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Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa History Alive.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa History Alive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa History Alive

2 The Bantu Migrations Bantu Origins – Originated in West Africa – part of the Nok – After 500 B.C.E., iron technology allowed for increase food production and population – Migrated to central and southern Africa in three waves, between 500 B.C.E. – 1500 C.E.

3 The Bantu Migrations Bantu Society – Economy based on hunting, fishing, and farming – In most, basic unit was household, or family – Lived in villages of families – Gender roles clearly defined (matrilineal) – Age grades defined specific responsibilities – Village council of the elders made decisions

4 The Kongo Kingdom How My Kingdom Came to Power – migrated to Congo River basin – Kongo natives easily assimilated Bantu lifestyle – Two Bantu clans united to form Kongo kingdom

5 The Kongo Kingdom Reasons Why We’re Concerned – Portuguese greed sours trade relationship – Rival African states ally with the Portuguese to raid Kongo for slaves.

6 The Kongo Kingdom Reason’s Why We, the Portuguese, Came to the Kongo – Missionaries converted people of the Kongo to Christianity – Traders traded European and asian goods for sugar, copper, and skins

7 The Kongo Kingdom Sources of Our Kingdom’s Strength – Waterways provide abundance of fish – Farmers grow and collect several crops – Animals are hunted for meat and hides – Taxes on trade goods are paid to the king’s treasury

8 Great Zimbabwe: Monument to the Zimbabwe State The Shona Build Zimbabwe – Developed economy based on pastoral agriculture – Mastered iron making and mined great quanities of gold – Engaged in trade with coastal cities and taxed visiting traders – Built Great Zimbabwe, capital city, as sign of the state’s prestige

9 Great Zimbabwe: Monument to the Zimbabwe State Ruins of the Magnificent Palace: The temple at great Zimbabwe – Cone-shaped tower 115 feet high – King’s dwellings, huts shrines, granaries… – Surrounding wall: 820 feet long 16 feet thick 30 feet high – Gateways marked with carved birds

10 Great Zimbabwe: Monument to the Zimbabwe State Zimbabwe’s Decline – Great Zimbabwe was abandoned after 1450 – Some provinces of Zimbabwe state declare independence – Monomutapa Empire replaced Zimbabwe as dominant power – Portuguese greed for slaves and gold destroyed Monomutapa

11 The Swahili Coastal Trading States Independent City-States – Most important city-states: Mogadishu, Malindi, Mombasa, Zanzibar, Kilwa, and Sofala – Each on e ruled by an emir or sultan – Rulers were supported by an elaborate an well- educated bureaucracy

12 The Swahili Coastal Trading States Swahili Culture – Bantu-speaking Africans converted to Islam; intermarried with Muslim traders – Swahili language combined Bantu, Arabic, and Indian – Architecture, food, dress, farming, and government reflected combined African and Arabic styles

13 The Swahili Coastal Trading States Geography’s Role in trade – Sailors took advantage of monsoons to travel between China and East Africa – Kilwa’s deep and large harbor could hold the world’s largest ships

14 The Swahili Coastal Trading States Europeans sought to become a dominant trading power in East Africa Arabs and Persians brought increase, glass, pearls, fabric, and Muslim culture Chinese brought porcelain, silk, and jade Indians brought spices, rice, and cotton cloth (textiles)

15 European Intervention and the Story of Queen Nzinga European Intervention – Wanted safe harbors for long voyages to Asia – Desired to establish trade bases in Africa – Later, wanted to monopolize trade – Increasingly traded for slaves

16 European Intervention and the Story of Queen Nzinga African Responses – States competed to win favor and trade advantages from Europeans – Leaders had to satisfy European demands for slaves or become targets for slave raiders – Some villages raided each other for slaves to sell to the Europeans – Many Africans chose to resist and fight

17 European Intervention and the Story of Queen Nzinga Nzinga Challenges European Control – Portuguese gained political control of the Mbundu people through war – Nzinga replaced her brother as leader of the Mbunda

18 European Intervention and the Story of Queen Nzinga Nzinga Challenges European Control (con’t) – To gain independence for her people, Nzinga: Met with the Portuguese governor to negotiate for independence for her people Fought with and against Europeans and other Africans during her 41 year reign – Nzinga was forced to retreat to hills where she became queen of the Matamba state – Nzinga is remembered as a brilliant military leader, shred diplomat, and fierce patriot


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