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Early Latin America Chapter 19, pgs 404-430. Spain & Portugal: Conquest Iberian peninsula = heart of European frontier, conflict b/t Christianity & Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Latin America Chapter 19, pgs 404-430. Spain & Portugal: Conquest Iberian peninsula = heart of European frontier, conflict b/t Christianity & Islam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Latin America Chapter 19, pgs 404-430

2 Spain & Portugal: Conquest Iberian peninsula = heart of European frontier, conflict b/t Christianity & Islam → tradition of military conquest & rule over diverse beliefs

3 Iberian Society & Tradition Tradition Urban w/ commoners in towns & villages Serfdom & slave labor from cultural frontier Professional bureaucracy of lawyers Royal nomination of church officials Trading posts in Africa American Adaptations?

4 Chronology of Conquest 1492 to 1570: administration & economy est 1570 to 1700: colonial institutions formalized 1700 to 1800: intensified colonization through reform

5 Caribbean Crucible Caribbean proved to be a testing ground Larger populations of natives served as serfs → encomienda Rumors & hopes led to immigration Devastation of natives led to church leaders fighting abuses → increased African slavery ↳ Sets stage for colonial system in Mexico, Peru, & Brazil

6 Paths of Conquest Conquests by individuals followed by civil society (women, missionaries, administrators) Two pronged conquest: Mexico Peru ↳ Conquest then branched out, facing stiff resistance Men of humble origins conquered for greed & desire to convert Greed always spurred new conquest Created new nobility w/ rights over new peasantry The Conquerors

7 Conquest & Morality Violence of conquest raises questions of morality Some argue natives are not fully human Others argue natives should be treated fairly & converted peacefully ↳ Results are mixed – only worst abuses moderated

8 Destruction & Transformation Disease created demographic catastrophe Seizure of native communal lands

9 Exploitation of the Indians Outright enslavement was prohibited, but encomiendas acted as sources of labor Colonists increasingly sought land as a source of wealth & governments extract labor Mita Spanish & natives selectively accept aspects of each others culture

10 Colonial Econ & Gov Although Spanish America was an Ag society, mining (silver) was essential

11 Silver Heart of an Empire Major discoveries made in Zacatecas, Mexico & Potosí, Peru Mining labor evolves: from native slaves to encomienda workers to mita to wage wokers One-fifth of all silver belongs to royal gov Stimulates Ag & economy

12 Haciendas & Villages Hacienda = rural estate owned by Spanish families & worked by natives → base of local aristocracy Source of competition w/ native Ag villages America becomes self-sufficient except for luxuries American silver key to Spanish commerce Heavily regulated, Fleet system developed Spanish silver envied, but much goes to wars, Chinese luxuries, & debts Industry & Commerce

13 Ruling an Empire: State 1 of 2 King Council of Indies Viceroy of New Spain Viceroy of Peru Audiencias Local Bureaucrats

14 Ruling an Empire: Church Acted as a ruling force in colonies Church & missionaries established ideological & intellectual framework 2 of 2

15 Brazil: First Plantation Colony 1 st only thought to be useful for its timber (land of trade outposts & merchants) Later nobles & capitaincies w/ feudal & econ power

16 Sugar & Slavery Plantation colony & model for sugar-based Caribbean (now a backwaters) Social hierarchy reflected plantation slavery Bureaucracy mirrored Spanish America (although w/ strong connection to crown) Intellectually dependent on Portugal

17 Brazil’s Age of Gold Establishment of plantation colonies in Caribbean hurts Brazil & leads to economically diverse set of colonies Discovery of gold, rejuvenates Brazil as economy & colony Discovery of gold = mixed blessing Positively (growth of cultural life) Negatively (continued lack of industry in Portugal)

18 Multiracial Societies Multiple ethnicities in Americas (all under varying conditions) created relations of power Sociedad de Castas Society of races Europeans: Peninsulares, Creoles Castas: mestizos, mulattos ( ↑ in # & importance) Africans & Indians Traditional distinctions b/t gender, age, class persist

19 Question Slide Considering the relative decline of serfdom in Western Europe, what forces do you think led creation of coerced labor systems in colonies around the world?

20 18 th Century Reforms Expansion of economy & population in Europe led to progressive ideas in colonies Shifting Balance Spain weakened by debt & war began losing American monopoly Death of Charles II & War of Spanish Succession led to legal concessions to French & English

21 Bourbon Reforms Reforms in Spain & Americas centered on restoring gov & econ efficiency Disrupted patterns of influence Economically developed new areas & adopted more liberal trade policies Pombal & Brazil Reforms in Portugal & Brazil mirror Spanish efforts Advocated mercantilism Monopoly companies & slaves used to expand Ag, introduce crops, revitalize plantations

22 Reforms, Reactions, & Revolts Experienced rapid population growth Social unrest increased as a result of new activist gov & growing economic prosperity Success of revolts undermined by social division

23 Global Connections Created European societies Basis for power & econ of Europe But more complex b/c of econ, environments, indigenous cultures New empires Compare to Russia Importance of coerced labor & gunpowder in early modern period

24 Question Slide What are the similarities and differences between the Iberian empires and Russian empire?

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