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Formal Models for Game Analysis: The MDA and 6-11 Frameworks Roberto Dillon DigiPen Institute of Technology Singapore

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Presentation on theme: "Formal Models for Game Analysis: The MDA and 6-11 Frameworks Roberto Dillon DigiPen Institute of Technology Singapore"— Presentation transcript:

1 Formal Models for Game Analysis: The MDA and 6-11 Frameworks Roberto Dillon DigiPen Institute of Technology Singapore

2 About me

3 Overview The need for an analysis framework MDA  Mechanics – Dynamics - Aesthetics The „6-11 Framework“ Case Studies Step by Step approach Conclusions / Q&A Reference: Hunicke, Le Blanc, Zubek: “MDA: a Formal approach to Game Design and Game Research”. Available online at:

4 The need for an analysis framework  What makes “good” Game Design?  Game Designers explain their approaches in very subjective ways  Need for a “pragmatic” approach that tries to be as objective as possible  Need to break down a game at different level of complexities and analyze their relationships.

5 MDA: Game Components Mechanics  Game rules, the basic elements/actions by which the game is played  How to play the game Dynamics  Gameplay, what happens by applying the rules  What to do in the game, Player's behaviour Aesthetics  Emotional response by the player

6 Example: Commerce Game Mechanics  Buying  Selling  Travelling Dynamics  Trading Aesthetics  Greed Anno 1404 © 2009 Ubisoft

7 Where to start?

8 Aesthetics The most difficult part to understand and master How do players feel when they play? What do players really want? What triggers „Fun“??

9 MDA Aesthetics Model Eight kinds of Fun based on:  Sensation (e.g. pleasures)  Fantasy (e.g. role playing)  Narrative (e.g. Storytelling, game as drama)  Challenge (e.g. problem solving, obstacle course)  Fellowship (e.g. social framework)  Discovery (e.g. uncharted territory)  Expression (e.g. self discovery)  Submission (e.g. Game as pastime)

10 „6-11 Framework“ Alternative Model for analyzing game aesthetics : Alternative Model for analyzing game aesthetics : „Fun” as an outcome from engaging the player through basic emotions and instincts „Fun” as an outcome from engaging the player through basic emotions and instincts 6 Basic Emotions 6 Basic Emotions 11 Instinct 11 Instinct Their correspondences/relationships Their correspondences/relationships Easy to relate these to game dynamics and mechanics Easy to relate these to game dynamics and mechanics

11 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

12 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

13 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 흥분 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

14 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

15 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 분노 자존심 슬픔 흥분 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

16 EmotionsInstincts SURVIVALIDENTIFICATIONCOLLECTINGGREEDAGGRESSIVENESSCOMPETITIONREVENGEPROTECTION/CARECURIOSITY COLOR APPRECIATION COMMUNICATION FEARANGERPRIDESADNESSJOYEXCITEMENT 분노 자존심 슬픔 흥분 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 무서움 분노 자존심 슬픔 기쁨 흥분 생존 신분증 수집 탐욕 공격성 경쟁 복수 보호 / 관리 호기심 커뮤니케이션 색깔 감사

17 “On the Way to Fun”

18 In general:  Emotions trigger instincts that push the player to act  Easy to link instincts to game dynamics and mechanics

19 “On the Way to Fun” - Expanded

20 „6-11 Framework“ in practice Battlezone Pac man Toribash Angry Birds The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess

21 Battlezone (Atari, 1980)

22 Pac Man (Namco, 1980)

23 Toribash (Nabi Studios, 2008)

24 Angry Birds (Rovio, 2010) Collecting

25 And for AAA games? Simple, core sequence Gets expanded through different… Missions and Quests Levels

26 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess Identification Protection Pride Joy

27 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess Identification Protection Pride Joy Collecting Survival Curiosity …

28 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess  Hoard Goats Pride Joy Collecting Herding Racing to an end Riding

29 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess  Escaping from the dungeon

30 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess  Escaping from the dungeon Anger Revenge Survival Racing to an end Fighting Running Jumping Biting Curiosity Excitement Exploring Listening to Spirits Moving around, digging Using wolf “senses”

31 Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess  Faron Woods: Tears of the Light Spirits Curiosity Collecting Exploring Locating bugs Using wolf senses Running Crushing Bugs to pick up the tears Excitement Pride Joy

32 Analyzing a game, step by step Play the game Determine the main aesthetics and how they develop into the player's experience by using the „6-11 Framework“ Draw the „On the way to Fun“ diagram Relate instincts to game dynamics Explore how dynamics are obtained (i.e. analyze mechanics) Not sure? Go back to Step 1! ;)

33 Conclusions Importance of MDA approach to understand how game works The “6-11 Framework” to analyze Aesthetics and relate them to Dynamics and Mechanics Can work for any game

34 Thanks for Your attention! 귀하의 관심을 주셔서 감사합니다 질문이 있습니까 ?


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