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Marie-Joëlle Zahar Associate Professor, Political Science Research Director, Francophone Research Network on Peace Operations Université de Montréal 2015-04-23.

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Presentation on theme: "Marie-Joëlle Zahar Associate Professor, Political Science Research Director, Francophone Research Network on Peace Operations Université de Montréal 2015-04-23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marie-Joëlle Zahar Associate Professor, Political Science Research Director, Francophone Research Network on Peace Operations Université de Montréal CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

2  Relations between human beings and their environment.  The geography of conflicts Environment (natural, social, economic, political)  Violence CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

3  The end of the Cold War and its impact on conflicts ◦ A decrease in the number of interstate wars ◦ An increase in the number of intrastate wars  New considerations for research and policy ◦ Non-state armed actors ◦ Civilians as targets ◦ Questions about international responsibility ◦ Questions about the limits of the sovereignty principle CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

4 Philippe Rekacewicz, Le monde diplomatique, January CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations The main armed conflicts of the 1990s

5  Are certains types of terrains more frequently associated with civil wars? ◦ Fearon and Laitin: rough terrain  Why? ◦ Geography and the challenges of projecting state power- Herbst ◦ Geography and the opportunity costs of starting an armed movement CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

6 mining.org/kosovoweb/en/kosovo/geography/basicContentParagraphs/02/ima ge/about_kosovo_village.jpg CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations Kosovo: A rough terrain

7  Natural resources as a cause of war ◦ The greed vs. grievance debate – Collier and Hoeffler ◦ The old vs. new war debate – Kaldor, Berdal and Keen  Resources, the nerve of war ◦ Resources and recruitment – Weinstein ◦ Ressurces and military equipment – Naylor ◦ Resources and spoiling  Resources and the ultimate objective of the war - Le Billon ◦ Two standard types of considerations: ◦ The spatial distribution of resources: diffuse vs. concentrated ◦ The distance from the capital/seat of power: proximate vs. distant  Four ideal types of resource distributions associated with four different expressions of violence CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

8 CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations Blood diamonds in Sierra Leone

9 Colonialism and borders o States with a legitimacy deficit o Ethnic fractionalization The impact of the Cold War o Alliances with the Great Powers as regime survival strategies The end of the Cold War o The dumping of client states o The sale of small arms and light weapons (SALW) CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

10 Cartes © Le Monde Diplomatique CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations Le colonialisme, la guerre froide et l’Afrique

11 Globalisation and civil wars o Globalisation as a spatial phenomenon o Globalisation and the political economy of civil wars – transnational trading networks, licit and illicit o Globalisation and the political economy of regime survival – deepening inequalities internationally and nationally (Murshed) CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

12 Understanding the vulnerability of states to conflict CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

13  Social Indicators Mounting Demographic Pressures Massive Movement of Refugees or Internally Displaced Persons creating Complex Humanitarian Emergencies Legacy of Vengeance-Seeking Group Grievance or Group Paranoia Chronic and Sustained Human Flight  Economic Indicators Uneven Economic Development along Group Lines Sharp and/or Severe Economic Decline  Political Indicators Criminalization and/or Delegitimization of the State Progressive Deterioration of Public Services Suspension or Arbitrary Application of the Rule of Law and Widespread Violation of Human Rights Security Apparatus Operates as a "State Within a State“ Rise of Factionalized Elites Intervention of Other States or External Political Actors CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations

14  Risk factors and inevitability  State fragility, a highly political process CERIUM Summer School on Peace Operations


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