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Evolution of Ego'n’Empathy Progress in Forming the Centerpiece for Ecological Economic Theory William M. Hayes a and Gary D. Lynne b

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Ego'n’Empathy Progress in Forming the Centerpiece for Ecological Economic Theory William M. Hayes a and Gary D. Lynne b"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution of Ego'n’Empathy Progress in Forming the Centerpiece for Ecological Economic Theory William M. Hayes a and Gary D. Lynne b

2 Contact and Related Information Lynne website: Lynne website: Fable of Ego’n’Empathy, contact Hayes website: cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/socialcapital/fableegonempathy.pdf Fable of Ego’n’Empathy, contact Hayes website: cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/socialcapital/fableegonempathy.pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/socialcapital/fableegonempathy.pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/socialcapital/fableegonempathy.pdf Citations of Hayes and Lynne (2004) on Ego’n’Empathy hypothesis : cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/citesofhayeslynne2004.pdf Citations of Hayes and Lynne (2004) on Ego’n’Empathy hypothesis : cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/citesofhayeslynne2004.pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/citesofhayeslynne2004.pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/citesofhayeslynne2004.pdf Citations of papers on dual interest theory and the metaeconomics approach: cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/resume/citesofgdlynne pdf Citations of papers on dual interest theory and the metaeconomics approach: cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/resume/citesofgdlynne pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/resume/citesofgdlynne pdf cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/resume/citesofgdlynne pdf Metaeconomics website: Metaeconomics website: Distance Ed course that uses the framework: Distance Ed course that uses the framework:

3 FURTHERING ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS WITH PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE AND A WORLDVIEW Preamble

4 PhilosophyEgo’n’Empathy

5 The six elements of a worldview: 1. An Explanation of the world 2. A Futurology: Where are we heading? 3. Etiology: Worldview’s building blocks, it’s origins & construction 4. Values: What should we do? 5. Methodology or Action Theory: How to attain goals? 6. Epistemology: What’s true & false? (Apostel et al. 1994) WELTANSCHAUUNG Comprehensive worldview for cognitive and interdisciplinary orientation with shared aim

6 Futurology: Vision of the Social Spheres Explains the World in 4-fields with 4-forces

7 Etiology: Origins of the social elements Values: Towards sustainable development

8 EGO‘N’EMPATHY (AND EMPIRICAL TESTS OF E N’E) Science

9 Epistemology: Old and New Economics “Researchers await a new theorist who will assimilate the old theories and present an integrated theory incorporating previous concepts and propositions.” “Researchers await a new theorist who will assimilate the old theories and present an integrated theory incorporating previous concepts and propositions.” (Lester, 1995, p. 161) (Lester, 1995, p. 161)

10 Methodology: The Metaeconomic Approach Metaeconomics frames the economic question in such a way as to make the community explicit, as represented in the the moral dimension, the shared unity with cause, being in sympathy with a shared ethic Metaeconomics frames the economic question in such a way as to make the community explicit, as represented in the the moral dimension, the shared unity with cause, being in sympathy with a shared ethic “Meta” means “to go beyond, transcend” “Meta” means “to go beyond, transcend”

11 Methodology: Beyond Neoclassical Economics Methodology: Beyond Neoclassical Economics “…neoclassical economics is …subject of constant criticisms from within and from without…. Notion that one might somehow abandon it, in favor of one or another alternative, founders on the enormity of the prospective cognitive loss… had better accept, therefore, that for now and the forseeable future, neoclassical economics is the core of the subject. Instead of looking for an alternative theory to replace it, we should try to imagine an economic theory that might transcend its limitations.” (Leijonhufvud, 2004, p. 5) “…neoclassical economics is …subject of constant criticisms from within and from without…. Notion that one might somehow abandon it, in favor of one or another alternative, founders on the enormity of the prospective cognitive loss… had better accept, therefore, that for now and the forseeable future, neoclassical economics is the core of the subject. Instead of looking for an alternative theory to replace it, we should try to imagine an economic theory that might transcend its limitations.” (Leijonhufvud, 2004, p. 5)

