Presentation on theme: "The Festival of Booths. What is Sukkot? Seven day festival on the fifteenth day of Tishri (generally lands in the fall) that focuses on giving thanks."— Presentation transcript:
The Festival of Booths
What is Sukkot? Seven day festival on the fifteenth day of Tishri (generally lands in the fall) that focuses on giving thanks to God for the harvest. Sukkot also serves as a symbol of remembrance to the exodus.
History of Sukkot Book of Jubilees Moses –Sukkahs First Temple Second Temple Now
Biblical and Rabbinic Origins of the Practice
Exodus 23:15-16 You shall observe the festival of harvest, of the first fruits of your labor, of what you sow in the field. You shall observe the festival of ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in from the field the fruit of your labor.
Deuteronomy 16:13-15 You shall keep the festival of booths for seven days, when you have gathered in the produce from your threshing-floor and your wine press. Rejoice during your festival, you and your sons and your daughters, your male and female slaves, as well as the Levites, the strangers, the orphans, and the widows resident in your towns. For seven days you shall keep the festival to the Lord your God at the place that the Lord will choose; for the Lord your God will bless you in all your produce and in all your undertakings, and you shall surely celebrate.
Leviticus 23:33-36 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: speak to the people of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month, and lasting seven days, shall be the festival of booths to the Lord. The first day shall be a holy convocation; you shall not work at your occupations. For seven days you shall present the Lord’s offerings by fire; on the eighth day you shall observe a holy convocation and present the Lord’s offerings by fire; it is a solemn assembly; you shall not work at your occupations.
Leviticus 23:39-43 Now the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the produce of the land, you shall keep the festival of the Lord, lasting seven days; a complete rest on the first day, and a complete rest on the eighth day. On the first day you shall take the fruit of majestic trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days. You shall keep it as a festival to the Lord seven days in the year; you shall keep it in the seventh month as a statute for ever throughout your generations. You shall live in booths for seven days; all that are citizens in Israel must live in booths, so that your generations may know that I made the people of Israel live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.
Zechariah 14:16-17 Then all who survive of the nations that have come against Jerusalem shall go up year by year to worship the King, the Lord of Hosts, and to keep the festival of booths. If any of the families of the earth do not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, there will be no rain upon them. And if the family of Egypt do not go up and present themselves, then on them shall come the plague that the Lord inflicts on the nations that do not go up to keep the festival of booths. Such shall be the punishment of all the nations that do not go up to keep the festival of booths.
Other references Deuteronomy 31: Kings 8:1-5 – temple dedicated during Sukkot 2 Chronicles 7:8-10 – Solomon dedicates the temple during Sukkot 1 Kings 12:25-27, Rebellion of Jeroboam Ezra 3:1-5 – Jeshua and Zerubbabel Nehemiah 7:73-8:3, 8:13-18 – in the days of Ezra
Talmud & Mishnah On [the] holiday [of Sukkot] we are judged regarding water. (Talmud - Rosh Hashana 16a) Whoever did not see the Simchat Beit HaShoeva never saw real joy in their life. (Mishnah Sukkah 5:1)
70 Offerings In those days of the when the Holy Temple stood in Jerusalem, the Sukkot Festival offerings included seventy oxen, corresponding to the seventy nations, in prayer for peace and harmony among all the nations of the world. Rabbi Eliezer said: "Why are 70 offerings brought on Sukkot? For the (merit of the) 70 nations of the world." (Sukkah 55b) To bring forgiveness for them (the 70 nations which comprise the world), so that rain shall fall all over the earth.
Ushpizin (The Seven Shepherds) Avraham- AbrahamAvraham Yitzchak- IsaacYitzchak Yaakov- JacobYaakov Moshe- MosesMoshe Aharon - AaronAharon Yosef - JosephYosef King David- King DavidKing David
The word "Sukkot" means "booths," and refers to the temporary dwellings that we are commanded to live in during this holiday in memory of the period of wandering. A Sukkah is the huts that Moses and the Israelites lived in as they wandered the desert for 40 years before they reached the Promised Land. These huts were made of branches and were easy to assemble, take apart, and carry as the Israelites wandered through the desert.
