3Recruitment vs Selection Recruitment - Getting the right person to apply for the job.Selection – Choosing the right person for the right job.
4The Recruitment Process Job Evaluation/Job AnalysisIdentification of duties/skillsDo we need to replace this post?What if a replacement isn’t necessary?Can it be outsourced?Can duties be reallocated?eg Management ReviewDoes the role still exist at all?
5The Recruitment Process Job DescriptionDuties, Responsibilities, Hours of Work (and Days), Remuneration, Location, Line Manager etcPerson SpecificationSkills and Qualities which can be essential or desirable
6Workforce PlanningBeing aware of who is employed and requirements for the future…Age and GenderSkillsStaff TurnoverEthnic minorities and DisabilitiesSuccession Plan
7An Opportunity…When a vacancy exists for a job, it is not automatically filled either by an internal or external applicant.Organisations will take the opportunity to evaluate the duties and roles of that job before they decide to fill the post.
8HeadhuntingSometimes an organisation will know who they want for a specific job and they will approach that person directly and ask them to apply for the job.
9Internal Recruitment Advantages Disadvantages Less Expensive Employees' skills and knowledge already knownIncreased flexibility with ‘homegrown talent’Improves morale (promotion opportunities)No new talent introducedFavouritism?Difficult to find the right person?
10External Recruitment Advantages Disadvantages Higher chance of the right person being appointedFresh skills and ideasIncreased diversityMore expensiveRecruitment takes longerUpset existing employeesExtra training may need provided.
11Using a Recruitment Agency Advantages:They have access to a wide range of candidates eg some already on recordSpecialist knowledge and experience – eg psychometric testingHR Departments can focus on other activities such as training and staff developmentCan downsize the HR DepartmentDisadvantages:More expensive – may need to pay even if a suitable candidate isn’t foundLack of internal knowledge – inappropriate appointmentsProcess may be impersonal and therefore applicants won’t have a feel for the organisation before starting work
12The Selection Process Application Forms Curriculum Vitae Allows each candidate to be easily compared against othersOften online formsCurriculum VitaeSummary of qualifications and experienceOften accompanied by a covering letter
13Equal Opportunities Equality Act 2010 It is unlawful to treat one person less favourably than another, wholly or mainly on the grounds of:SexMartial statusRaceNationalityColourEthnicityDisabilityAgeReligionEquality Act 2010
14Discrimination Direct Discrimination: Indirect Discrimination: “young motivated woman” requiredIndirect Discrimination:“staff must be at least 5’9” in order to reach equipment”Discrimination by association is unlawful (ie just because you are connected to someone with one of the protected characteristics)Bullying or harassment because of one of the protected characteristics is unlawful
15The Short-List and Interviews Most organisations will limit the number of candidates to be interviewed to between 4-8 people.Interviews:One-to-oneNumber of sequential interviewsPresentations
16Preparing for Interviews Book a room and arrange the seatingRead all documentationAgree on questions to be askedControl the interview (Time-keeping)Put the candidate at ease
18Interviews Benefits Drawbacks Meet and discuss face-to-face Candidate views premisesHasty impressionsInterviewees nervous and not perform to their full potential
19Interviews: The Interview Checklist A checklist can be used as evidence to justify decisions and treat all candidates fairly.Testing can also assist in the selection choice
20Interviews: The Effective Interview An effective interview is one where the interviewer:Quickly establishes a rapport with the candidateListens to what is saidAsks ‘open’ questions eg “Example of a time when you showed leadership qualities?”Summarises and evaluates the candidate’s response
21TestingSkills Tests – ascertain if the candidate has the skills and ability to do the job. Intelligence Tests – general knowledge, numeracy and literacy. Aptitude Tests – measure an individual's level of verbal, numerical and diagrammatical reasoning eg the ability to prioritise. Attainment Tests – spelling or typing (WPM) Personality/Psychometric Tests – explore the candidates personality and thinking processes. Only qualified staff should analyse, to avoid misleading results. Medical Tests – check that the candidate is fit for the type of work. The problem with testing is that it can make people feel nervous and as a result not perform as well.
