Presentation on theme: "Ptolemy’s Map from 1482. Exploration and Expansion 1400-1700."— Presentation transcript:
Ptolemy’s Map from 1482
Exploration and Expansion
Theme: Migration and Diffusion European migration to the Americas marked a turning point in world history. Expeditions expanded and the diffusion of goods and ideas changed societies worldwide.
Major Events 1419 – Prince Henry supports Portuguese exploration 1488 – Barholomeu Dias rounds the tip of Africa 1492 – Columbus reaches the Americas 1520 – Magellan’s ships sail around the southern tip of South America 1602 – Dutch capitalists form the East India Company
Make a Prediction What do you think happened that enabled Europeans to learn about and to explore distant lands?
Voyages of Discovery MAIN IDEA: European explorers, motivated by greed, curiosity and glory, sailed to previously unknown lands.
The Journey How wide is the sea? Sailors knew the earth was round, but they did not realize how vast it was. EXAMPLE: Columbus’ crew sailed for nearly a month without seeing land.
Foundations The Renaissance awakened a spirit of innovation and discovery. Driven by the search for wealth Some wanted fame and glory Other explorers hoped to spread their faith
Mnemonics Rock! The Three G’s: Gold Glory God This mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers.
Technology Europeans borrowed heavily from the Chinese and Muslims.
Magnetic Compass Made it possible to find direction at sea. Compass tells seaman what direction is North. Still used today.
Mathematical Compass Tool used to draw circles. These circles would help them during the navigation process. Still used today.
Mercator Projection Map projections that show longitude and latitude as straight lines. Shows true directions to places.
Hour Glass Used to tell time on board a ship. Flipped each hour or half hour depending on size. Not accurate and has been replaced.
Chronometer Device to tell time on a ship. More accurate than the hour glass. Still used today.
Astrolabe Measures the angles of the sun and stars above horizon. Difficult to use at sea. Was replaced by the sextant.
Sextant Device to find latitude of ship by comparing the altitude of the sun or stars. Better than astrolabe because ship movement had no affect. Replaced in 1900’s by radar.
Latitude and Longitude Latitude always given first, then Longitude. Coordinates are listed as degrees, minutes, and seconds. Designate a specific location on Earth
Latitude Gives a location in terms of North or South of the Equator Can you explain how lines of latitude can be different sizes?
Longitude Gives location in terms of East or West of the Prime Meridian. “meridians” extend from pole to pole, 360 degrees.
If a degree is divided into 60 minutes, how many hours will it take to travel from the European star to the Asian star? One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds. Example: 38°56’23”N, 71°0’36”W Did you say 7,200 minutes or 120 hours? If you did, you would be correct !
Caravel The caravel was faster and more maneuverable. Older ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction) Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers).
Push Factors Decline of Mongol Empire in 1400s made goods from the east harder to get, more expensive Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 was a major block to trade
Two countries were particularly well situated to kick off the Age of Exploration. Who thinks they can point to them on the map?
Prince Henry the Navigator Started an institute for seafaring and exploring Combined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovations By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa
The Gold Coast
Vasco da Gama Sailed to Calicut, India Took them ten months Able to trade with Muslim merchants Portugal became one of the wealthiest and most powerful nations in Europe.
Cabral His crew sighted the land that became known as Brazil. He sailed out of Portugal and followed in da Gama’s footsteps. Stayed to the west of the windless gulf between India and the horn of Africa
Columbus Believed he could sail west to China Landed in the Caribbean Named the native people Indians Returned home with parrots, jewels, gold, plants and Native Americans
Columbus 2 He made three more voyages, still thinking he was in the West Indies every time.
Vespucci After voyages of exploration along the coast of South America he concluded that this continent was a new land. Confirmed that this was not Asia
Balboa Traveled through the Isthmus of Panama Becomes the first to see the Pacific Ocean
Magellan Decided to figure out exactly how long it would take to cross both vast oceans 5 ships and 250 men Killed in the Philippines Crew continues under Juan de Elcano 18 crew members became the first to circumnavigate the world See primary resource ~~ pg 76
Think-Pair-Share What did da Gama, Columbus, and Magellan accomplish?
The Rest of Europe By the early 1500s, the English and French were exploring the northern parts of the Americas. Within a century, the Dutch had joined their efforts.
The English John Cabot Sir Francis Drake Henry Hudson
Sir Francis Drake The Queen sent him to round the tip of South America and explore the west coast He made it to present day California and tried to get back to England by going around the northern rim North America Too cold
Sir Francis Drake Becomes the second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson 1607 – tried to find a Northeast Passage around Europe Also explored the area of present day New York
Northwest passage has finally been mapped. Often ice covered and not the best for shipping.
The French Jacques Cartier – Tried to find a Northwest Passage through the Americas Sailed past Newfoundland and into the St. Lawrence river Called the area New France Present day Canada Statue in present day Montreal, Canada
The Dutch Henry Hudson sailed again for the Dutch and continued trying to find a Northeast Passage through the Americas.
Discuss the Main Idea? What did the English, French, and Dutch explorers hope to find?
Summary Please write a paragraph that responds to this statement: The Age of Exploration could not have occurred without the Renaissance. Please support your answer with specific examples.