Presentation on theme: "Unit 16 Friendship Text Explanation. About the Author Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 –1882) was an American essayist, philosopher, and poet, best remembered."— Presentation transcript:
About the Author Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 –1882) was an American essayist, philosopher, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid- 19th century. His teachings directly influenced the growing New Thought movement of the mid-1800s. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society
Text Analysis This text is an excerpt from Emerson’s essay “Friendship” which was written in 1841. In the essay we can find that the author’s discussion on friendship is not confined to the relationship between friends, but rather extended to the emotions of benevolence and complacency which are felt towards others. Given this proposition, the author discusses the nature of human affection in general and provides his own perception about the importance of such affection in human life.
Paragraph 1 We have a great deal more kindness than is ever spoken. Maugre all the selfishness that chills like east winds the world, the whole human family is bathed with an element of love like a fine ether. How many persons we meet in houses, whom we scarcely speak to, whom yet we honor, and who honor us! How many we see in the street, or sit with in church, whom, though silently, we warmly rejoice to be with! Read the language of these wandering eye-beams. The heart knoweth.
maugre (prep) notwithstanding, in spite of But, maugre all hardships, they pursued their journey cheerily. 虽然诸多困难, 他们仍愉快地 继续他们的旅程。 Nature says, he is my creature,and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. 大自 然说，他是我的孩子，尽管有再多莫名的 痛苦，他和我在一起终究会快乐。
bathe v. 1. cleanse the entire body; 2. suffuse with or as if with light; 3. clean one's body by immersion into water After the match, I was bathed with sweat. 比赛之后我汗流 浃背. Her dust-caked face was bathed with a sweet, cool draft. 她 那满是灰尘的脸，沐浴在清新凉爽的空气中。 Your eyes should be bathed with a special lotion. 你应该用 一种特殊的溶液洗眼。 The room was bathed in sunlight 房间里充满了阳光
ether (n.)1. a colorless volatile highly inflammable liquid formerly used as an inhalation anesthetic 乙醚； 2. the fifth and highest element after air and earth and fire and water; was believed to be the substance composing all heavenly bodies; 太空醚 3. a medium that was once supposed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves ；以太 4. The clear sky 苍天； Ethernet n. 以太网 a type of networking technology for local area networks; coaxial cable carries radio frequency signals between computers at a rate of 10 megabits per second.
honor(v.) 1. bestow honor or rewards upon; 2. show respect towards; 3. accept as pay November 11th is Veterans Day, when Americans honor those who served in the military.10 月 11 日是退伍军人节，这个时 候美国人会将荣誉授予那些曾供职于军队的人。 Do you honor this credit card? 你们接受这张信用卡吗？ We urge the U.S. to maintain its good credit, to honor its promises and to guarantee the safety of China‘s assets. 我们要 求美国信守其信用，遵守承诺，保证中国投资的安全
rejoice ( v.) 1. feel happiness or joy; 2. to express great joy; 3. be ecstatic with joy He often rejoices at other people's misfortunes. 他 常常对别人幸灾乐祸。 The fans rejoiced over the news of their team's victory. 这些球迷听到他们球队胜利的消息而 欢欣鼓舞。 I rejoice to hear that you are all well. 听到你们的 身体都很好, 我很高兴。
Paragraph 2 The effect of the indulgence of this human affection is a certain cordial exhilaration. In poetry, and in common speech, the emotions of benevolence and complacency which are felt towards others are likened to the material effects of fire; so swift, or much more swift, more active, more cheering, are these fine inward irradiations. From the highest degree of passionate love, to the lowest degree of good-will, they make the sweetness of life.
indulgence (n.) 1. an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires; 2. a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone; 3. the act of indulging or gratifying a desire Wine is his only indulgence. 酒是他唯一的 “ 嗜好 ” 。 Indulgence in smoking can seriously harm your health. 抽 烟过度会严重损害你的健康。 But I speak this by indulgence, not by commandment. 我 说这话，原是出于宽容，并不是出于命令。
indulge, indulgent indulge (v.) 1. give free rein to; 2. yield (to); give satisfaction to; 3. enjoy to excess; 4. treat with excessive indulgence Indulgent (adj.) 1. characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone; 2. tolerant or lenient; 3. being favorably inclined He indulges his son with plenty of pocket money. 他纵 容他的儿子，给他许多零用钱。 You are too indulgent with your child. 你太放纵孩子 了。
cordial (adj.) 1. diffusing warmth and friendliness; 2. showing warm and heartfelt friendliness; 3. sincerely or intensely felt I would like to extend my cordial welcome to all of you. 请允 许我向远道而来的贵宾表示热烈的欢迎和亲切的问 候。 Your cordial letter reached me shortly before my departure from Japan. 我在快要离开日本的时候收到你热情洋溢 的来信。 I'd like to express my heartfelt gratitude for your cordial invitation and gracious hospitality. 我谨对您的友好邀请和盛情款待，表示衷心的感谢！
exhilaration n. the feeling of lively and cheerful joy Accept challenges, so that you may feel the exhilaration of victory. 接受挑战，这样你才能 感受到胜利的狂喜！ My two cousins, full of exhilaration, were so eloquent in narrative and comment. 我的两个表姐， 满心喜悦，滔滔不绝地叙述和评论着。 As we went we became sensible of a wild and splendid exhilaration. 我们一边走着，一边感到 暴风骤雨般的欣喜。
