Presentation on theme: "People, jobs and organization"— Presentation transcript:
1People, jobs and organization Chapter 9People, jobs and organizationPhotodisc. Steve Cole
2Layout and flow Operations strategy Process design Design Improvement Supply network designLayoutand flowProcess technologyPeople, jobs and organizationProduct/service designPlanning and control
3Key operations questions In Chapter 9 – People, jobs and organization – Slack et al. identify the following key questions:Why are people issues so important in operations management?How do operations managers contribute to human resource strategy?What forms can organization designs take?How do we go about designing jobs?How are work times allocated?
5Operations in practice – W. L. Gore How does W.L. Gore’s approach to managing its human resources seem to differ from more conventional companies?What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of W.L. Gore’s approach?
6People on operations Understand organization design Contribute to human resource strategyUnderstand organization designPeople, jobs and organizationDesign the working environmentAllocate work timesDesign individuals’ and groups’ jobs
7Human resource strategy Alignment with business strategy (Strategic partner)The operationAssisting in resolving operating issues (Employee champion)Managing transformation and change (Change agent)HR processes and procedures (Administrative expert)RecruitDevelopDeploy
8Human resource strategy (Continued) Human resources (HR) roleWhat it involvesRelevance to operations management (OM)Strategic partnerAligning HR and business strategy: ‘organizational diagnosis’, manpower planning, environmental monitoring, etc.OM integrates Operations and HR strategy. OM specifies skills requirements and relies on HR to develop them informed by labour market forecasts, succession planning, etc.Administ- rative expertRunning the organization’s HR processes and ‘shared services’: payroll, appraisal, selection and recruitment, communication, etc.OM is largely an ‘internal customer’ for HR’s processes. OM must be clear in its requirements with agreed service levels mutually negotiated.Employee championListening and responding to employees: ‘providing resources to employees’, conciliation, career advice, grievance procedures, etc.OM and HR must develop a good working relationship and clear procedures to deal with any ‘emergency’ issues that arise. Also OM must be sensitive to feedback from HR on how it manages day-to-day operations.Change agentManaging transformation and change: ‘ensuring capacity for change’, management development, performance appraisal, organization development, etc.OM and HR are jointly responsible for operations improvement activities. HR has a vital role in all the cultural, developmental, and evaluation activities associated with improvement.
9Is it ‘googley’?How did Google’s approach to recruitment reflect it’s human resources strategy?
10What can be done about it Causes of stress at work and what could be doneCauses of stressWhat can be done about itStaff can become overloaded if they cannot cope with the amount of work or type of work they are asked to doChange the way the job is designed, training needs and whether it is possible for employees to work more flexible hoursStaff can feel disaffected and perform poorly if they have no control or say over how and when they do their workActively involve staff in decision making, the contribution made by teams, and how reviewing performance can help identify strengths and weaknessesStaff feel unsupported: levels of sick absence often rise if employees feel they cannot talk to managers about issues that are troubling themGive staff the opportunity to talk about the issues causing stress, be sympathetic and keep them informedA failure to build relationships based on good behaviour and trust can lead to problems related to discipline, grievances and bullyingCheck the organization's policies for handling grievances, unsatisfactory performance, poor attendance and misconduct, and for tackling bullying and harassmentStaff will feel anxious about their work and the organization if they don't know their role and what is expected of themReview the induction process, work out an accurate job description and maintain a close link between individual targets and organizational goalsChange can lead to huge uncertainty and insecurityPlan ahead so change is not unexpected. Consult with employees so they have a real input, and work together to solve problems
11U-form organizations give prominence to functional groupings of resources Group headquartersMarketingOperationsFinanceDept.ADept.CDept.B
12The M form separates the organization’s resources into separate divisions Division ADivision BDivision CGroup headquartersMarketingetc.Operations
13Matrix form structures the organization’s resources so that they have two (or more) levels of responsibilityGroup headquartersDivision ADivision BDivision CMarketingOperationsHuman resourcesFinance
14Organization A headquarters N form organizations form loose networks internally and externallyOrganization A headquartersOrg DOrg BGroup AGroup FOrg EOrg CGroup BGroup EGroup DGroup C
15The main influences on job design, work time allocation and the design of the working environment ‘Scientific’ managementFlexible workingErgonomicsDesign individuals’ and groups’ jobsDesign the working environmentAllocate work timesDivision of labour‘Behavioural’ approachesTeam working
16The objectives of job design quality of working lifequalityspeeddependabilityflexibilitycosthealth and safetyJobimpacts ondesign
17Division of labourDividing the total task down into smaller parts, each of which is accomplished by a single person or team.Promotes faster learning.AdvantagesMakes automation easier.Ensures that non-productive work is reduced.Leads to monotony.Can result in physical injury.DisadvantagesIs not particularly robust.Can reduce flexibility.
18Work studyWork studyA generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situations being reviewed in order to effect improvement.Method studyWork measurementMethod study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed methods of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance.9
19Standard performanceStandard performance is the rate of output which qualified workers will achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working day provided they are motivated to apply themselves to their work.
20Qualified workerA qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, intelligence, skill, education and knowledge to perform the task to satisfactory standards of safety, quality and quantity.