Qualifications of construction: -Must be a temporary structure - Walls: made from any material- wooden boards, canvas suspended on a metal frame, stones… It must have at least 3 walls and each must be at least thirty-eight inches high but not more than thirty- five feet. -Roof: (called s’chach) must be made from a material which comes from a living plant, such as branches of pine or willow, bamboo poles or mats, or even cornstalks. The stars must be visible at night but it should be built to bring more shade than sunlight inside during the day. -Location: must not be built under a balcony, tree or any other projection.
Decorating the Sukkah Decorations would include: real or artificial fruits, gourds, glittery garlands and ornamental objects, festive tablecloth, and fine dishes.
During the week of Sukkah the Jews are obligated to live in the sukkah. This involves eating their meals there, and even sleeping there, if possible. ( exceptions: heavy rainfall or extreme cold conditions ) It is also traditional to symbolically invite seven ancestors as honored guests. They all visit the sukkah every day but one, in turn, is the special guest of honor each day and a specific verse is recited in his honor. ( Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, King David)
Volunteers are appointed to erect and decorate the congregations sukkah. It is usually large and is set up to the back or the side of the synagogue building. Following the services, in the evening and in the morning, the worshippers gather in the sukkah to partake of the festival Kiddush.( meal ) A festival meal is usually arranged and is served during the holiday week in the synagogue sukkah and they can rejoice in celebrating the festival together.
The Lulav and The Etrog Leviticus 23:40 instructs: “On the first day you shall take the product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before Adonai your God seven days."
The Four Species "Fruit of goodly trees" refers to the etrog (citron). "Branches of palm trees" refers to the lulav. "Boughs of leafy trees" refers to the myrtle. "Willows of the brook" refers to the aravot or hoshanot.
The Lulav The name lulav is used also to refer to all three of these species together. One single palm branch in the Center Two willow branches to the left Three Myrtle branches in the right (the myrtle should extend farther than the willow)
The Blessing Before reciting the blessing the Etrog is held with its pittam (stem) facing down. After the blessing it is inverted and then the Lulav is shaken and waved.
"Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us concerning the waving of the lulav." On the first day of waving add: "Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has granted us life, sustenance, and permitted us to reach this season."
Waving the Lulav It is a Mitzvah to wave the Lulav on the first seven days of Sukkot Either before or during the morning service Lulav in the right hand and the Etrog in the left, both items should be touching. The Lulav is waved after the blessing and during the Hallel Three times. Note: never wave the Lulav while saying God’s name
The Steps 1. Stand facing east. 2. Hold the lulav out to the east (in front of you) and shake it three times. Each time the motion of shaking should be a drawing in to you--reach and draw in, reach out and draw in, reach out and draw in. 3. Repeat the same motion three times to your right (south), behind over your shoulder (west), to your left (north), raising it up above you, lowering it down below you. 4. All of these should be done slowly and deliberately--concentrating the symbolisms and intentions of the act.
Hallel "Give thanks to the Lord for He is good, for His lovingkindness endures forever." (Hodu L’Adonai Ki Tov Ki Le-olam Chasdo) "Let Israel say that His lovingkindness endures forever." (Yomar Na Yisrael Ki Le-olam Chasdo ) "We implore You, Lord, save us." (A-na Adonai Ho-shi-ah Na )
Theological Explanation of the Actions of Sukkot The Booths The dwellings the Israelites lived in Signifies reliance on God Fruits Fruits used to decorate sukkahs Signifies giving up the first fruits of harvest Etrog and Lulav Etrog-heart-wisdom Lulav-backbone-uprightness myrtle-eyes-enlightenment willow-lips-prayer Possibly represents different parts in the journey of the Exodus Represents different types of Jews united in God Shook in all directions to show that God is everywhere
Ceremony of Water Drawing Called upon God to provide water for crops rain represented the Holy Spirit and the ritual pointed to the day when God would send down his Holy Spirit on the Israelites