Borodudur It was built by the Sailendra dynasty the late 8th century; it is the biggest stupa monument in the world; located in the Java Island of Indonesia Medium: volcanic rocks and massive heap of stones It is a Mahayana monument with 9 levels; each side measure 370 feet in length and 12 feet in height in each wall It has 5 square terraces and 3 circular diminish terraces with series of stupas (72 stupas); crowned by a large circular unfinished stupa (113 Feet) Note: no inscription was found at the site
Plan Lower level represents: Kamadhatu-Sphere of Desire(human spirit is still chained to greed Rupadathu- The sphere of Form (spirit liberated from greed but stillunable to transcend the phenomenal world) The upper-circular terraces-the Arupadhatu-the Sphere of Formlessness (liberated human spirit has left all earthly considerations behind) People visiting Borodubur -as pilgrims to immerse themselves in and graph the truth of the Buddha’s teachings--by studying the narrative releifs and to practice meditation
Jina Buddhas (Dhyani Buddha) Vairocana Buddha-Universal Buddha, in the center Gesture: dharmacakramudra Color: white Aksobhaya-Buddha of the East Gesture: bhumisparsamudra Color: yellow Amitabha-Buddha of the West; Sakyamuni and Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva resided (Sukhavati paradise) Gesture: dhyanamudra Color: Red
Jina Buddha Ratanasambhava-Buddha of the South Gesture: varadamudra Color: green Amoghasidi-Buddha of the North Gesture: abhayamudra Color: Blue
Gallery There are approximately 1300 panels with a total length of 8,200 feet cover the walls and the balustrades of the galleries It has no roof 540 seated Buddha in life size 432 are in niches (part of the balustrades) 72 in hollow stupas
texts Base: now covered depicted relief from the Kamawibhanga text-the doctrine of cause and effects Along the many galleries show panels with scenes in bas- relief. The releifs were directly drawn from the ancient texts: 1st gallery: lalitavistara in the upper level of the (Life story of the Buddha) wall and the Jatakamala in the lower part of the wall (Jataka stories) 2 and 3rd galleries: Gandavyuha (story of Sudhana in search of the Ultimate Truth; Maitreya helps him)
Interpretations It represents the unity of the cosmos-sacred replica of the universe Unfinished Buddha symbolized the ultimate spiritual truth Mandala-cosmic diagram, cosmic universe: the concept of the Three Bodies It associates with royal cult It represents the cosmic mountain-Mt Meru as described in the Lotus Sutra (Saddharapundarikasutra) The ultimate message is that by hearing the Lotus sutra, ever beings can become a Buddha after having obtained complete enlightenment or bodhi
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