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© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–1.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–1."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–1 Nature of Unions UnionUnion  A formal association of workers that promotes the interests of its members through collective action. Why Employees UnionizeWhy Employees Unionize  They are dissatisfied with how they are treated by their employers.  They believe that unions can improve their work situations.

2 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–2 FIGURE 16–1 Factors Leading to Employee Unionization

3 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–3 Nature of Unions (cont’d) Why Employers Resist UnionsWhy Employers Resist Unions  Unionization constrains what managers can and cannot do in a number of areas.  Unionization can result in higher wages and benefits.

4 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–4 FIGURE 16–2 Union Membership as a Percentage of the U.S. Civilian Workforce Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010.

5 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–5 Unions Globally Union membership is falling in advanced countries.Union membership is falling in advanced countries.  High unemployment is creating pressure for change. In some countries, unions are closely tied to political parties.In some countries, unions are closely tied to political parties. Child labor is an issue in some countries.Child labor is an issue in some countries. Co-determinationCo-determination  A practice whereby union or worker representatives are given positions on a firm’s board of directors.

6 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–6 U.S. and Global Differences in Union-Management Relations Key Differences Focus on Economic Issues Organization by Job and Employer Collective Agreements as “Contracts” Competitive Relations

7 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–7 Reasons for U.S. Union Membership Decline Causes of Membership Decline Geographic Changes Industrial Changes Workforce Changes

8 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–8 FIGURE 16–3 Union Membership by Industry Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010.

9 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–9 Union Targets for Membership Growth Focus of Union Organizing Health Care Professionals Low-Skill Workers and Immigrants Contingent and Part-Time Workers

10 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–10 Union Structure Craft UnionCraft Union  A union whose members do one type of work, often using specialized skills and training. Industrial UnionIndustrial Union  A union that includes many persons working in the same industry or company regardless of jobs held. FederationFederation  A group of autonomous national and international unions. National and International UnionsNational and International Unions  Groups of local union units

11 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–11 Union Structure (cont’d) Local UnionLocal Union  A union centered around either a particular employer or a particular geographic location. Business AgentBusiness Agent  A full-time union official who operates the union office and assists union members. Union StewartUnion Stewart  An employee elected by local members to serve as the first-line representative of unionized employees.

12 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–12 FIGURE 16–4 Major National Labor Laws

13 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–13 Employer Unfair Labor Practices Interfering with the organizing and collective bargaining rights of employees.Interfering with the organizing and collective bargaining rights of employees. Dominating or interfering with any labor organization.Dominating or interfering with any labor organization. Encouraging or discouraging membership in a particular union.Encouraging or discouraging membership in a particular union. Discharging persons for organizing activities or union membership.Discharging persons for organizing activities or union membership. Refusing to bargain collectively.Refusing to bargain collectively.

14 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–14 Taft-Hartley (Labor-Management Relations) Act Right-to-Work LawsRight-to-Work Laws  State laws that prohibit contracts requiring employees to join unions to obtain or continuing employment. Types of Shops Closed ShopUnion Shop Agency Shop Maintenance- of-Membership Shop

15 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–15 FIGURE 16–5 Right-to-Work States

16 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–16 FIGURE 16–6 Typical Unionization Process

17 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–17 Organizing Campaign Holding mandatory employee meetings. Distributing anti-union leaflets and letters Anti-union videos, s, and other electronic means. Employers’ Union Prevention Efforts

18 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–18 Unions’ Organizing Efforts Salting Authorization Cards Bargaining Unit Composition Contract Negotiation Certification and Decertification Unionization Efforts

19 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–19 Collective Bargaining Issues Management Rights Union Security (dues checkoff) Classification of Bargaining Issues Bargaining Issues

20 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–20 FIGURE 16–8 Weekly Earnings of Union and Nonunion Workers Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary,” January 22, 2010.

21 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–21 FIGURE 16–9 Typical Items in a Labor Agreement 1.Purpose of agreement 2.Non-discrimination clause 3.Management rights 4.Recognition of the union 5.Wages 6.Incentives 7.Hours of work 8.Vacations 9.Sick leave and leaves of absence 10.Discipline 11.Separation allowance 12.Seniority 13.Bulletin boards 14.Pension and insurance 15.Safety 16.Grievance procedure 17.No-strike or lockout clause 18.Definitions 19.Terms of contract (dates) 20.Appendices

22 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–22 Strikes Economic Strikes Unfair Labor Practice Strikes Wildcat Strikes Sympathy Strikes Jurisdictional Strikes Types of Strikes

23 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.16–23 Grievance Management ComplaintComplaint  Indication of employee dissatisfaction GrievanceGrievance  A complaint formally stated in writing Grievance ProceduresGrievance Procedures  Formal channels used to resolve grievances  Union representation (Weingarten) rights Grievance ArbitrationGrievance Arbitration  Means by which a third party settles disputes arising from different interpretations of a labor contract.


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