12 Epistemology: Hypothesis for new Economic Theory “If empirical testing results in failure to reject the null hypothesis of ‘no empathic, other-interest at work’ and ‘no lack of substitution possibilities’, we are back to the standard neoclassical economic model.” (Hayes & Lynne, 2004) “If empirical testing results in failure to reject the null hypothesis of ‘no empathic, other-interest at work’ and ‘no lack of substitution possibilities’, we are back to the standard neoclassical economic model.” (Hayes & Lynne, 2004)

13 Epistemology and Values: Key Aspect, Empathy Meta-economics has resolved a role for empathy (and sympathy and thus ethics, the moral dimension) in ego’s economic choice Meta-economics has resolved a role for empathy (and sympathy and thus ethics, the moral dimension) in ego’s economic choice Still unresolved: Whether empathy- sympathy leads to the pursuit of a set of outcomes in their own right and/or does it serve only to temper ego’s economic choice Still unresolved: Whether empathy- sympathy leads to the pursuit of a set of outcomes in their own right and/or does it serve only to temper ego’s economic choice

14 Action Theory: Dual Interest Dual interest theory was inspired by the work of Ragnar Frisch on joint and interdependent production, joint costs Dual interest theory was inspired by the work of Ragnar Frisch on joint and interdependent production, joint costs Frisch represents same as two overlapping isoquants in the same diagram, e.g. in the classic wool-mutton problem (Frisch, 1965, Chps ) Frisch represents same as two overlapping isoquants in the same diagram, e.g. in the classic wool-mutton problem (Frisch, 1965, Chps ) Lynne (1995, 1998, 1999, 2006ab) proposed representing the I&We, Self&Other-interest, Economy&Community with two overlapping indifference curves Lynne (1995, 1998, 1999, 2006ab) proposed representing the I&We, Self&Other-interest, Economy&Community with two overlapping indifference curves

15 Action Theory: Metaeconomics 101 Self-interest Other-interest Own-interest

16 Action Theory: Meta-interest Selfish Selfless Meta-interest

17 Applications and Tests 3.1 Greed and the Financial Eco-system 3.1 Greed and the Financial Eco-system 3.2 Greed and the Food/Fiber Production System 3.2 Greed and the Food/Fiber Production System 3.3 Greed and Conservation (including Recycling) Behavior 3.3 Greed and Conservation (including Recycling) Behavior

18 Recent* Conservation Tests Bishop, C.P., Shumway, C.R., Wandschneider, P.R Agent heterogeneity in adoption of anaerobic digestion technology: integrating economic, diffusion, and behavioral innovation theories. Land Economics 86, Bishop, C.P., Shumway, C.R., Wandschneider, P.R Agent heterogeneity in adoption of anaerobic digestion technology: integrating economic, diffusion, and behavioral innovation theories. Land Economics 86, Chouinard, H.H., T. Paterson, P.R. Wandschneider, and A.M. Ohler “Will farmers trade profits for stewardship? Heterogeneous motivations for farm practice selection.” Land Economics 84, Chouinard, H.H., T. Paterson, P.R. Wandschneider, and A.M. Ohler “Will farmers trade profits for stewardship? Heterogeneous motivations for farm practice selection.” Land Economics 84,

19 Recent… Sautter, J., Ovchinnikova, N., Kruse, C., and Lynne, G Farmers’ decisions regarding carbon sequestration: A metaeconomic view. Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal , 24, Sautter, J., Ovchinnikova, N., Kruse, C., and Lynne, G Farmers’ decisions regarding carbon sequestration: A metaeconomic view. Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal , 24, Sheeder, R.J., Lynne, G.D. (in press). Empathy conditioned conservation: ‘walking-in-the-shoes- of-others’ as a conservation farmer.” Land Economics. Sheeder, R.J., Lynne, G.D. (in press). Empathy conditioned conservation: ‘walking-in-the-shoes- of-others’ as a conservation farmer.” Land Economics.

