Presentation on theme: "Social Changes in the 15 th Century 14 th -Century Hangover Shifts in Population 15 th -Century Implications Rise and Fall of Economies Social Order Disturbed."— Presentation transcript:
Social Changes in the 15 th Century 14 th -Century Hangover Shifts in Population 15 th -Century Implications Rise and Fall of Economies Social Order Disturbed Jack Cade’s Rebellion Popular Discontent “Pure” & “Bastard” Feudalism Ideals, Customs of Old Systems, Networks of New Rivaling Families Potential for Disorder At Lower, Local Levels At Higher, National Levels At Highest, Sacred Levels Medieval Spon Street, Coventry
14 th -Century Hangover Shifts in Population Black Death; Recurrence Legacy of Rebellion Great Revolt Peasant Uprisings Unjust Taxation Impact on Commerce Increased Reliance on Money Less Bonded (Unfree) Labor Consolidation of Lands From Above – Magnates From Below – Peasantry The Great Revolt, 1381
15 th -Century Implications Economic Rise “Bond Men Made Free” Loosening of Labor Markets Mobility (Geographic, Social) Financial & Trade Markets Farmers, Manufacturers, Merchants, Bankers Economic Fall Basics: Pop. Down; Labor Supply Down Rents Down; Prices of Goods Down War Up; Trade Down; Wages Up; Profit Down Social Status of Nobility; Symbols of Power Social Order Disturbed “The World Turned Upside Down” Popular Grievance & Rebellion – Jack Cade, 1450 “For our enemies shall fall before us, inspired with the spirit of putting down kings and princes... Be brave, then; for your captain is brave, and vows reformation. There shall be in England seven halfpenny loaves sold for a penny... shall have ten hoops and I will make it felony to drink small beer: all the realm shall be in common... There shall be no money; all shall eat and drink on my score; and I will apparel them all in one livery, that they may agree like brothers.” “The first thing we do, let’s kill all the lawyers.” Jack Cade and Dick the Butcher, Henry VI, Part II, Scene 2.
Complaint of the Poor Commons of Kent These be the points, cause and mischiefs of gathering and assembling of us, the king's liege men of Kent, the 4th day of June the year of our Lord 1450, the reign of our sovereign lord the king 29th, which we trust to Almighty God to remedy, with the help and the grace of God and of our sovereign lord the king, and the poor commons of England, and else we shall die therefore: We, considering that the king our sovereign lord, by the insatiable, covetous, malicious persons that daily and nightly are about his highness, and daily inform him that good is evil and evil is good:... Item. They say that our sovereign is above his laws to his pleasure, and he may make it and break it as he pleases, without any distinction. The contrary is true, or else he should not have sworn to keep it.... Item. We say our sovereign lord may understand that his false council has lost his law, his merchandise is lost, his common people is destroyed, the sea is lost, France is lost, the king himself is so set that he may not pay for his meat nor drink, and he owes more than ever any King of England ought, for daily his traitors about him where anything should come to him by his laws, anon they take it from him.... Item. His true commons desire that he will remove from him all the false progeny and affinity of the Duke of Suffolk and to take about his noble person his true blood of his royal realm, that is to say, the high and mighty prince the Duke of York, exiled from our sovereign lord's person by the noising of the false traitor, the Duke of Suffolk, and his affinity. Also to take about his person the mighty prince, the Duke of Exeter, the Duke of Buckingham, the Duke of Norfolk, and his true earls and barons of his land, and he shall be the richest king Christian....
“Pure” & “Bastard” Feudalism Ideals & Customs of Old Land for Military Service Firm Hierarchy of Elite & Poor Ceremonial Homage & Fealty Good Lordship; King as Overlord One Supreme Landowner (in theory) Systems & Networks of New Land Held for Rents (Cash) Loosened Economic Structure Legal Contracts w/ Precise Terms Good Lordship as Legal Protection Property Divisions; Wealth Protection Patronage; Affinity; Retainers; Livery Rivaling Families As Clans of Old – Force of Arms As Society of New – Power of Influence Livery Coat, Hose, and Hat
Potential for Disorder At Lower, Local Levels Economic Warfare Rents, Trade, Commerce, Taxes Political Allegiances Rival Retainers; Patronage At Higher, National Levels Greatest Magnates Still Powerful Fewer, Greater Landholders Massive Affinities, Resources Networks Descending Ladder Access to the King’s Ear Control from Above At Highest, Sacred Levels Blend of Economic Injustice Linguistics, Personal Relationships Literacy & Class of Artisans, Merchants Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire
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