2Integration is the process of attaining closeness or seamless co-ordination between departments, groups or systems in an organizationStrategic HR The key word for Strategic Human Resource Management is integration. Four elements of integration are considered crucial for HR that contributes to both the organizational objectives as well as the individual needs.1) Vertical integration is about Effectiveness of HR. HR is effective when it contributes to the mission and objectives of the organization. This needs translation of the organizational strategy into a HR policy and corporate identity with talent required to realize the objectives. It is about enabling people to 'do the right things'2) Horizontal integration is about Efficiency of HR . HR is efficient when its components ( strategy, systems and tools) are aligned with each other. This needs combination of the different HR instruments required to realize human development. Instruments for job appraisal, for instance, are linked with personal development. Personal development is part of the compensation policy, etc. It is about enabling people to 'do things the right way‘
33) Integration in work is about Acceptance of HR In the end, or rather in the beginning, it is the manager and the employee that make HR work. The HR toolkit has to be integrated in the primary processes of the organization. The methods, instruments and instructions for manager and employee have to be simple, user friendly, policy clarifying and contributing to their individual needs. Otherwise people won't work with them and HR won't work.4) External integration is about Sustainability and Resilience of HR . HR has to contribute to resilience(ability to recover from illness) and sustainability of the organization. Post modern organizations in western societies are depending on people and their knowledge. Organizations' do not learn, people do. The organization has to facilitate this process and learn to become as flexible as their most talented people are. HR policies that enable network structures and cross company exchanges are some examples
4QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Integration: There has been much concern today about decent wages, convenient working hours, conducive working conditions etcThe term quality of work life (QWL) refers to the favorableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for people.J. Richard and J. Loy define QWL as “the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization.”Richard E. Walton explains quality of work life in terms of eight broad conditions of employment that constitute desirable quality of work life. He proposed the same criteria for measuring QWL.Those criteria include:(i) Adequate and Fair Compensation: There are different opinions about adequate compensation. The committee on Fair Wages defined fair wage as” the wage which is above the minimum wage, but below the living wage.”(ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions: Most of the organizations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements. In fact , these conditions are a matter or enlightened self interest.
5(iii) Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capacities: Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved… “to the extent that the worker can exercise more control over his or her work, and the degree to which the job embraces and entire meaningful task” … but not a part of it. Further, QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities.(iv) Opportunity for Career Growth: Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding one’s capabilities, knowledge and qualifications.(v) Social Integration in the Work Force: Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work groups, a sense of community and inter-personnel openness, egalitarianism and upward mobility.(vi) Constitutionalism in the Work Organization: QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the management’s action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed lat that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity etc.
6(vii) Work and Quality of Life: QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non-work and family aspects of life. In other words family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacations etc.(viii) Social Relevance of Work: QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers’ self esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true.Quality Circles: Quality circles which have been popularized by Japanese firms are being used all over the world because of the benefits that accrue to the firm. A quality circle involves participation from a small group of employees doing the same type of work.They meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve the problems that arise during the course of their work and their association with the organization.The basic objectives of quality circles are to develop and utilize human resources effectively, to develop quality products, improve the quality of work life and sharpen and utilize an individual’s creative abilities.
7There are different steps involved in the development of quality circles from getting started to problem-solving.Communicating the importance of quality circles to the employees is of prime importance.The next step is the composition of a quality circle.Then the stage of initial problem solving through which employee suggestions are presented, follows.The suggestions are then evaluated and the best one, chosen by consensus, is implemented. Various techniques like brainstorming sessions(Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s)). fish bone diagram and sampling and charting methods, are used in quality circles.Problems arise in the implementation of quality circles because of lack of understanding regarding the concepts, low education levels and training, delays in execution and operational problems. Most of these problems can be resolved through effective training of employees and management support.
8Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include:People: Anyone involved with the processMethods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and lawsMachines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc. required to accomplish the jobMaterials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final productMeasurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its qualityEnvironment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operates
9Industrial Relations: The concept of industrial relations means the relationship between employees and the management in the day-to-day working of the industry. But the concept has a wide meaning. When taken in the wider sense, industrial relations is a “set of functional interdependence involving historical, economic, social, psychological, demographic, technological, occupational, political and legal variables.” According to Dale Yoder, industrial relations is a “whole field of relationship that exists because of the necessary collaboration of employees in the employment process of an industry.”According to the international Labour Organisaton (ILO), “Industrial Relations deal with either the relationship between the state and employers’ and workers’ organizations or the relation between the occupational organizations themselves.” The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the joint consultations between employers and people at their organizations. The subject there fore includes individual relations of the joint consultations between employers and people at their work place, collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and the part played by the State in regulating these relations.
103. Technological factors: The important factors of industrial relations are: employees and their organizations, employer and their associations and the Government.Factors of Industrial Relations: Industrial relations are influenced by various factors, viz., institutional factors, economic factors and technological factors1. Institutional factors: These factors include government policy, labor legislations, voluntary courts, collective agreement, employee courts, employers’ federations.2. Economic factors:3. Technological factors:4. Social and cultural factors: These factors include population, customs and traditions of people, ethnic groups, cultures of various groups of people etc.5. Political factors: These factors include political system in the country, political parties and their ideologies, their growth, mode of achievement of their policies, involvement in trade unions etc.6. Government factors: These factors include governmental policies like industrial policy, economic policy, labor policy.
11Characteristics of Industrial Relations: i. Industrial relations are the outcome of employment relationship in an industrial enterprise.ii. Industrial relations develop the skills and methods of adjusting to and co-operating with each other.iii. Industrial relations system creates complex rules and regulations to maintain harmonious relations.iv. The Government involves to shape the industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements, awards etc.Objectives of Industrial Relations: The primary objective of industrial relations is to maintain congenial relations between employees and the employer. And the other objectives are:i. To promote and develop congenial labor management relations;ii. To enhance the economic status of the worker by improving wages, benefits and by helping the worker in evolving sound budget;iii. To regulate the production by minimizing industrial conflicts through state control;iv. To socialize industries by making the government as an employer;v. To provide an opportunity to the workers to have a say in the management and decision-making;vi. To improve worker’s strength with a view to solve their problems through mutual negotiations and consultation with the management;vii. To encourage and develop trade unions in order to improve the workers’ strength;viii. To avoid industrial conflict and their consequences andix. To extend and maintain industrial democracy.
12DEFINITION OF A DISPUTE/CONFLICT According to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, Section 2 (k), “Industrial dispute means any dispute of difference between employers and employers, or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or terms of employment or non-employment or with the conditions of labor of any person.”CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES/CONFLICTSIt not easy to identify a single factor as a cause of industrial conflicts as multifarious causes blended together result in industrial disputes. Deep seated and more basic causes of disputes can be identified through in-depth probe, though surface manifestations appear to be responsible for conflicts. The relative importance of these causes, when more than one present, is often very difficult to gauge.According to Mukherjee, “the development of capitalistic enterprise, which means the control of the tools of production by the small entrepreneur class has brought to the fore the acute problem of friction between management and labor throughout the world.”Causes of industrial conflicts may be grouped into four categories, viz.:1) Industrial factors;2) Management’s attitude towards workers;3) Government machinery and4) Other causes.
13TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS: Industrial conflicts are basically two types, viz. Strikes and Lock-outs.Strikes: Strikes are the result of more fundamental maladjustments, injustices and economic disturbances. According to Peterson, “strike is a temporary cessation of work by a group of employees in order to express grievances or to enforce a demand concerning changes in work conditions. Under Section 2(q) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, strike is “a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any industry, acting in combination or a concerted refusal under a common understanding, of a number of persons who are or have bee so employed to continue to work or to accept employment.” However, prohibiting an individual employee, termination of employment of retrenchment, termination of service of more than one person are not lock-outs. Strikes are divided into primary strikes and secondary strikes. Primary strikes are generally against the employer with whom the dispute exist. They take the form of stay away strike, sit-in, sit-down, pen-down, tools-down, or mouth-shut strikes, go slow, work-to-rule, token or protest strike, lightening or wildcat strike, picketing or boycott. Primary Strikes: Stay away strike: In this strike, workmen stay away from the work place.