22Making a Decision References: Other Employment Checks: Contacted to verify what they have saidAllows candidates to be comparedPrevious employer’s opinionOther Employment Checks:eg PVG (protection of Vulnerable Groups)Informing unsuccessful candidates
23Internet ResearchNottingham University Recruitment and Selection Complete the Equal Opportunities Quiz
25Staff AppraisalEmployees who know what and how much is expected of them are likely to be more effective than those who are unclear about their role.A meeting held between the employee and the line manager where a performance evaluation will be carried out.
26Staff Appraisal A plan of development will be made Reviewed in 3-6 months, where targets are checked and further comments and opinions recordedCan be linked to Performance Related Pay (PRP) – although not popular!
27Staff Appraisal - Ingredients Objective – not a forum for raising problems and moansParticipative – both the manager and employee take an active roleConsidered – taking account of the strategic aims of the organisationDevelopmental – help to develop the employee personally and professionally
28Staff Appraisal Discuss and set targets; complete forms Agree performance criteriaComplete Personal Development PlanMeasure actual performance against criteriaSalary review and/or bonusFurther training
29Methods of Appraisal Management by Objectives: Competency-based: Emphasises setting of agreed targets, in line with organisational goalsCompetency-based:Emphasises the importance of assessing how the work is carried out eg customer service360-degree:Uses a variety of people to build an overall profile eg superiors, peers and subordinates
30Successful Staff Appraisals Identify and match business and personal objectivesDiscover employees suitable for promotionIdentify training needsControl and monitor performanceAssist individuals with self-developmentImprove employee motivationReview salaries or payment methodsCheck effectiveness of current work practicesUpdate job descriptions
31Areas for Development Job performance Communication skills IT skills Customer service skillsFuture training and developmentPersonal goals eg timekeepingCareer objectives
32Contribution to Profit… Complaints Dealt With… Measuring Success…DeadlinesComplaints Against…s and Phone CallsContribution to Profit…Monthly SalesComplaints Dealt With…
33Benefits of Staff Appraisals Managers know what to expect from employeesManagers develop skills dealing with employeesEmployees can discuss personal and professional developmentFeedback on performance (Strengths/Weaknesses)
34Internet ResearchCharted Institute of Personnel and Development For further information and fact sheets that you can download.
36Continuing Professional Development Staff development looks at what the employee needs to do to enhance their current skills, whereas an appraisal measures their existing ones.
37Continuing Professional Development Skills and training should be linked to organisational goals.Discussion surrounding evidence of targets being met…What is needed varies:Education?Development?Training?
38Continuing Professional Development Education: background academic knowledge to undertake the job (eg a degree) Training: gaining knowledge and skills to do the current job Development: identifying future potential and undertaking education or training to achieve it
39Benefits of CPD (Lifelong Learning) Staff become more proficient at their jobCustomers are more satisfiedStaff develop ‘transferable skills’Less stress on individualMore adaptable to changeEducation does not stop once employed…but the amount of time allocated depends on the organisation eg Google’s 20% time
40TrainingInduction Training: the initial introduction to the organisation Ongoing training: lists of courses/events published which may be run in-house (internal) or off-site (external)
41Induction Training What might be included? Software used by the businessMeeting fellow workers and a tour of the premisesAwareness of Health and Safety proceduresInforming employees of Company policies
42Training Needs Analysis Organisations work out which courses they need to offer by conducting a skills scan of their staff and the results of appraisals and development reviews.If an organisation is working towards, or has already achieved, Investors in People (IIP) status, they will have a specific policy.
43Internet ResearchInvestigate what is meant by the Quality Mark ‘Investors in People’. What benefits does this provide the organisation with? What are the key principles?
