Presentation on theme: "The Crusades. Objectives To understand the causes of the 1 st and 2 nd Crusade. Summarize the results of the 1 st and 2 nd Crusade. Describe major events."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives To understand the causes of the 1 st and 2 nd Crusade. Summarize the results of the 1 st and 2 nd Crusade. Describe major events and personalities.
Quote "That others have a just grievance against us is a more potent reason for hating them than that we have a just grievance against them" Hoffer, The True Believer
The Crusades High ideas were besmirched by cruelty and greed, enterprise and endurance by a blind and narrow self righteousness, and the Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God, which is a sin against the Holy Ghost. -Sir Steven Runciman, In The History of the CrusadesSteven Runciman
Council of Clermont March 1095 Alexius I, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire sent envoys to ask Urban for aid against the Turks. Why? – Manzikert and Turkish success Why did Urban think this was a good idea? – Heal the Schism – Get Knights out of Europe – Increase secular power
Pope Urban II At Clermont, Urban calls for the French people to unite and retake the holy city of Jerusalem from the Muslims. Dieu le veut! -- "God wills it!"
Speech at Clermont Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor.  Promised forgiveness for sins if you fought against the “infidels”
People’s Crusade 1 st phase of 1 st Crusade Peter the Hermit Looted and fought with local peoples over supplies. Ended up being slaughtered by the Turks before the main army arrived.
Mistrust of the “Greeks” “We recognized, then, that the Emperor had betrayed Peter the Hermit, who had long before come to Constantinople with a great multitude. For he compelled him, ignorant of the locality and of all military matters, to cross the Strait with his men and exposed them to the Turks. Moreover, when the Turks from Nicea saw that unwarlike multitude, they cut them down without effort and delay to the number of sixty thousand” – Raymond d'Aguiliers
The Prince’s Crusade Leaders meet at Constantinople – Bohemund, Godfrey and Baldwin. Problems? – Travel/supplies – Mistrust
Jerusalem Army reaches in 1099 after two years. – Only about ¼ of the knights left.
Jerusalem July 15, 1099 the men broke through. Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women nor children were spared."
Anonymous "When the pagans had been overcome, our men seized great numbers, both men and women, either killing them or keeping them captive, as they wished." Later it is written, "[Our leaders] also ordered all the Saracen dead to be cast outside because of the great stench, since the whole city was filled with their corpses; and so the living Saracens dragged the dead before the exits of the gates and arranged them in heaps, as if they were houses. No one ever saw or heard of such slaughter of pagan people, for funeral pyres were formed from them like pyramids, and no one knows their number except God alone."
Results Crusader States established Jerusalem in the hands of the Pope ¼ of crusaders died on journey, and another ¼ died fighting. The remaining men returned heroes or stayed to live and rule crusader states. Muslim division allowed crusaders to win. After crusades, a gradual push towards expelling crusaders led to unification of Eastern Muslims
Results (1 st and 2 nd Crusade) Battle of Hattin (1187) Much of Crusader States lost, including Jerusalem in Reunified Islamic army led by Saladin.