14They organize rallies, demonstrations etc They organize rallies, demonstrations etc. Stay-in strike or sit-down shut strike: In this strike, workmen come to the place, they stay at the work place but they don’t work. Tools-down,pen-down or mouth-shut strike: In this strike, the strikers lay down their tools in case of factory workers, lay down their pens in case of office workers and shut their mouth in case of teachers.Token or protest strike: It is a very short duration and in the nature of signal for the danger ahead. In this strike, the workers do not work for an hour or a day.Lightening or wildcat strike: In this strike, the strikers strike the work without any prior notice or with a shortest notice.Go slow: In this strike, the workers intentionally reduce the speed of work.Work to rule/work to designation: In this strike, the strikers undertake the work according to rules of job description.Picketing: It is an act of posting pickets and implies machinery or patrolling of the workmen in front of the premises of the employer. Boycott: It alms at disrupting the normal functioning of the enterprise.Gherao: It is a physical blockade of a target either by encirclement, intended to block the regress and ingress for a limited period or up to the period of settlement of disputes.Hunger strike: This type of strike is resorted to either by the leaders of the union or by some workers all at a time or in small batches for a limited period or up to the period of settlement of disputes.Secondary strike: Secondary strikes are against a third party. These strikes are sympathetic strikes.Other strikes: These strikes are in the form of general, political strikes and bandhs.
15SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS:The methods of the settlement of conflicts 1 SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS:The methods of the settlement of conflicts 1. Investigation: This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. It may be voluntary or compulsory. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute, it is voluntary. If the Government appoints a Court of inquiry to investigate into a dispute without the consent of the parties, it is compulsory. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly, but by analyzing the facts, they aim at bringing about an amicable solution. When the investigation is compulsory, the strikes and lock-outs are required to be stopped and employment. The result of investigation has no serious effect on the disputes because the general public is least bothered to make note of the disputes. 2.Mediation: Another attempt to settle disputes is mediation. In this method, an outsider assists the parties in their negotiations. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The mediator performs the messenger’s job for both the parties and he neither imposes his will nor his judgment upon them. The main aim of mediation is the settlement of disputes by bringing about a voluntary agreement.
163.Conciliation: Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers and employers are brought together before third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. It is the practice by which the services of a neutral third party are used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties to reduce the extent of their differences and to arrive at an amicable settlement or agreed solution. It is a process of rational and orderly discussions of differences between the parties to a dispute under the guidance of a conciliator. Conciliation machinery consists of a conciliation officer and board of conciliations. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. He plays the role of an innovator, protector, discussion leader, stimulator, advisor, face saver. He acts as a safety valve and a communication link. The task of conciliation is to offer advice and make suggestions to the parties to the dispute on controversial issues.Voluntary Arbitration: If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement, either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator, who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority, whose decision, they are ready to accept. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are: • the voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitrator; • the subsequent attendance of witness and investigations and •Compulsory Arbitration/Adjudication: Where trade unions are weak, the method of Compulsory Arbitration is used. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement through the voluntary methods. In India, Compulsory Arbitration is enforced because collective bargaining was not used for regulating wages and other conditions of employment.
17GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE –management of conflicts Meaning/Definitions: The concept ‘grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authorities. Some of the definitions are as follows: Beach defines grievance as “any dissatisfaction for feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the notice of the management”, whereas Flippo indicates the grievance as “a type of discontent which must always be expressed. A grievance is usually more formal in character than a complaint. It can be valid or ridiculous, and must grow out of something connected with company operations or policy. It must involve an interpretation or application of the provisions of the labour contract.” Jucius defines grievance as” …any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether exposed or not, whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company which an employee thinks, believes or even feels to be unfair, unjust or inequitable.
18Causes of Grievances: The causes of employee grievances include: Demands for individual wage adjustments;Complaints about the incentive system;Complaints about the job classifications;Complaints against a particular foreman;Complaints concerning disciplinary measures and procedures;Objections to the general methods of supervision;Promotions;Disciplinary discharge or lay-off;Transfer for another department or another shift;Inadequacy of safety and health services/devices;Non-availability of materials in time;Violation of contracts relating to collective bargaining;Improper job assignment;Undesirable or unsatisfactory conditions of work;Victimization andFines.
