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Early Christianity in Jerusalem. The Day of Pentecost (Acts 2)  Pentecost  One of three major festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:15-22)  Also known as.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Christianity in Jerusalem. The Day of Pentecost (Acts 2)  Pentecost  One of three major festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:15-22)  Also known as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Christianity in Jerusalem

2 The Day of Pentecost (Acts 2)  Pentecost  One of three major festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:15-22)  Also known as the Festival of Weeks  A Harvest Festival  Special cereal offering  Two loaves of bread

3 The Day of Pentecost (Acts 2)  Tongues of Fire  Tongues: Real Languages or Ecstatic Speech?  Here actual languages  Luke lists 14 different nationalities  Pentecost a reverse of Babel

4 The Day of Pentecost (Acts 2)  Peter’s Sermon  “New wine”: Cheap, but took a lot to get drunk on  Peter’s sermon shows the Spirit’s power  Peter’s sermon points to Jesus  The result: 3,000 baptized  Are the numbers credible?  Jerusalem’s population swelled during major festivals  Nero said there were a “vast multitude” about thirty years later

5 Problems with the Sanhedrin (Acts 3-5)  The charges  The response: prayer for boldness!  Rabbi Gamaliel

6 The First Church Argument (Acts 6)  It’s over…money!  Hellenists—Jews who spoke only Greek, possibly Gentiles who became Jews  Aramaic Jews—Jews who grew up in Jerusalem  The Answer: Elect seven to do the job  Suggested, the church decided  All Seven had Greek names and were probably Greek speaking Jews.

7 Stephen (Acts 7)  Argued with Hellenistic Jews in their synagogues  One synagogue consisted of Jews from Cilicia  Could Saul/Paul have been among them?  Stephen’s argument: The Jews have consistently rejected God’s plan, right up to that day  This led to the first general persecution—but the Church grew!

8 The First Non-Jewish Christians (Acts 8-11)  The Samaritans  A major step in the Church  Why the delay in the Holy Spirit?

9 The First Non-Jewish Christians (Acts 8-11)  The Ethiopian Eunuch  Would not have been allowed in the OT people: Deuteronomy 23:1

10 The First Non-Jewish Christians (Acts 8-11)  Cornelius and the Romans  A Gentile God-fearer—not a Jew  Peter’s Vision  Peter’s Sermon  The gift of the Spirit  Water baptism  Report back to the Jewish Christians

11 Peter’s Arrest (Acts 12)  Herod = Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great  Ruler over his grandfather’s kingdom  Deferred to the Jewish rulers, so he killed James and wanted to kill Peter  Peter’s release  Agrippa’s death—Recorded by Josephus

12 Life and Ministry of St. Paul

13 Introducing St. Paul  Various clues to Paul’s life are spread throughout the Epistles and Acts  Hebrew born of Hebrews (Philippians 3:6)  Member of the tribe of Benjamin. Named after Israel’s first king, Saul.  Father was a Pharisee  Had at least one sister (Acts 23:16)  Born in Tarsus, raised in Jerusalem (Acts 22:3)

14 Introducing St. Paul  Trained by Gamaliel  Candor and honesty in judgment  A willingness to study and use Greek authors  A keen enthusiasm for Jewish law

15 Introducing St. Paul  A Roman citizen  Born a Citizen  In the year 171 B.C. Jews were promised Roman citizenship if they moved to Tarsus.  This could be where his citizenship originated  Had the right to:  A fair trial  Exemption from certain forms of punishment (e.g. crucifixion)  Protection against summary execution  Not to be beaten without trial

16 Introducing St. Paul  Was Paul Married?  Bachelorhood was very rare among Jews; even rarer among Pharisees like Paul. But did happen.  Divorced for becoming Christian? (Drane’s theory; cf. 1 Cor. 7)  Widowed?

17 Paul’s Conversion  Recorded three times:  Acts 9:1-9; 22:3-16; 26:9-18  Each retelling is slightly different; focused on different audiences  Took place at mid-day.  Struck down, heard a loud voice  Spent three days in fasting and prayer

18 Paul’s Conversion  Critical views  Sunstroke  Hallucination  Epileptic fit

19 Paul’s Conversion  Sanhedrin claimed absolute religious power over all Jews  Ananais a heroic person  Left with eye troubles? Gal. 4:15; 6:11  Jesus’ appearance made Paul an apostle

20 Paul’s Next 13 Years  Leaves Damascus for Arabia for three years (Gal. 1:17)  Returns to Damascus and preaches. Escapes by basket (Acts 9:25; 2 Cor. 11:32 ff.)  Goes to Jerusalem (Gal. 1:18)  Barnabas intercedes  Meets Peter and James, the Lord’s brother