21D Process charting Activity Operation Movement Delay Inspection Storage
22Flow process charts for processing expense reports Send to accounts receivableReports to batch controlReports filedConfirm paymentReport arrivesStamp and date reportSend cash to receipt deskWait for processingCheck expenses reportCheck employee recordCheck advance paymentSend to account payableAttach payment voucherCollect retorts into batchCheck against rulesBatch control numberCheck payment voucherLog reportBatch to audit deskWait for batchingBatch of reports loggedCopy of reports to filingDescription of activityTotals8124567910318111214151617192013262223242521Payment voucher to keyingBeforeReports to batch controlReports filedPayment voucher to keyingConfirm paymentReport arrivesStamp and date reportCheck expenses reportWait for processingCheck reports and vouchersAttach payment voucherCollect retorts into batchBatch control numberBatch to audit deskWait for batchingCopy of reports to filingDescription of activityTotals812456791031112141513After
23Resources and flow: job design Method study: SREDIMMethod study seeks to improve methods of production –it embraces layout, environment, material and labour and usage.Select task to be studiedRecord present method – using 5 charting symbolsExamine the facts criticallyDevelop best methodInstall the new methodMaintain by regular checks.
24Basic time + allowances = standard time Work measurementStandard times are the building blocks of process design – they represent the time needed for a qualified worker to carry out specific jobs at defined levels of performance.Basic time + allowances = standard time
25Rating scales British standard I.L.O. American standard Standard performance10080‘Incentive’7560‘Normal’British standard I.L.O.American standard
26The stages in work measurement Observed time for elementBasic time for elementBasictimeObservedRatingStandard rating=X‘Rating’ to adjust for effort
27The stages in work measurement (Continued) BasictimeStandard time=Allowances+Basic time for elementStandard time for element‘Allowances’ for relaxation, etc.Standard time for job
28Build up of standard times ElementBasic timeAllowancesStandard time%minsA0.6170.100.70B0.4120.050.45C0.8100.080.88D0.3170.050.352.10.282.38Basic time2.10Allowance0.28Standard time = 2.38
29The ‘standard’ unit of work A standard unit of work, e.g. 1 standard minuteLight job90% work10% relaxationAverage job84% work16% relaxationHeavy job68% work32% relaxation
30ErgonomicsErgonomics is concerned primarily with the physiological aspects of job design – i.e., with the human body and how it fits into its surroundings.ErgonomicsHow the person interfaces with the physical aspects of his or her workplace.How the person interfaces with the environmental conditions prevalent in his or her immediate working area.
31Ergonomics (Continued) Using anthropometric data, ergonomics can guide how people interface with their workplace.
32Ergonomics (Continued) Ergonomics in the office environmentForearmsapproximatelyhorizontalSeat backadjustabilityGoodlumbarsupportSeat heightadjustabilityNo excess pressure on underside of thighs and backs of kneesSpace forpostural change,no obstaclesunder deskLeg room andclearance to allowpostural changesFootsupportif needed
33Ergonomics (Continued) Ergonomics in the office environmentScreen: stable image,adjustable, readableglare/reflection freeAdequate lightingAdequate contrast,no glare or distractingreflectionsWindowcoveringKeyboard usable,adjustable,detachable,legibleSoftware appropriate to task, adapted to user, no undisclosed monitoringWork surfaces: allow flexible arrangements, spacious, glare freeDistracting noiseminimized
34Ergonomics (Continued) Ergonomics – How the person interfaces with the environmental conditions prevalent in his or her immediate working area.For example, people working in extreme conditions.
35Behavioural approaches – Hackman and Oldham’s model of job design Techniques of job designCore job characteristicsMental statesPerformance and personal outcomesForming naturalCombiningtaskswork unitsEstablishingclientrelationshipsVertical loadingOpeningfeedbackchannelsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedbackExperienced meaningfulness of the workExperienced responsibility for outcomes of the workKnowledge of the actual results of the work activityLow absenteeism and turnoverHigh satisfaction with the workHigh internal work motivationHigh qualitywork performance
36More tasks of the same type Behavioural approaches – Job enlargement and enrichmentJob enrichmentMore tasks which give increased responsibility autonomy or decision-makingOriginal job tasksJob enlargementMore tasks of the same type
37Team workingTeam working – where staff, often with overlapping skills, collectively perform a defined task and have a high degree of discretion over how they actually perform the task.For example – a team of nurses sharing the responsibility to care for patients
38EmpowermentEmpowerment means more than autonomy. It means giving staff the ability to change how they do their jobs and the authority to make changes to the job itself, as well as how it is performed.
39Empowerment (Continued) Empowerment – McDonald’s lets families share jobs. It allows family members to cover each others jobs. Members of the same family working in the same outlet are able to work each others shifts without giving any prior notice or getting a manager’s permission.
40Flexible workingFlexible working – Increasingly some people are expected to do their jobs while traveling, with only occasional visits to their ‘home’ location.
41Control versus commitment Emphasis on commitment and engagement of staffEmphasis on managerial controlStaff treated as a resourceStaff treated as a costDivision of labourScientific managementSelf-managed method studyErgonomicsBehavioural approachesEmpowermentTeam workingFlexible working