19The causes of grievances may be grouped under three heads- (1) Grievances resulting from Managerial Polices:-Wage rates or scale of Pay.OvertimeLeaveTransfer- improper matching of worker with the jobSeniority, Promotion and discharges.Lack of career planning and employee development planLack of role clarity.Lack of regards for collective agreement.Hostility towards a labour union.Autocratic leadership style of supervisors.(2)Grievances resulting from Working conditions:-Unrealistic.Non-availability of proper tools, machines and equipments for doing the job.Tight Production standards.Bad working conditions.Poor relationship with the supervisor.Negative approach to discipline.(3) Grievances resulting from Personal factors.1. Narrow attitude2. Over-ambition3. Egoistic personality4. Non Cooperative fellow workers5. Personal Problems outside factory.
21Grievance Procedure: The model Grievance Procedure suggested by the National Commission on Labor has provided for the successive time bound steps each leading to the next in case of lack of satisfaction. 1. At the outset, an aggrieved worker shall approach the foreman, inform his grievance orally and seek the redressal of his grievance. 2. If it is not redressed to his satisfaction, he approaches the supervisor who has to give a decision to the complaint of the worker within 48 hours. 3. If the decision (answer) is not acceptable to the worker or if the superior does not give an answer, the worker can go to the next step. 4. At this stage, the worker can, either in person or accompanied by his departmental representative, approach the head of the department who has to give an answer before the expiry of three days. 5. If the department head fails to do so or if the decision given by him is not acceptable to the worker, then the worker can resort to the Grievance Committee which comprises of the representatives of employers and employees. This Committee shall communicate its recommendations to the manager within seven days of the grievance reaching it. 6. In case a decision has not been arrived at, at this stage, the union and management may refer the grievance to voluntary arbitration within a week of receipt of the management’s decision by the worker.
22PURPOSE FOR GRIEVANCE HANDLING: The primary purposes of a grievance procedure are to: (1) channel conflict into an institutionalized mechanism for peaceful resolution;(2) facilitate communication between labor and management regarding problems that arise in a collective bargaining relationship;(3) enable employees to complain with dignity knowing that there is a system of appeals leading to an impartial decision-maker; and(4) enforce compliance with the terms and conditions negotiated by the parties.The primary purpose of a grievance procedure is to prevent, where possible, grievances progressing along the path of conflict and developing into disputes.
23GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING GRIEVANCES The following guidelines may help a supervisor while dealing with grievances. He need not follow all these steps in every case. It is sufficient to keep these views in mind while handling grievances (W. Baer, 1970). 1. Treat each case as important and get the grievance in writing. 2. Talk to the employee directly. Encourage him to speak the truth. Give him a patient hearing. 3. Discuss in a private place. Ensure confidentiality, if necessary.Handle each case within a time frame. 4. Examine company provisions in each case. Identify violations, if any. Do not hold back the remedy if the company is wrong. Inform your superior about all grievances. 5. Get all relevant facts about the grievance. Examine the personal record of the aggrieved worker. See whether any witnesses are available. Visit the work area.The idea is to find where things have gone wrong and who is at fault. 6. Gather information from the union representative, what he has to say, what he wants, etc. Give short replies, uncovering the truth as well as provisions. Treat him properly. 7. Control your emotions, your remarks and behaviour. 8. Maintain proper records and follow up the action taken in each case. 9. Be proactive, if possible. Companies actually invite workers to ventilate their grievances freely, listen to the other side patiently, explain the reasons why the problems arose and redress the grievances promptly.
24COLLECTIVE BARGAINING The phrase ‘Collective Bargaining’ is coined by Sydney and Beatrice Webb. According to them, collective bargaining is a method by which trade unions protect and improve the conditions of their members’ working lives. DEFINITION According to the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, “collective bargaining is a process of discussion and negotiation between two parties, one or both of whom is a group of persons acting in consent. The resulting bargain is an understanding as to the terms and conditions under which a continuing service is to be performed. More specifically, collective bargaining is a procedure by which employers and a group of employees agree upon the conditions of work.” Functions of Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining plays an important role in preventing industrial disputes, setting disputes and maintaining industrial peace by performing the following functions: ●Increase the economic strength of employees and management. ●Establish uniform conditions of employment. ●Secure a prompt and fair redressal of grievances. ●Lay down fair rates of wages and other norms of working conditions. ●Achieve an efficient functioning of the organization. ●Promote the stability and prosperity of the company.
