Regional Maritime Trade 8% of World Trade. 33 Million TEU per Annum. 50% of Europe’s Oil. 3.2 Million Barrels Per Day.
Routes Gulf of Aden is a crossroads for East-West trade. Economic Consequences of disruption: Closure of these sea lanes estimated to add 30% to prices of all freight. FromToNM Via SuezNM Via Cape Horn/Panama % miles saved JeddahPiraeus13201120788 TokyoRotterdam111921450723 Ras TanuraNew York82811179430 ColomboNew York86001407339 SingaporeNew York101331250619
Economic Consequences Suez Canal was closed after 6 Day War in 1967; reopened 1975. Feyer (2009)
Legality Very limited provision for enforcement within international law. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea states that : “All States shall cooperate to the fullest possible extent in the repression of piracy on the high seas or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State.” Article 100, UNCLOS. “We lack a practical and reliable legal finish.” Admiral M Fox USN Commander 5 th Fleet.
Historical Pattern of the conflict in Somalia Siyad Barre 1969 1977-1991 Somali military vs Somali National Movement (SNM) 1988 Government forces vs growing number of clan based liberation movements (1989- 1991)
Historical Pattern of the conflict in Somalia United Nations Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM), 1993-1994 Post 9/11 the Arta Peace Conference in 2000 Transitional Federal Government (TFG) 2004 –current
History and Roots of Piracy Different types of Piracy Political Pirates Defensive Pirates Resource Piracy Ransom Pirates
Causes Of Somali Piracy Illegal fishing and dumping of toxic waste Poverty and unemployment Lack of legal and maritime counterstrategies Lack of government, security, and accountability Globalisation and technology
Regional Actors Somali Pirates on a fishing vessel, January 6, 2012. (Tyler Hicks/The New York Times)
International Actors Flying on board a Panther helicopter dispatched from the French frigate, Le Floreal, a crew member watches a commercial ship during a supervision mission on January 11, 2009, in the Gulf of Aden. (Stephane de Sakutin/AFP/Getty Images)
Different Perceptions Sympathetic to pirates Pirates as criminals Linked to terrorists? (REUTERS/Bundeswehr)
The Economy of Piracy - Average ransom: $5 million - Total ransoms collected in 2011: $159 million (HO/AFP/Getty Images)
Parachute dropping $3 million in ransom to pirates who hijacked the Sirius Star supertanker from Saudi Arabia (REUTERS/David B. Hudson/U.S. Navy photo/Handout)
Pirate Network Seized document from 2010 outlining the distribution of shares amongst pirate network (United Nations Security Council, 2011)
Cost of Piracy The Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2011, www.oceansbeyondpiracy.org
Economic Impact on Somali Communities People gather to collect their share of a ransom (REUTERS/Mohamed Ahmed) Beneficial?
Or harmful? Sign in Garowe that reads “No Pirates Allowed” (newyorktimes.com)
Theories Duffield: – Insured and non-insured/surplus population – Containment Rational choice theory/ Greed vs. Grievance – First grievance due to over-fishing and waste dumping, slowly turned to greed, but not solely founded in greed. – Islam’s role in order, not economy – Moral flexibility: “one man’s coast guard is another man’s pirate”
“Robin Hood's conversion to royal archer may be a myth, but the myth records a practice.” Tilly: 1985: 173 Charles Tilly and Somali Pirates
Mancur Olson Roving Bandits vs. Stationary Bandits
Samatar Conditions for piracy to exist Moral economy Types of pirates: resource, defensive, political, and ransom. – A simplicities, unbalanced perception of piracy in the West enrages Somalis “Thus Somalis see the discourse on piracy as a clear manifestation of the double standards used in the international system.” (1389)
Conclusion Solutions? – Samatar: addressing the root causes of the different types of piracy – Tilly, pirates as future state consolidators? – Pirates are not fish, external interference/commitment – too high expectations, a mediocre government now is better than a perfect one in 50 years Answer question clearly