1 Interact: Ch 19 Outline Chapter 19, pgs 404-430 Early Latin AmericaChapter 19, pgs
2 Spain & Portugal: Conquest Iberian peninsula = heart of European frontier, conflict b/t Christianity & Islam → tradition of military conquest & rule over diverse beliefs
3 Iberian Society & Tradition Urban w/ commoners in towns & villagesSerfdom & slave labor from cultural frontierProfessional bureaucracy of lawyersRoyal nomination of church officialsTrading posts in AfricaAmerican Adaptations?
4 Chronology of Conquest 1492 to 1570: administration & economy est1570 to 1700: colonial institutions formalized1700 to 1800: intensified colonization through reform
5 Caribbean Crucible Caribbean proved to be a testing ground Larger populations of natives served as serfs → encomiendaRumors & hopes led to immigrationDevastation of natives led to church leaders fighting abuses → increased African slavery↳Sets stage for colonial system in Mexico, Peru, & Brazil
6 Paths of Conquest The Conquerors Conquests by individuals followed by civil society (women, missionaries, administrators)Two pronged conquest:MexicoPeru↳ Conquest then branched out, facing stiff resistanceThe ConquerorsMen of humble origins conquered for greed & desire to convertGreed always spurred new conquestCreated new nobility w/ rights over new peasantry
7 Conquest & Morality Violence of conquest raises questions of morality Some argue natives are not fully humanOthers argue natives should be treated fairly & converted peacefully↳Results are mixed – only worst abuses moderated
8 Destruction & Transformation Disease created demographic catastropheSeizure of native communal lands
9 Exploitation of the Indians Outright enslavement was prohibited, but encomiendas acted as sources of laborColonists increasingly sought land as a source of wealth & governments extract laborMitaSpanish & natives selectively accept aspects of each others culture
10 Colonial Econ & GovAlthough Spanish America was an Ag society, mining (silver) was essential
11 Silver Heart of an Empire Major discoveries made in Zacatecas, Mexico & Potosí, PeruMining labor evolves: from native slaves to encomienda workers to mita to wage wokersOne-fifth of all silver belongs to royal govStimulates Ag & economy
12 Haciendas & Villages Industry & Commerce Hacienda = rural estate owned by Spanish families & worked by natives → base of local aristocracySource of competition w/ native Ag villagesIndustry & CommerceAmerica becomes self-sufficient except for luxuriesAmerican silver key to Spanish commerceHeavily regulated, Fleet system developedSpanish silver envied, but much goes to wars, Chinese luxuries, & debts
13 Ruling an Empire: State 1 of 2Ruling an Empire: StateKingCouncil of IndiesViceroy of New SpainViceroy of PeruAudienciasLocal Bureaucrats
14 Ruling an Empire: Church 2 of 2Ruling an Empire: ChurchActed as a ruling force in coloniesChurch & missionaries established ideological & intellectual framework
15 Brazil: First Plantation Colony 1st only thought to be useful for its timber (land of trade outposts & merchants)Later nobles & capitaincies w/ feudal & econ power
16 Sugar & SlaveryPlantation colony & model for sugar-based Caribbean (now a backwaters)Social hierarchy reflected plantation slaveryBureaucracy mirrored Spanish America (although w/ strong connection to crown)Intellectually dependent on Portugal
17 Brazil’s Age of GoldEstablishment of plantation colonies in Caribbean hurts Brazil & leads to economically diverse set of coloniesDiscovery of gold, rejuvenates Brazil as economy & colonyDiscovery of gold = mixed blessingPositively (growth of cultural life)Negatively (continued lack of industry in Portugal)
18 Multiracial Societies Multiple ethnicities in Americas (all under varying conditions) created relations of powerSociedad de CastasSociety of racesEuropeans: Peninsulares, CreolesCastas: mestizos, mulattos (↑ in # & importance)Africans & IndiansTraditional distinctions b/t gender, age, class persist
19 Question SlideConsidering the relative decline of serfdom in Western Europe, what forces do you think led creation of coerced labor systems in colonies around the world?
20 18th Century Reforms Shifting Balance Expansion of economy & population in Europe led to progressive ideas in coloniesShifting BalanceSpain weakened by debt & war began losing American monopolyDeath of Charles II & War of Spanish Succession led to legal concessions to French & English
21 Bourbon Reforms Pombal & Brazil Reforms in Spain & Americas centered on restoring gov & econ efficiencyDisrupted patterns of influenceEconomically developed new areas & adopted more liberal trade policiesPombal & BrazilReforms in Portugal & Brazil mirror Spanish effortsAdvocated mercantilismMonopoly companies & slaves used to expand Ag, introduce crops, revitalize plantations
22 Reforms, Reactions, & Revolts Experienced rapid population growthSocial unrest increased as a result of new activist gov & growing economic prosperitySuccess of revolts undermined by social division
23 Global Connections Created European societies Basis for power & econ of EuropeBut more complex b/c of econ, environments, indigenous culturesNew empiresCompare to RussiaImportance of coerced labor & gunpowder in early modern period
24 Interact: Ch 19 OutlineQuestion SlideWhat are the similarities and differences between the Iberian empires and Russian empire?