispersed chain of storm troops, with automatic rifles, machine guns and light mortars.” This source is an extract from Liddell Hart’s History of The First World War. Liddell was a British officer, who saw action at Ypres and the Somme. This source is useful as it is primary evidence outlining the weapons and tactics used to achieve the breakthrough of the Allied lines during operation St. Michael. The source reveals how organised, thorough, skilful and structured the Allies were, as a result this earned them success.

12 The Involvement of the USA “It was the US Navy that initiated, planned and executed the colossal mine barrage across the North Sea…Without the work of the US Navy, the Allies might have been defeated before American ground forces could have arrived.” “American ships have been sunk, American lives taken…The challenge is to all mankind…Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of which we are only a single champion…” “Above all, American manpower offered real hope for bringing the war to a decisive conclusion.” The USA was a key element in the defeat of Germany. The American entry into the war did have an immediate impact on morale with the figures of arrival being 4 million troops. The US financed the Allied War effort by providing massive loans. US entry into the War in April 1917 swung the balance of the Western Front in the summer of 1918 in favour of the Allies. The American navy had an immediate effect on the course of the War, in addition the US forces helped stem the German offensive on the Western Front.

13 The US Navy “It was the US Navy that initiated, planned and executed the colossal mine barrage across the North Sea…Without the work of the US Navy, the Allies might have been defeated before American ground forces could have arrived.” This source is an extract from the novel the ‘Growth of the American public’, it is from the perspective of Morison, Commuter and Leuchtenburg, who are American historians evaluating America’s contribution to WWI. This source is useful in assessing America’s contribution to the Allied victory and the German collapse. Although it may be bias it is a basic interpretation of the impact America had due to their successful naval strategies to end the War. The Americans helped cause the German navy to mutiny.

14 The arrival of ground forces This source is an American photograph displaying the excessive arrival of troops to assist the British in WWI. This image was discovered in an American Army website. This source is useful as it illustrates the arrival of the enthusiastic and well equipped, fresh American troops. The US’ addition to the Allies was the final factor in determining the result of WWI. The US boosted the British morale enormously, they invented new strategies and had a vital overall effect on the success of the Allies.

15 America ’ s Involvement “American ships have been sunk, American lives taken…The challenge is to all mankind…Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of which we are only a single champion…” This source is a primary extract from President Wilson’s speech to congress on the 2 nd April 1917. It is the official American perspective revealing the reality and the expectations of America to join the war due to the conditions and to have a successful victory over the Germans. This source is useful in identifying the official American view towards WWI. President Wilson expresses his concern and expectation in regards to declaring War on Germany. His speech outlines the justifications for calling for war and lays out the fundamental beliefs that he saw as threatening to America’s national security. However, his guidelines were followed and their involvement proved to be successful, the American’s were a primary reason for the German’s collapse.

16 This extract was discovered in the novel;’ Diggers and Doughboys Australian and American troop interaction on the Western Front 1918’ written by Dale Blair. It is an Australian perspective revealing the positive influence America had in joining WWI. “Above all, American manpower offered real hope for bringing the war to a decisive conclusion.” The Outcome of the US ’ Involvement This source is valuable as it highlights the overall Impact of America in contributing to the Allied Victory. It is useful as it is a precise articulation that simply defines America’s positive attributes during its involvement in the War, it strengthened the military army as well as providing confidence and optimism to the Allied troops, their attitudes were significantly boosted allowing them to fight until victory.


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