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Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.1 Chapter 9 People, jobs.

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Presentation on theme: "Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.1 Chapter 9 People, jobs."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.1 Chapter 9 People, jobs and organization Photodisc. Steve Cole

3 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.2 Design Planning and control Operations strategy Improvement Layout and flow Supply network design Layout and flow Layout and flow Process technology People, jobs and organization Product/service design

4 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.3 In Chapter 9 – People, jobs and organization – Slack et al. identify the following key questions: Why are people issues so important in operations management? How do operations managers contribute to human resource strategy? What forms can organization designs take? How do we go about designing jobs? How are work times allocated? Key operations questions

5 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.4 The elements of job design

6 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.5 Operations in practice – W. L. Gore How does W.L. Gore’s approach to managing its human resources seem to differ from more conventional companies? What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of W.L. Gore’s approach?

7 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.6 Understand organization design People on operations Contribute to human resource strategy People, jobs and organization Design individuals’ and groups’ jobs Design the working environment Allocate work times

8 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.7 The operation Alignment with business strategy (Strategic partner) Assisting in resolving operating issues (Employee champion) Managing transformation and change (Change agent) HR processes and procedures (Administrative expert) RecruitDevelopDeploy Human resource strategy

9 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.8 Human resources (HR) role What it involvesRelevance to operations management (OM) Strategic partner Aligning HR and business strategy: ‘organizational diagnosis’, manpower planning, environmental monitoring, etc. OM integrates Operations and HR strategy. OM specifies skills requirements and relies on HR to develop them informed by labour market forecasts, succession planning, etc. Administ- rative expert Running the organization’s HR processes and ‘shared services’: payroll, appraisal, selection and recruitment, communication, etc. OM is largely an ‘internal customer’ for HR’s processes. OM must be clear in its requirements with agreed service levels mutually negotiated. Employee champion Listening and responding to employees: ‘providing resources to employees’, conciliation, career advice, grievance procedures, etc. OM and HR must develop a good working relationship and clear procedures to deal with any ‘emergency’ issues that arise. Also OM must be sensitive to feedback from HR on how it manages day-to-day operations. Change agent Managing transformation and change: ‘ensuring capacity for change’, management development, performance appraisal, organization development, etc. OM and HR are jointly responsible for operations improvement activities. HR has a vital role in all the cultural, developmental, and evaluation activities associated with improvement. Human resource strategy (Continued)

10 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.9 Is it ‘googley’? How did Google’s approach to recruitment reflect it’s human resources strategy?

11 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.10 Causes of stress at work and what could be done Causes of stressWhat can be done about it Staff can become overloaded if they cannot cope with the amount of work or type of work they are asked to do Change the way the job is designed, training needs and whether it is possible for employees to work more flexible hours Staff can feel disaffected and perform poorly if they have no control or say over how and when they do their work Actively involve staff in decision making, the contribution made by teams, and how reviewing performance can help identify strengths and weaknesses Staff feel unsupported: levels of sick absence often rise if employees feel they cannot talk to managers about issues that are troubling them Give staff the opportunity to talk about the issues causing stress, be sympathetic and keep them informed A failure to build relationships based on good behaviour and trust can lead to problems related to discipline, grievances and bullying Check the organization's policies for handling grievances, unsatisfactory performance, poor attendance and misconduct, and for tackling bullying and harassment Staff will feel anxious about their work and the organization if they don't know their role and what is expected of them Review the induction process, work out an accurate job description and maintain a close link between individual targets and organizational goals Change can lead to huge uncertainty and insecurity Plan ahead so change is not unexpected. Consult with employees so they have a real input, and work together to solve problems

12 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.11 U-form organizations give prominence to functional groupings of resources Group headquarters MarketingOperationsFinance Dept.A Dept.C Dept.B Dept.A Dept.C Dept.B Dept.A Dept.C Dept.B

13 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.12 The M form separates the organization’s resources into separate divisions Division ADivision BDivision C Group headquarters Marketing etc. Operations Marketing etc. Operations Marketing etc. Operations

14 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.13 Group headquarters Matrix form structures the organization’s resources so that they have two (or more) levels of responsibility Division A Division B Division C Marketing Operations Human resources Finance

15 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.14 Organization A headquarters N form organizations form loose networks internally and externally Group A Group F Group D Group E Group C Group B Org D Org E Org B Org C

16 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.15 Design individuals’ and groups’ jobs Design the working environment Allocate work times Ergonomics ‘Scientific’ management ‘Behavioural’ approaches Flexible working Division of labour Team working The main influences on job design, work time allocation and the design of the working environment

17 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.16 The objectives of job design Job design impacts on quality of working life quality speed dependability flexibility cost health and safety

18 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.17 Dividing the total task down into smaller parts, each of which is accomplished by a single person or team. Promotes faster learning. Makes automation easier. Ensures that non-productive work is reduced. Advantages Leads to monotony. Can result in physical injury. Is not particularly robust. Can reduce flexibility. Disadvantages Division of labour

19 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.18 Work study Method study Work measurement Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed methods of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. Work study A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situations being reviewed in order to effect improvement. Work study A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situations being reviewed in order to effect improvement.

