Recruitment vs Selection Recruitment - Getting the right person to apply for the job. Selection – Choosing the right person for the right job.
The Recruitment Process Job Evaluation/Job Analysis Identification of duties/skills Do we need to replace this post? What if a replacement isn’t necessary? Can it be outsourced? Can duties be reallocated? eg Management Review Does the role still exist at all?
The Recruitment Process Job Description Duties, Responsibilities, Hours of Work (and Days), Remuneration, Location, Line Manager etc Person Specification Skills and Qualities which can be essential or desirable
Workforce Planning Being aware of who is employed and requirements for the future… Age and Gender Skills Staff Turnover Ethnic minorities and Disabilities Succession Plan
An Opportunity… When a vacancy exists for a job, it is not automatically filled either by an internal or external applicant. Organisations will take the opportunity to evaluate the duties and roles of that job before they decide to fill the post.
Headhunting Sometimes an organisation will know who they want for a specific job and they will approach that person directly and ask them to apply for the job.
Internal Recruitment Advantages Less Expensive Employees' skills and knowledge already known Increased flexibility with ‘homegrown talent’ Improves morale (promotion opportunities) Disadvantages No new talent introduced Favouritism? Difficult to find the right person?
External Recruitment Advantages Higher chance of the right person being appointed Fresh skills and ideas Increased diversity Disadvantages More expensive Recruitment takes longer Upset existing employees Extra training may need provided.
Using a Recruitment Agency Advantages : They have access to a wide range of candidates eg some already on record Specialist knowledge and experience – eg psychometric testing HR Departments can focus on other activities such as training and staff development Can downsize the HR Department Disadvantages: More expensive – may need to pay even if a suitable candidate isn’t found Lack of internal knowledge – inappropriate appointments Process may be impersonal and therefore applicants won’t have a feel for the organisation before starting work
The Selection Process Application Forms Allows each candidate to be easily compared against others Often online forms Curriculum Vitae Summary of qualifications and experience Often accompanied by a covering letter
Equal Opportunities It is unlawful to treat one person less favourably than another, wholly or mainly on the grounds of: Sex Martial status Race Nationality Colour Ethnicity Disability Age Religion
Discrimination Direct Discrimination: “young motivated woman” required Indirect Discrimination: “staff must be at least 5’9” in order to reach equipment” Discrimination by association is unlawful (ie just because you are connected to someone with one of the protected characteristics) Bullying or harassment because of one of the protected characteristics is unlawful
The Short-List and Interviews Most organisations will limit the number of candidates to be interviewed to between 4-8 people. Interviews: One-to-one Number of sequential interviews Presentations
Preparing for Interviews Book a room and arrange the seating Read all documentation Agree on questions to be asked Control the interview (Time-keeping) Put the candidate at ease
Interviews Benefits Meet and discuss face-to-face Candidate views premises Drawbacks Hasty impressions Interviewees nervous and not perform to their full potential
Interviews: The Interview Checklist A checklist can be used as evidence to justify decisions and treat all candidates fairly. Testing can also assist in the selection choice
Interviews: The Effective Interview An effective interview is one where the interviewer: Quickly establishes a rapport with the candidate Listens to what is said Asks ‘open’ questions eg “Example of a time when you showed leadership qualities?” Summarises and evaluates the candidate’s response
Testing Skills Tests – ascertain if the candidate has the skills and ability to do the job. Intelligence Tests – general knowledge, numeracy and literacy. Aptitude Tests – measure an individual's level of verbal, numerical and diagrammatical reasoning eg the ability to prioritise. Attainment Tests – spelling or typing (WPM) Personality/Psychometric Tests – explore the candidates personality and thinking processes. Only qualified staff should analyse, to avoid misleading results. Medical Tests – check that the candidate is fit for the type of work. The problem with testing is that it can make people feel nervous and as a result not perform as well.
Making a Decision References: Contacted to verify what they have said Allows candidates to be compared Previous employer’s opinion Other Employment Checks: eg PVG (protection of Vulnerable Groups) Informing unsuccessful candidates
Internet Research Nottingham University Recruitment and Selection Complete the Equal Opportunities Quiz
Staff Appraisal Employees who know what and how much is expected of them are likely to be more effective than those who are unclear about their role. A meeting held between the employee and the line manager where a performance evaluation will be carried out.
Staff Appraisal A plan of development will be made Reviewed in 3-6 months, where targets are checked and further comments and opinions recorded Can be linked to Performance Related Pay (PRP) – although not popular!
Staff Appraisal - Ingredients Objective – not a forum for raising problems and moans Participative – both the manager and employee take an active role Considered – taking account of the strategic aims of the organisation Developmental – help to develop the employee personally and professionally
Staff Appraisal D iscuss and set targets; complete forms A gree performance criteria C omplete Personal Development Plan M easure actual performance against criteria S alary review and/or bonus F urther training
Methods of Appraisal Management by Objectives: Emphasises setting of agreed targets, in line with organisational goals Competency-based: Emphasises the importance of assessing how the work is carried out eg customer service 360-degree: Uses a variety of people to build an overall profile eg superiors, peers and subordinates
Successful Staff Appraisals Identify and match business and personal objectives Discover employees suitable for promotion Identify training needs Control and monitor performance Assist individuals with self-development Improve employee motivation Review salaries or payment methods Check effectiveness of current work practices Update job descriptions
Areas for Development Job performance Communication skills IT skills Customer service skills Future training and development Personal goals eg timekeeping Career objectives
Measuring Success… Deadlines s and Phone Calls Monthly Sales Complaints Dealt With… Complaints Against… Contribution to Profit…
Benefits of Staff Appraisals Managers know what to expect from employees Managers develop skills dealing with employees Employees can discuss personal and professional development Feedback on performance (Strengths/Weaknesses)
Internet Research Charted Institute of Personnel and Development For further information and fact sheets that you can download.