44Types of Training Blended Learning: A mix of lecture, tutorial, practical activities and online material.Many employees are now encouraged to learn in their own time in places that suit them eg at Scottish Power staff have access to online materials which they can work through at their own pace.
45On-The-Job TrainingTraining provided within the organisation while continuing to carry out work:DemonstrationsJob rotationCoaching from a mentorWorking on a specific project (secondment)
46Off-The-Job TrainingTraining provided outwith the usual working environment. It may still take place within the organisation, but is often at college or other training centre:LecturesOnline Distance Learning (Open learning)Case StudiesIndividual ProjectsIn-tray exercises
47In-House Training Advantages Disadvantages Tailored to suit organisation’s requirementsCheaper than external trainingNo travel requiredArranged to fit in with other organisation commitmentsTraining cancelled if another emergency occurredTraining not always taken seriously – employees know trainersCourse may be too specific
48External Training Advantages Disadvantages Expensive – time and money Networking with other colleaguesImproved concentration (away from working environment)Ability to cascade knowledgeMay lead to a formally recognised qualification eg HNCExpensive – time and moneyEmployees may leave if they gain qualificationsCourse may not be relevant to organisationEmployees may not pass the course assessment
50Staff-Friendly Policies Work-life Balance:Employees spending time with families and time for recreation activities.Well-being Initiatives:Head-massage, pilates, yoga, healthy eating options being introduced, gym membership, support to stop smoking etcTime to talk:A counselling service where staff can speak in confidenceAbsence management:How often and how long staff are absent monitored – ‘back to work’ interviews and in-house doctor check progress and health
51Internet ResearchVisit Scotland’s Health at Work website. Summarise the benefits of the programme. Which organisations in the local area have gained awards?
52CounsellingStress may be related to work or personal issues (family or home) but anything that affects an employee’s work performance.Stress may lead to:Not sleeping wellDrinking or smoking too muchOver anxious/argumentativeLack of concentration and poor judgementCounsellors help with personal problems eg death in the family/marital problems as well as work/health problems.All matters are treated in the strictest confidence and no records are kept in employee files.
53Internet ResearchVisit the BUPA website and look at the fact sheet on “Stress in the Workplace”. Note the causes, triggers and effects of stress, and how to avoid them.
54Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures Information provided with the contract of employment.Ensures that all employee are treated fairly.Disciplinary procedures already covered in Outcome 2
55GrievancesRaised by employees when they are unhappy about how they have been treated or about something that has happened at work.Have they been demoted?Paid less than expected?Change in physical environment?Change in job conditions?Sexual harassment?Bullied?
56Grievance Procedures A Grievance Procedure should: Make it easy for employee to raise issues with managementBe available in writing and simple to understandEnable a line manager to deal informally with a grievanceKeep proceedings confidentialAllow the employee to have a companion at a formal grievance meeting/hearing
57Grievance: Procedure Steps Step 1: inform the line manager of a grievance in writing Step 2: meet with the manager to discuss the grievance with a representative if necessary Step 3: if the matter is not resolved meet with a more senior manager Step 4: be given the right to an appeal meeting if the employee feels that a grievance has not been satisfactorily resolved and be notified of the final outcome.
58Internet ResearchGrievances should take place within set time limits; depending on the seriousness of the grievance.If there is no agreed resolution than matters can be taken to the Advice, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) to settle.Visit the ACAS website and search the site for information on handling grievances.Take some notes on the importance of clear procedures for the employee and employer.
59Absence ManagementConsequences of ignoring short or long-term absences include:Loss of productivity and increased costsAdditional work for remaining staffRepeated absence can cause resentmentAn employee’s return to work needs to be managed and planned. Support must be given from line managers and the HR Department.
60Absence ManagementHR should introduce procedures which are sensitive to the individual concerned.Keeping in contact with the individual during absenceArranging return-to-work interviewsAgree staged return-to-workArrange meeting with the organisation’s doctorUsing disciplinary procedures for short-term absenceInvolve occupational health and rehabilitation programmes for long-term absence