21 Paul’s Next 13 Years  Went to Tarsus and preached (Gal. 1:21-23, Acts 9:30)  Barnabas recruits him to teach in Antioch (Acts 11:25ff.).  Agabus announces the famine.  Sent to Jerusalem with a gift (Acts 11:30; Gal. 2:1-10)

22 Paul's First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)

23 Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)  Barnabas and Saul called during a time of worship  Took with them John Mark, the nephew of Barnabas

24 Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)  Cyprus  Home of Barnabas  Conversion of Sergius Paulus  Governor of the island  Formerly in charge of flood control in Rome  Had a Jewish sorcerer, Bar-Jesus, for an advisor  Name is now changed from Saul to Paul  Most likely had two names: a Jewish name and a Roman name

25 Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)  Phrygia  Mark leaves them there  Weak or scared?  Young and homesick?  Time of Paul’s illness? (Gal. 4:13-14)  Jealousy for his Uncle Barnabas?

26 Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)  Pisidian Antioch  100 miles from the shore over a mountain range  Paul begins with the Jews  His sermon skims the OT to point to Jesus.  Uses the word “justified” (Acts 13:39)  God-fearers were especially touched by this message

27 Paul’s First Missionary Journey (Acts 13-14)  Iconium  Lystra  Home of Timothy. Probably converted on this journey.  “The gods have come down in human form!”  Paul’s response: Worship the Creator!  No OT references.  Almost gets killed for his trouble  Returns to the city  Returns to Antioch

28 The Letter of James

29  “Spoken against” in the early Church  Very Jewish understanding of Christianity (uses the word “synagogue” for worship)  Date: 45 - 46 AD by many.  Probably written to the Jewish Christians scattered in Acts 8  James is a letter on practical Christianity

30 The Letter of James  Author: “James”  James, son of Zebedee, who was killed by Herod Agrippa II  James, the brother of Jesus  Would be one of the few who would be known throughout the churches  Paul usually refers to him simply as James.

31 The Letter of James  Author: “James”  Arguments against authorship:  Greek is too good  Doesn’t state that he’s the Lord’s brother  Takes an ethical view of faith  If not James, the Lord’s brother, then who?

32 Paul’s Letter to the Galatians

33 Galatians  Author: Paul  Date and destination are debated  Northern Galatian theory (later date; 53 – 57 A.D.)  “Galatia” is a northern province; named for the Gauls had invaded and settled in the 3rd Century B.C.  Luke uses accurate terms in other places, why not here?  Paul did not visit this area until his second missionary journey; this would be written on his 3rd journey

34 Galatians  Date and destination are debated  Southern Galatian theory (earlier date; 48 A.D.)  Both a province and a broader area was popularly known by that name  Paul was ill when he visited, it seems odd that he would travel to a remote area over many mountains  Galatians mentions Barnabas three times, it is apparent that the people knew him  If this was written after the Jerusalem Council why doesn’t the letter refer to it or to the letter the Council sent out which Paul took with him? (Acts 16:4)  Northern Galatian theory is older.  Since Galatians deals with the same issues as Acts 15, it would be a natural date.

35 Galatians  Features  This letter is intensely personal and very passionate  The Judaizers argued that they did not come to stop Paul’s work but to complete it  Judaizers had three arguments:  Paul was not a true apostle  Paul was omitting things that God has said  Paul’s proclamation of grace alone would bring moral laxity  Galatians was Martin Luther’s favorite letter in the NT

36 The Jerusalem Council (Acts 15)

37  This is one of the most important issues in the church’s history and life.  The issue: Acts 15:1. Possibly the same group who had caused problems with Peter (Gal. 2:11-14).  The result: no circumcision, no complete obedience to the laws of Moses.  Three requests for the sake of peace:  No fornication  No meat sacrificed to idols  No meat strangled or with blood in it

38 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)

39  The Battle over John Mark  Result: two missions, not one: Paul took Silas (a/k/a Silvanus); Barnabas took Mark  Silas a pastor in Jerusalem  One of those sent to give credence to the letter from the Council  Paul and Mark did reconcile (Col. 4:10; 2 Tim. 4:11)

40 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Lystra  Decide to take Timothy with them  Timothy a Jew; born of a Jewish mother  In order to witness to Jews, Paul circumcises Timothy  If Timothy was not circumcised, the Jews would have rejected him

41 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Paul not allowed to go to Asia and Bithynia  Goes to Troas; has Macedonian vision  First of “we” passages

42 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Philippi  Not enough Jewish men for a synagogue  Go to a “place of prayer”: women would meet to recite the appointed synagogue prayers and thanksgivings on the Sabbath.  Leader was Lydia, a God-fearer who was the seller of purple cloth.  Became the first Christian in Paul’s ministry to Europe

43 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Philippi  The Jailer  Fortune telling girl  Beaten and jailed via a racist argument  The earthquake  Jailer’s repentance  Death was the punishment for letting people escape  By committing suicide, his family would have been able to keep their property.  The entire “household” is baptized.