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24 Policy and Institution Building for “Nudging” a Green Economy: Empathy as Key Empirical results of this study (and past 2-decades of studies) confirm the Bromley (2006) contention that we need to move beyond welfare (and neoclassical, generally) economics based policy, the latter focusing attention only on maximizing the sum of individual outcomes, to an empathy influenced set of both individual and jointly shared best outcomes Empirical results of this study (and past 2-decades of studies) confirm the Bromley (2006) contention that we need to move beyond welfare (and neoclassical, generally) economics based policy, the latter focusing attention only on maximizing the sum of individual outcomes, to an empathy influenced set of both individual and jointly shared best outcomes Empirical results confirm the need to ask those on every side of the table to temper their choices with empathy-sympathy, joining in common cause, evolving a new set of shared, pragmatic, sufficient reasons represented in evolving new shared interests in a green economy, sustainable system. Empirical results confirm the need to ask those on every side of the table to temper their choices with empathy-sympathy, joining in common cause, evolving a new set of shared, pragmatic, sufficient reasons represented in evolving new shared interests in a green economy, sustainable system. Evolution of empathy based, shared interests is largely what the policy (and institution building) process is all about! Evolution of empathy based, shared interests is largely what the policy (and institution building) process is all about!

25 deWaal(2009) and Rifkin (2009) “Greed is out, empathy is in (deWaal, p. ix)” “Greed is out, empathy is in (deWaal, p. ix)” “The underlying dialectic of human history is the continuous feedback loop between expanding empathy and increasing entropy (Rifkin, p. 26)… (history of) dialectical feedback between extended empathy and greater entropy (Rifkin, p. 40)…(this) dialectic of history … played itself out (Rifkin, p. 494)” “The underlying dialectic of human history is the continuous feedback loop between expanding empathy and increasing entropy (Rifkin, p. 26)… (history of) dialectical feedback between extended empathy and greater entropy (Rifkin, p. 40)…(this) dialectic of history … played itself out (Rifkin, p. 494)” Empathy is the key in bringing about the synthesis on the green path 0Z to sustainability Empathy is the key in bringing about the synthesis on the green path 0Z to sustainability

26 Values: the Moral Zeitgeist (“path 0Z”) “How swiftly the Zeitgeist changes – and it moves in parallel, on a broad front, throughout the educated world. Where, then, have these concerted and steady changes in social consciousness come from? The onus is not on me to answer. For my purposes it is sufficient that they certainly have not come from religion. If forced to advance a theory, I would approach it along the following lines. We need to explain why the changing moral Zeitgeist is so widely synchronized across large numbers of people; and we need to explain its relatively consistent direction.” “How swiftly the Zeitgeist changes – and it moves in parallel, on a broad front, throughout the educated world. Where, then, have these concerted and steady changes in social consciousness come from? The onus is not on me to answer. For my purposes it is sufficient that they certainly have not come from religion. If forced to advance a theory, I would approach it along the following lines. We need to explain why the changing moral Zeitgeist is so widely synchronized across large numbers of people; and we need to explain its relatively consistent direction.” (N: answer = empathy) Richard Dawkins: The God Delusion (2006) Richard Dawkins: The God Delusion (2006)

27 Zeitgeist : Ego as World Spirit with Empathy as World Soul A worldview moving towards a social global consciousness about Empathy A worldview moving towards a social global consciousness about Empathy From Homo economicus forward towards Homo ego:empathicus with metaeconomics From Homo economicus forward towards Homo ego:empathicus with metaeconomics From a hubristic Ego civilization forward towards the Ego-Empathic civilization From a hubristic Ego civilization forward towards the Ego-Empathic civilization From critical human problems forward towards possible social solutions with Homo ego:empathicus. From critical human problems forward towards possible social solutions with Homo ego:empathicus.

28 Ego Empathy VALUE Meta-interest “But the greatest satisfaction was when the two Pegasus’ had free rein and freedom to fly to the higher plane where everyone could impartially observe Pangaia below.” (from The Fable of Ego’n’Empathy: See cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/fableegonempathy.pdf )http://agecon- cpanel.unl.edu/lynne/ecolecon/fableegonempathy.pdf


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