25●It provides a method of the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them.● It provides a solution to the problem of sickness in the industry and ensures oldage pension benefits and other fringe benefits.●It creates new and varied procedures for the solution of the problems as and when they arise-problems which vex industrial relations; and its form can be adjusted to meet new situations. Since basic standards are laid down, the employee is assured that he will be required to work under the stipulated conditions incorporated in the agreement and the employer is protected from unfair competition by those who are engaged in a similar industry.●It provides a flexible means for the adjustment of wages and employment conditions to economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the changes for conflicts are reduced.●As a vehicle of industrial peace, collective bargaining is the most important and significant aspect of labour management relations, and extends the democratic principle from the political to the industrial field.●It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil rights in the industry. In other words, it ensures that the management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions.
26Collective Bargaining Process: There are two stages in collective bargaining, viz., (i) the negotiation stage and (ii) the stage of contract1. negotiationa) identification of problem: The nature of the problem influences the whole process-whether the problem is very important that is to be discussed immediately or it can be postponed for some other convenient time, whether the problem is problem is minor that it can be solved with the other party’s acceptance on its presentation and does not need to involve the long process of collective bargaining process etc.b) preparing for negotiations: When it becomes necessary to solve the problem through collective bargaining process, both the parties prepare themselves for negotiations.c) Negotiations of agreement; Usually, there will be a chief negotiator who is from the management side. He directs and presides over the process. The chief negotiator presents the problem, its intensity and nature and the views of both the parties. When a solution is reached at, it is put on the paper, taking concerned legislations into consideration. Both the parties concerned, sign the agreement which, in turn, becomes a binding contract for both the parties.
272. Contract Administration: Implementation of the contract is as important as making a contract. Management usually distributes the printed contract, its terms and conditions throughout the organization. The union takes steps to see that all the workers understand the contract and implement it. From time-to-time depending on changing circumstances, both the parties can make mutually acceptable amendments.Causes for the Limited Success of Collective Bargaining in India: Though it is argued that collective bargaining has grown in India due to statutory provisions, voluntary measures, Industrial Truce Resolution of 1962 and the amendments to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, its success is limited.
281. HRM as a ProcessHRM is a process of four functions :-Acquisition of human resources : This function includes Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Placement and Induction of staff.Development of human resources : This function includes Training and Development and Career development. The knowledge, skills, attitudes and social behavious of the staff are developed.Motivation of human resources : This function includes giving recognition and rewards to the staff. it also includes Performance Appraisal and handling the problems of staff.Maintenance of human resources : This function includes providing the best working conditions for employees. It also looks after the health and safety of the staff. Activities in HRM related with the maintaining employees’ commitment and loyalty to the organization. HRM must ensure that the work environment is safe, healthy, caring for employees and as per the government rules and regulations.
29Human Resource Maintenance Its function includes: 1 Human Resource Maintenance Its function includes: 1. Worker Orientation 2. Physical working conditions 3. Motivation 4. Performance evaluation 5. Compensation Administration 6. Management-labor relations & movement 1. Worker Orientation It is a procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm. It refers to the assistance given to the newly hired employee in adjusting to the new work environment Importance: there is hardly any graduate from any school or any experienced worker who is fully equipped with the specific knowledge and skills needed for his new job. Hence, the need for orientation. It provides new employees with the basic background information required to perform their jobs satisfactorily, such as information about the company rules.
30HR specialist usually performs the first part of the orientation, by explaining basic matters like working hours and vacations. 2. Physical working condition Management is responsible for affording a wholesome workplace that is free from unnecessary hazards and conditions that do not constitute a risk to the physical and mental health of the employee. It includes: * Space allotted to the workers * Physical layout of the office * Temperature of the workplace * Condition of the equipment and tools and impact on safety Human resource maintenance activities related to safety and health usually entail compliance with federal laws that protect employees from hazards in the workplace. Regulations emanate from the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration, for instance, and from state workers' compensation and federal Environmental Protection Agency laws. HRM managers must work to minimize the company's exposure to risk by implementing preventive safety and training programs. 3. Motivation:The motivation of employees is important to organizations since it is one of several factors that significantly affects the productivity of employees. Raising the level of motivation increases profitability through greater creativity and commitment in employees.