hilarious adj. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter The party got quite hilarious after they brought more wine. 当他们拿来更多葡萄酒后聚会变得十分 热闹起来。 “If it's going to yield a hilarious story, it's worth it. 如 果将来能产生一个愉快的故事，是很值得的。 Be it with family or peers, picnics are always hilarious ! 无论和朋友还是家人，外出野餐真是令人兴 奋。
benevolence n. 1. disposition to do good; 2. an inclination to do kind or charitable acts; 3. an act intending or showing kindness and good will According to Confucius, benevolence is the essence of his teaching. 根据孔子的说法，仁就是他教义的精髓。 Therefore, the man with " benevolence " must be a noble man. 因此，做到了 " 仁 " 便是一个崇高的人。 The idea of benevolence of Buddhism would lead to the result which denies ego and individual. 佛教慈悲观念的实质意 义在于否定自我与个体。
beneficent adj. 1. doing or producing good; 2. generous in assistance to the poor Christians believe that this beneficent God is also an all- loving creator. 基督徒相信这个仁慈的上帝也是一个慈 祥的造物主。 This has weakened the social base of beneficent culture 这削 弱了慈善文化的社会基础。 If your life is peaceful and the life of people under the sun is peaceful too, you are boundless beneficent. 如此你的生活 平静，普天之下百姓的生活也同样安宁平静，那就 功德无量了。
complacency n. the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself Complacency is the enemy of study. 学习的最大敌 人是自满。 They need somebody to shake them up out of their complacency. 需要有人使他们从骄傲自满中醒 悟过来。 The company has had a good year but we must guard against complacency. 公司获得了一个好年头，我 们务必防止沾沾自喜。
liken v. consider or describe as similar, equal, or analogous And again He said, To what shall I liken the kingdom of God? 他又说，我可把神的国比作什么？ Experts liken the city to a soup bowl.It is virtually surrounded by water. 该市几乎四面临水，专家将 该市比作为一个汤碗。 widen, sharpen, lengthen, broaden enlarge, envision, entrust, enable
swift adj. moving very fast She took a swift bow and walked off stage 她快速 地鞠了一躬，走下舞台。 The domestic electronic payment is assuming a swift growth. 国内电子支付正快速增长。 The race is not always to the swift …but to those who keep on running. 赢得赛跑的总不是跑得快 的人，而是坚持跑到终点的人。
inward (adj.)1. relating to or existing in the mind or thoughts; 2. directed or moving inward or toward a center (adv).1. toward the center or interior; 2. to or toward the inside of In spite of all the intensity of her inward grief, the wound to her vanity aggravated her misery. 她内心 的痛苦十分剧烈，兼以徒慕虚荣，备受痛 苦，也就加深了她的不幸。 I understand your inward thoughts. 我了解你内心 的思想。
-ward outward (adj.)1. relating to physical reality rather than with thoughts or the mind;2. that is going out or leaving; (adv.)toward the outside onward (adj.)moving toward a position ahead(adv.)1. forward in time or order or degree; 2. in a forward direction wayward (adj.)resistant to guidance or discipline forward, backward
irradiation n. 1. the condition of being exposed to radiation; 2. a column of light (as from a beacon); 3. (physiology) the spread of sensory neural impulses in the cortex; 4. the apparent enlargement of a bright object when viewed against a dark background; 5. (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance Do you know what is food irradiation technology? 你知不知 道什麽是食品辐射照射技术 ? Investigations reveal that light irradiation will promot the biodegradability of the samples. 研究结果表明经过光照后 的样品生物降解性提高；
Paragraph 3 Our intellectual and active powers increase with our affection. The scholar sits down to write, and all his years of meditation do not furnish him with one good thought or happy expression; but it is necessary to write a letter to a friend, --and, forthwith, troops of gentle thoughts invest themselves, on every hand, with chosen words.
intellectual n. a person who uses the mind creatively adj. 1. of or relating to the intellect ； 2.of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind ； 3. appealing to or using the intellect ； 4. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct The inner truth of mathematics is purely intellectual truth. 数 学的内部真实性是纯智力的真理。 The intellectual economy will have great influences on health management 知识经济对卫生管理将产生重大的影响。
meditation n. 1. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature; 2. (religion) contemplation of spiritual matters (usually on religious or philosophical subjects) Mind control of this sort is a meditation. 这种类型的 心思控制是一种冥想。 Meditation can relieve stress -- for you and for your pet. 冥想可以减轻压力 -- 对于你，甚至是你的 宠物。 Sleep is the best meditation. 睡觉是最好的冥想。
furnish v. 1. provide with; 2. provide or equip with furniture The house is well furnished. 这间房屋内布置得很 好。 No. You know how much it can cost to furnish an apartment? 那不行。你知道添置一间房的家具 得花多少钱？ The chief function of the carbohydrates is to furnish energy and maintain heat. 碳水化合物的主要生理 功能是提代能量，保持热量。
forthwith adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening; immediately These violations of the code must cease forthwith. 这 些违犯法规的行为必须立即停止。 So he put these traitors to death, and forthwith took the two towers. 因此把这些叛徒处死，并立时进 攻这两座堡垒。 Admiralty forthwith deflected all our warships towards the more southerly route. 海军部随即命令所有的 舰只驶向更南的航线上去。
invest v. 1. make an investment; 2. give qualities or abilities to; 3. furnish with power or authority; of kings or emperors; 4. provide with power and authority; 5. place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position; 6. Besiege, to surround with troops or ships. The enemy invested the city and cut it off from our army. 敌 人包围了城市, 并把它同我们的部队隔绝。 Spring invests the trees with leaves. 春天给树木披上了绿 叶。 People who invest the future are the true realists. 投资未来 之人是真正的现实主义者。