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Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 (179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 (179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and.

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Presentation on theme: "Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 (179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 (179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 ( B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 ( B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露

2 I. Tung’s position in the history of Confucianism: 1. Establishment of the Confucian authority. Strong political motivations – to justify, stipulate, and limit the power of the new dynasty. “ 罢黜百家,独尊儒术 ”. Emperor Wu 2. His cosmological approach: Combining yin-yang and five forces theory with Confucianism – an isomorphic structure, mutual correspondence of heaven and human

3 II. Isomorphic Correlation between Human and Heaven Isomorphic structure of the microcosms and macrocosms 人副天數. (ch. 56, pp ) Isomorphic structure of the microcosms and macrocosms 人副天數. (ch. 56, pp ) Mutual correspondences between Heaven and human 天 人相感 – Omens, abnormal phenomena as signals from Heaven. A conscious design of the Heaven? Mutual correspondences between Heaven and human 天 人相感 – Omens, abnormal phenomena as signals from Heaven. A conscious design of the Heaven? A naturalistic account: dynamic correspondences in a synchronically correlated world. “Things of the same kind activate each other” 同類相動 (ch. 57, pp ) Causation. A naturalistic account: dynamic correspondences in a synchronically correlated world. “Things of the same kind activate each other” 同類相動 (ch. 57, pp ) Causation. Heaven gives birth to it, Earth nourishes it, and Humans completes it. Humans are the inheritors of Heaven. Humans form a trinity with Heaven and Earth. 天生之,地 養之,人成之。 人其天之繼。人之绝于物而参天地 (p. 281) Heaven gives birth to it, Earth nourishes it, and Humans completes it. Humans are the inheritors of Heaven. Humans form a trinity with Heaven and Earth. 天生之,地 養之,人成之。 人其天之繼。人之绝于物而参天地 (p. 281) Not a pre-established harmony

4 III. Imbedding Value into Cosmology: 1. Yin and Yang Yang corresponds to ren and yin to greed. “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274) Yang corresponds to ren and yin to greed. “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274) 「陽德陰刑」 “Yang is Heaven's beneficent power, while the yin is Heaven's chastising power." 「陽德陰刑」 The ruler relies more on virtue and less or not on chastisement 任德不任刑、尊德而卑刑 The ruler relies more on virtue and less or not on chastisement 任德不任刑、尊德而卑刑 Three bonds: the ruler is the bond of the minister, the father is the bond of the son, and the husband is the bond of the wife. “ 三 纲 ” -- 君为臣纲,父为子纲,夫为妻纲。 「五行順逆」 Three bonds: the ruler is the bond of the minister, the father is the bond of the son, and the husband is the bond of the wife. “ 三 纲 ” -- 君为臣纲,父为子纲,夫为妻纲。 「五行順逆」

5 2. Five Forces 「五行順逆」 The father-son relationship From which filial piety and loyalty are derived (p. 279) Metal West Earth Middle Water North Fire South Wood East

6 IV. Theory of Human Nature Human nature -- “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274) Rice and rice stalk analogy. Why restrict our nature? “There are cases when Heaven restricts the operation of yin and yang, and there are cases when the person weakens his feelings and desires.” “To restrict what Heaven restricts is not to restrict Heaven itself.” (p. 274) The term “people” (min 民 ) is derived from the term “sleep” (ming 瞑 ) eyes can see (that is due to Heaven), but they need to be awakened. (p. 275)

7 V. Hermeneutics: From Chronicle to Canon, A Confucian Way of Making Meaning Chan’s comment on p. 274 and Roger Ames’ opposing view (in Confucius Now, ed. By David Jones, Open Court, 2008) Chan’s comment on p. 274 and Roger Ames’ opposing view (in Confucius Now, ed. By David Jones, Open Court, 2008) Paronomasia Paronomasia 政 正 zheng (cheng) -governing zheng (cheng) -rectifying 政 正 zheng (cheng) -governing zheng (cheng) -rectifying 仁 人 ren (jen) -human-heartedness ren (jen) -human being 仁 人 ren (jen) -human-heartedness ren (jen) -human being 德 得 de (te) -virtue/virtuosity de (te) - to attain 德 得 de (te) -virtue/virtuosity de (te) - to attain 道 導 蹈 dao (tao) -the way dao (tao) -guidance dao (tao) -to put into practice 道 導 蹈 dao (tao) -the way dao (tao) -guidance dao (tao) -to put into practice 君 群 jun (chün) -king, ruler qun (chün) -goup, gathering 君 群 jun (chün) -king, ruler qun (chün) -goup, gathering 民 瞑 min -ordinary people ming -sleep 民 瞑 min -ordinary people ming -sleep 名 命 ming -name ming -order, ordering 名 命 ming -name ming -order, ordering 庸 用 yong (yung) -commonality yong (yung) -practice 庸 用 yong (yung) -commonality yong (yung) -practice One of the six principles of construction of Chinese characters: Phonetic loans One of the six principles of construction of Chinese characters: Phonetic loans 1 Pictographs ( 象形 )1 Pictographs ( 象形 ), 2 Ideographs ( 指事 ), 3 Compound indicatives ( 會意 )2 Ideographs ( 指事 )3 Compound indicatives ( 會意 ) 4 Phono-semantic compound characters ( 形聲 )4 Phono-semantic compound characters ( 形聲 ), 5 Borrowed characters ( 假借 )5 Borrowed characters ( 假借 ) 6 Phonetic Loans ( 轉注 )

8 Finding essence vs. delineating a world and bringing new meaning into being Finding essence vs. delineating a world and bringing new meaning into being referential vs. relational (meanings can be delineated through insights about relations) individual vs. correlative thinking (making each more meaningful) fixed vs. creative (users are authors of meanings)

9 Daily One-minute Paper Daily One-minute Paper 1. What is the big point you learned in class today? 1. What is the big point you learned in class today? 2. What is the main, unanswered question you leave class with today? 2. What is the main, unanswered question you leave class with today?


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