Continuing Professional Development Staff development looks at what the employee needs to do to enhance their current skills, whereas an appraisal measures their existing ones.
Continuing Professional Development Skills and training should be linked to organisational goals. Discussion surrounding evidence of targets being met… What is needed varies: Education? Development? Training?
Continuing Professional Development Education: background academic knowledge to undertake the job (eg a degree) Training: gaining knowledge and skills to do the current job Development : identifying future potential and undertaking education or training to achieve it
Benefits of CPD (Lifelong Learning) Staff become more proficient at their job Customers are more satisfied Staff develop ‘transferable skills’ Less stress on individual More adaptable to change Education does not stop once employed… but the amount of time allocated depends on the organisation eg Google’s 20% timeGoogle’s 20% time
Training Induction Training: the initial introduction to the organisation Ongoing training: lists of courses/events published which may be run in-house (internal) or off-site (external)
Induction Training What might be included? Software used by the business Meeting fellow workers and a tour of the premises Awareness of Health and Safety procedures Informing employees of Company policies
Training Needs Analysis Organisations work out which courses they need to offer by conducting a skills scan of their staff and the results of appraisals and development reviews. If an organisation is working towards, or has already achieved, Investors in People (IIP) status, they will have a specific policy.
Internet Research Investigate what is meant by the Quality Mark ‘Investors in People’. What benefits does this provide the organisation with? What are the key principles?
Types of Training Blended Learning: A mix of lecture, tutorial, practical activities and online material. Many employees are now encouraged to learn in their own time in places that suit them eg at Scottish Power staff have access to online materials which they can work through at their own pace.
On-The-Job Training Training provided within the organisation while continuing to carry out work: Demonstrations Job rotation Coaching from a mentor Working on a specific project (secondment)
Off-The-Job Training Training provided outwith the usual working environment. It may still take place within the organisation, but is often at college or other training centre: Lectures Online Distance Learning (Open learning) Case Studies Individual Projects In-tray exercises
In-House Training Advantages Tailored to suit organisation’s requirements Cheaper than external training No travel required Arranged to fit in with other organisation commitments Disadvantages Training cancelled if another emergency occurred Training not always taken seriously – employees know trainers Course may be too specific
External Training Advantages Networking with other colleagues Improved concentration (away from working environment) Ability to cascade knowledge May lead to a formally recognised qualification eg HNC Disadvantages Expensive – time and money Employees may leave if they gain qualifications Course may not be relevant to organisation Employees may not pass the course assessment
Staff-Friendly Policies Work-life Balance: Employees spending time with families and time for recreation activities. Well-being Initiatives: Head-massage, pilates, yoga, healthy eating options being introduced, gym membership, support to stop smoking etc Time to talk: A counselling service where staff can speak in confidence Absence management: How often and how long staff are absent monitored – ‘back to work’ interviews and in-house doctor check progress and health
Internet Research Visit Scotland’s Health at Work website.Health at Work Summarise the benefits of the programme. Which organisations in the local area have gained awards?
Counselling Stress may be related to work or personal issues (family or home) but anything that affects an employee’s work performance. Stress may lead to: Not sleeping well Drinking or smoking too much Over anxious/argumentative Lack of concentration and poor judgement Counsellors help with personal problems eg death in the family/marital problems as well as work/health problems. All matters are treated in the strictest confidence and no records are kept in employee files.
Internet Research Visit the BUPA website and look at the fact sheet on “Stress in the Workplace”.BUPA website Note the causes, triggers and effects of stress, and how to avoid them.
Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures Information provided with the contract of employment. Ensures that all employee are treated fairly. Disciplinary procedures already covered in Outcome 2
Grievances Raised by employees when they are unhappy about how they have been treated or about something that has happened at work. Have they been demoted? Paid less than expected? Change in physical environment? Change in job conditions? Sexual harassment? Bullied?
Grievance Procedures A Grievance Procedure should: Make it easy for employee to raise issues with management Be available in writing and simple to understand Enable a line manager to deal informally with a grievance Keep proceedings confidential Allow the employee to have a companion at a formal grievance meeting/hearing
Grievance: Procedure Steps Step 1: inform the line manager of a grievance in writing Step 2: meet with the manager to discuss the grievance with a representative if necessary Step 3: if the matter is not resolved meet with a more senior manager Step 4: be given the right to an appeal meeting if the employee feels that a grievance has not been satisfactorily resolved and be notified of the final outcome.
Internet Research Grievances should take place within set time limits; depending on the seriousness of the grievance. If there is no agreed resolution than matters can be taken to the Advice, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) to settle. Visit the ACAS website and search the site for information on handling grievances.ACAS website Take some notes on the importance of clear procedures for the employee and employer.
Absence Management Consequences of ignoring short or long-term absences include: Loss of productivity and increased costs Additional work for remaining staff Repeated absence can cause resentment An employee’s return to work needs to be managed and planned. Support must be given from line managers and the HR Department.
Absence Management HR should introduce procedures which are sensitive to the individual concerned. Keeping in contact with the individual during absence Arranging return-to-work interviews Agree staged return-to-work Arrange meeting with the organisation’s doctor Using disciplinary procedures for short-term absence Involve occupational health and rehabilitation programmes for long-term absence