20 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.19 Standard performance is the rate of output which qualified workers will achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working day provided they are motivated to apply themselves to their work. Standard performance

21 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.20 A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, intelligence, skill, education and knowledge to perform the task to satisfactory standards of safety, quality and quantity. Qualified worker

22 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.21 Process charting D D D D D D D D D D D Activity Oper ation Move ment Delay Inspec tion Storage

23 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.22 Flow process charts for processing expense reports Send to accounts receivable Reports to batch control Reports filed Confirm payment Report arrives Stamp and date report Send cash to receipt desk Wait for processing Check expenses report Wait for processing Check employee record Check advance payment Send to account payable Wait for processing Attach payment voucher Collect retorts into batch Check against rules Wait for processing Batch control number Check payment voucher Log report Batch to audit desk Wait for batching Batch of reports logged Copy of reports to filing Description of activity Totals 8 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 3 18 11 12 14 15 16 17 19 20 13 26 22 23 24 25 21 7 8 5 51 Payment voucher to keying Before Reports to batch control Reports filed Payment voucher to keying Confirm payment Report arrives Stamp and date report Check expenses report Wait for processing Check reports and vouchers Attach payment voucher Collect retorts into batch Batch control number Batch to audit desk Wait for batching Copy of reports to filing Description of activity Totals 8 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 3 11 12 14 15 13 5 5 2 21 After

24 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.23 Resources and flow: job design Method study: SREDIM Method study seeks to improve methods of production – it embraces layout, environment, material and labour and usage. Select task to be studied Record present method – using 5 charting symbols Examine the facts critically Develop best method Install the new method Maintain by regular checks.

25 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.24 Work measurement Standard times are the building blocks of process design – they represent the time needed for a qualified worker to carry out specific jobs at defined levels of performance. Basic time + allowances = standard time

26 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.25 Rating scales British standard I.L.O. American standard Standard performance ‘Incentive’ ‘Normal’ 100 80 60 75

27 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.26 The stages in work measurement Basic time for element Observed time for element Basic time Observed time Rating Standard rating =X ‘Rating’ to adjust for effort

28 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.27 The stages in work measurement (Continued) Basic time Standard time = Allowances + Basic time for element ‘Allowances’ for relaxation, etc. Standard time for element Standard time for job

29 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.28 Element Basic time Allowances mins Standard time A B C D 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.3 2.1 17 12 10 17 0.10 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.28 0.70 0.45 0.88 0.35 2.38 Basic time 2.10 Allowance 0.28 Standard time = 2.38 Build up of standard times %

30 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.29 A standard unit of work, e.g. 1 standard minute The ‘standard’ unit of work Light job 90% work 10% relaxation Average job 84% work 16% relaxation Heavy job 68% work 32% relaxation

31 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.30 Ergonomics How the person interfaces with the physical aspects of his or her workplace. How the person interfaces with the environmental conditions prevalent in his or her immediate working area. Ergonomics is concerned primarily with the physiological aspects of job design – i.e., with the human body and how it fits into its surroundings. Ergonomics

32 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.31 Using anthropometric data, ergonomics can guide how people interface with their workplace. Ergonomics (Continued)

33 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.32 Forearms approximately horizontal Forearms approximately horizontal Seat back adjustability Seat back adjustability Good lumbar support Good lumbar support Seat height adjustability Seat height adjustability No excess pressure on underside of thighs and backs of knees Foot support if needed Foot support if needed Space for postural change, no obstacles under desk Space for postural change, no obstacles under desk Leg room and clearance to allow postural changes Leg room and clearance to allow postural changes Ergonomics (Continued) Ergonomics in the office environment

34 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.33 Ergonomics in the office environment Keyboard usable, adjustable, detachable, legible Keyboard usable, adjustable, detachable, legible Adequate lighting Distracting noise minimized Distracting noise minimized Software appropriate to task, adapted to user, no undisclosed monitoring Screen: stable image, adjustable, readable glare/reflection free Screen: stable image, adjustable, readable glare/reflection free Window covering Window covering Adequate contrast, no glare or distracting reflections Adequate contrast, no glare or distracting reflections Work surfaces: allow flexible arrangements, spacious, glare free Ergonomics (Continued)

35 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.34 Ergonomics – How the person interfaces with the environmental conditions prevalent in his or her immediate working area. For example, people working in extreme conditions. Ergonomics (Continued)

36 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.35 Forming natural Combining tasks work units Establishing client relationships Vertical loading Opening feedback channels Low absenteeism and turnover High satisfaction with the work High internal work motivation High quality work performance Techniques of job design Core job characteristics Mental states Performance and personal outcomes Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activity Behavioural approaches – Hackman and Oldham’s model of job design

37 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.36 More tasks which give increased responsibility autonomy or decision- making Original job tasks Job enlargement Job enrichment More tasks of the same type Behavioural approaches – Job enlargement and enrichment

38 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.37 Team working – where staff, often with overlapping skills, collectively perform a defined task and have a high degree of discretion over how they actually perform the task. For example – a team of nurses sharing the responsibility to care for patients Team working

39 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.38 Empowerment means more than autonomy. It means giving staff the ability to change how they do their jobs and the authority to make changes to the job itself, as well as how it is performed. Empowerment

40 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.39 Empowerment – McDonald’s lets families share jobs. It allows family members to cover each others jobs. Members of the same family working in the same outlet are able to work each others shifts without giving any prior notice or getting a manager’s permission. Empowerment (Continued)

41 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.40 Flexible working – Increasingly some people are expected to do their jobs while traveling, with only occasional visits to their ‘home’ location. Flexible working

42 Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6 th Edition, © Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010 9.41 Division of labour Ergonomics Behavioural approaches Empowerment Team working Flexible working Staff treated as a resource Staff treated as a cost Emphasis on managerial control Emphasis on commitment and engagement of staff Scientific management Self-managed method study Control versus commitment


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