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That is illogical! Holly B. Smith University Of North Texas.

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1 That is illogical! Holly B. Smith University Of North Texas

2 “Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency. The materials found on this website are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of the Texas Education Agency, except under the following conditions: 1)Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from the Texas Education Agency; 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only without obtaining written permission of the Texas Education Agency; 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way; 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from the Texas Education Agency and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty fee. Call TEA Copyrights with any questions you have. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.2

3 3 "Give me liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties."--John Milton, poet

4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.4 FALLACIOUS STATEMENTS CONCRETE, WELL-THOUGHT OUT POINTS OPINIONATED DISUTE REAL EVIDENCE RANT THAT DISREGARDS AUDIENCE ALL POINTS OF VIEW ARE HEARD IDEAS UNFOUNDED BY LOGIC OR EMPIRICAL TRUTH EVIDENCE IS FREELY OFFERED

5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.5 Aristotle divided his 13 fallacies into Material and Verbal fallacies.

6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.6 Learning of the fallacies aids in the ongoing teaching of critical thinking.

7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. 7 Sweeping Generalization Generalization that disregards exceptions Surgeons commit a crime Firefighters are lawbreakers Dicto Simpliciter

8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.8 Sweeping Generalization is also called Jumping to Conclusions and Converse Accident.

9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.9 Begging the Question Conclusion is found by means of a premise that assumes the conclusion I’ll vouch for her …obviously worthless Circular Reasoning

10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.10 False Cause Incorrectly assumes one thing is the cause of another Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Non Seqitur

11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.11 Fallacy of Many Questions Groups more than one question in the form of a single question Have you ever stopped beating your wife? Did you smirk? Plurium Interrogationum

12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.12 Straw Man Misrepresenting another’s argument Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Non Seqitur

13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.13 A famous Straw Man Argument was during Richard Nixon’s “Checkers” speech in 1952.

14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.14 Name That FALLACY!

15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.15 Sweeping Generalization Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Straw Man

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.16 Sweeping Generalization Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Straw Man

17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.17 Begging the Question Non Sequitur Straw Man

18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.18 Begging the Question Non Sequitur Straw Man

19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.19 Begging the Question Non Sequitur Straw Man

20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.20 Begging the Question Non Sequitur Straw Man

21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.21 Ad Hominem Attacks on the person making the argument Burglars are not trustworthy If Dr. Smith is such a skilled surgeon… “to the man”

22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.22 Argument from Authority Attacks on the person making the argument Easy, Breezy, Beautiful… I saw a diet pill ad… Ad Verecundiam

23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.23 Band Wagon Appeal Popular ideas are always right 7 out of 10 doctors say it works… Anthrax Rules!!! Ad Populum

24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.24 Famous Bandwagon Campaigns are: Any movie that tells us how many people saw it opening weekend A product that tells us they are “x-million strong” and growing Any shoemaker that only depicts their shoes on beautiful, successful people

25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.25 Name That FALLACY!

26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.26 Appeal to Authority Straw Man Ad Hominem

27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.27 Appeal to Authority Straw Man Ad Hominem

28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.28 Appeal to Authority Band Wagon Ad Hominem

29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.29 Appeal to Authority Band Wagon Ad Hominem

30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.30 “Don't raise your voice, improve your argument.“ Desmond Tutu

31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.31 Either/Or Popular ideas are always right You’re either for me or against me! Leader or follower? False Dilemma

32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.32 Red Herring Changing the subject mid- debate Merit in stricter requirements… What is “morality” exactly? Ignoratio Elenchi

33 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.33 Slippery Slope One changes inevitably makes another Give Camel’s Nose Legalize it If you dropout…

34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.34 Name That FALLACY!

35 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.35 Appeal to Authority Straw Man Red Herring

36 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.36 Appeal to Authority Straw Man Red Herring

37 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.37 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Straw Man Red Herring

38 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.38 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Straw Man Red Herring

39 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.39 Appeal to Authority Band Wagon Appeal Ad Hominem

40 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.40 Appeal to Authority Band Wagon Appeal Ad Hominem

41 41 Great! so????? Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

42 42

43 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.43 What’s my argument ? Position: I think/I feel/I believe Proposition: Because Reason: As Evidence: Supported by

44 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.44 Putting this through our TEKS and into practice.

45 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. 45 Business TEKS B A-C G D. list advantages (disadvantages) C argue for/against c. discus role of…(what it should NOT do) G H * F-M I ( F) define why and how employees unionize; (G) explain employer tactics used to oppose unionization and what employers cannot do during the unionization process; (H) explain the structure and functions of a union; (I) discuss the major union organizations such as AFL- CIO, national unions, local unions, and international unions; (J) summarize the collective bargaining process and the issues typically negotiated, including wages, hours, and working conditions; (K) explain a typical grievance procedure; (L) define grievance arbitration; (M) explain the contemporary challenges facing labor organizations and unions, including: (i) foreign competition; (ii) technological change; Adopted to be effective August 23, (iii) decline in union membership; and (iv) employers' focus on maintaining good working conditions to maintain non-union status; and

46 46 “A Teacher Weighs the Pros and Cons of Teacher Unions”“A Teacher Weighs the Pros and Cons of Teacher Unions” by Kelly Garcia 1.Divide the class in “pros” and “cons” 2.Present points 3.Create 2-3 fallacies for each side 4.Create ad slogan and poster Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

47 47 “Are Labor Unions a Good Thing?”“Are Labor Unions a Good Thing?” balancedpolitics.org “Labor Union Debates” “Labor Union Debates” debate.org “Labor Unions in the Workforce” “Labor Unions in the Workforce” s/1935

48 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.48 “Logic is the anatomy of thought..." John Locke English Philosopher ( )

49 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.49 Resources for more information on fallacies of logic. Logical Fallacies – Purdue Online Writing Lab The Fallacy Files Master List of Logical Fallacies TV Tropes – Logical Fallacies Logical Fallacies with References Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate Logical Fallacies Logical Fallacies Handlist Philosophy 103 – Introduction to Logic A Glossary of Logic Fallacies Drake’s List of the Most Common Logical Fallacies

50 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.50 Resources Quote: td/Logic%20and%20Analysis/most_common_logical_fallacies.htm td/Logic%20and%Analysis/most_common_logical_fallacies.htm mean

51 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.51 Resources

52 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.52 Thank You Holly Smith


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