44 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Philippi  Magistrates tell them to go  They have beaten a Roman citizen!  They come to apologize  Paul clears his name of the sake of the Gospel  This congregation became very special to Paul

45 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Berea  Desire to study the Scriptures is legendary  Repeat of Thessalonica  Paul leaves Timothy and Silas. Sends Timothy to Thessalonica (1 Thess. 3:1)

46 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Athens  A free and allied city within the Roman empire  Philosophical and cultural center  Paul’s “distress”

47 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Athens  Paul at the Areopagus  The “Areopagus” was an Athenian institution  Considered themselves to be the custodians of teachings that introduced new religions and other gods  Paul molds his message to the audience  Point of contact: “To an Unknown God”  Does not quote the Old Testament; quotes Greek poets and authors  Three points:  God the creator  God sustains today  God will judge  Some small success

48 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Corinth  Spends 18 months; his longest stay to date  The town  Located on an isthmus  Had log railroad to transport boats  Cult center of Aphrodite  Known for sexual laxity

49 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Corinth  Aquila and Priscilla  Jews expelled from Rome by Claudius  Roman historian Suestonis says that the expulsion order was given because the Jews were constantly in fights that were started by a man named Chrestus.  Paul worked with them making tents  Paul began his preaching in the synagogue.  One of the first men who believed was Crispus, the synagogue ruler  Started preaching in house of Titius Justus

50 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Corinth  “Trial” before Lucius Junius Gallio  Brother of the philosopher Seneca  Admired as a man of justice and fairness  Only in this position for a year, from 51-52 AD, so we know when Paul was in Corinth.

51 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Corinth  “Trial” before Lucius Junius Gallio  Gallio refused to listen to the charge and the synagogue ruler, Sosthesnes, was beaten  Three theories as to who beat him:  The Jews, because he failed to win the case  The Greeks, because they were ticked off at the Jews  The military commanders because he wouldn’t leave  Sosthesnes mentioned in Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians

52 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  First and Second Thessalonians  Date: 51/52 AD  Reason  Paul was very worried about this church and what was taking place there, especially since he had to leave so abruptly.  Left the people with little support in face of persecution and paganism.  Topics: Personal holiness, life in the church, second coming of Jesus

53 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  First and Second Thessalonians  Second Thessalonians was written about six months later  Some scholars argue that Paul did not write 2 Thessalonians  No signs of the end in 1 Thessalonians; now a “man of lawlessness”  More formal in tone  Too similar to 1 Thessalonians  Drane: “These problems are more apparent than real.” (p. 316)  Main topic: the second coming of Jesus. Some thought the Second Coming had taken place.  The most intriguing part—and the most highly debated—is who is the “Man of lawlessness” to whom Paul refers?

54 Paul's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 16-18:22)  Paul sets sail for Jerusalem  Cuts off his hair for a vow that he had made and needed to make a sacrifice  Stops in Ephesus; Paul promises to return

55 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)

56  Ephesus  An impressive city  Temple of Artemis located there; one of the 7 great wonders of the ancient world:.  Much magic in the city. Sorcery scrolls often called “Ephesian writings.”  Paul spends three years preaching, teaching, and training.

57 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Ephesus  Ephesian “disciples.”  Know only of John’s baptism. Have never heard of the Holy Spirit.  Paul teaches them and baptizes them  Preaches in the synagogue for three months.  Moves to lecture hall of Tyrannus  Western manuscripts state that Paul taught from11:00-4:00 each day, which was the hot part of the day.

58 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Ephesus  Paul continued to work to support himself (Acts 20:34)  Many unusual miracles  Sons of Sceva  Acts 19:21: Paul wants to go to Rome

59 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Ephesus  Ephesian Riot  Over…money!  Christianity was often accused of ruining the economy  Jews worried that it might become anti-Semtic.  “Asiarchs” tell Paul not to go in. They promoted worship of the emperor!  Secretary calmed them down and made them leave.

60 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Ephesus  During this time, Paul wrote his letters to the Corinthians.  Ephesian dangers  1 Cor.15:32 and 2 Cor. 1:8-10, Paul notes some of the dangers that took place there.  Ephesian imprisonment?  Letter to Romans: Paul greets “Andronicus, a fellow prisoner”  2 Cor. 11:23-27 Paul mentions “many imprisonments”

61 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Through Macedonia to Corinth  Paul stayed there during the winter months when ships did not travel.  During this time, he wrote Romans.

62 Paul's Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23-21:16)  Return to Jerusalem  Takes a group of Gentiles with him to Jerusalem.  Plans to take a direct route; finds out there is a plot on his life.  Returns north. “We” passages begin again.  Eutychus in Troas—Was he dead or just knocked out?  Sermon to the Ephesian elders  Warned not to go to Jerusalem, but believes he should.


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