Presentation on theme: "FHWA Title II ADA/Section 504 Program Providing Access for Individuals with Disabilities."— Presentation transcript:
FHWA Title II ADA/Section 504 Program Providing Access for Individuals with Disabilities
The Need for Accessible Programs and Facilities 20 Percent (54 million) of the U.S. Population over the age of 15 has a disability (2000 Census) 70 Percent of us will eventually have a temporary or permanent disability that makes climbing stairs impossible
General Approach to Providing Access to STA Programs and Services Identify barriers that restrict accessibility to STA programs, services and activities by individuals with various disabilities Identify accommodations and/or modifications that can be provided to make STA programs and services accessible Evaluate the effectiveness of the accommodations or modifications in providing accessibility
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act USDOT Regulation 49 CFR Part 27 Applies to recipients of Federal Financial Assistance USDOT has ultimate compliance responsibility Requires accessible programs and services Provide accessible STA facilities in accordance with 49 CFR 27 Appendix A
Applicability of Section 504 Section 504 applies to all programs and operations of recipients and sub-recipients Compliance not affected by State/Local Laws
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Signed into law in 1990 with ADA Amendments Act signed in September 2008 Regulations in effect since 1992 Jurisdiction is not tied to receipt of Federal Funding or assistance U.S. Department of Justice has ultimate compliance responsibility
American with Disabilities Act (ADA) TITLE I - Employment TITLE II – Public Entities TITLE III – Public Accommodations Private Entities TITLE IV – Telecommunications TITLE V - Miscellaneous
Americans with Disabilities Act Title II – Public Entities Any State or Local Government; Any department, Agency of a State or States or local government; and Amtrak and any commuter authority
Compliance Responsibilities for State and Local Governments InstitutionsSection 504ADA STA Recipients (SDOTS) and Subrecipients (MPOs) XX Local Governments that DO receive FHWA Funds XX Local Governments that DO NOT receive FHWA Funds X
Other Transportation – Related Federal Disability Laws Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities (49 CFR Parts 37 and 38) – Covers accessible transportation facilities for buses, trains, airports, train stations FHWA Regulation 23 CFR §652.5 – Needs of individuals with disabilities shall be considered in all Federal-Aid projects that include pedestrian facilities
Public Entity Obligations Under ADA Title II Must not discriminate against qualified individuals with disabilities Maintain accessible features Provide equal access to programs and services Must not discriminate in employment (Title I)
Prohibited Discrimination Denial of services, benefits or program participation Providing different, unequal or ineffective benefits or services Providing inaccessible programs, services and benefits Discriminate against person/entity associated with individuals with disabilities
Who is covered under the ADA and Section 504 Qualified Individuals with Disabilities!
“Individual with a Disability” Regulatory Definition: ( a)a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual; or (b)a record of such an impairment; or (c)being regarded as having such an impairment
“Individual with a Disability” Under the ADA Amendments Act, which came into effect Jan. 1, 2009, “disability” is to be interpreted very broadly with little analysis. Major life activities includes: Walking, seeing, hearing, lifting, learning, etc.. AND it also includes major bodily functions: Normal cell growth, circulatory system, endocrine system, bowel and bladder control, etc.
“Qualified Individual with a Disability” – Two Criteria: Meets the essential eligibility requirements of the program or service with or without reasonable accommodations; and Participates in a program or service with or without reasonable accommodations, auxiliary aids or removal of barriers.
Essential Eligibility Requirements Drivers License Examination State or Local Residency Requirements Use of a Facility or Service Just Asking or Showing Up!
Auxiliary Aids and Services (accommodations) Communications with individuals with disabilities must be as effective as communications with others, including furnishing auxiliary aids and services when necessary (28 CFR 35.160) Public entity/recipient covers costs Access for 17 million Americans who have serious hearing disabilities (2000 Census)
Types of Auxiliary Aids and Services Notetakers, interpreters, readers Videotext displays Captioning Assistive listening devices Providing information in Braille, in large print or on a CD
How are Auxiliary Aids and Services Provided? Public entity provides notice of how to request accommodations Individual initiates request for accommodations or modifications with adequate notice The accommodation must be necessary and effective with primary consideration being given to the actual accommodation requested by the individual
Auxiliary Aids and Services - Situations Public Meetings Tourist Information Centers Hotlines/Toll-free numbers (TTD/TTY)
Auxiliary Aids and Services - Situations Public entities and recipients are NOT required to provide individuals personal aids or services (wheelchairs, personal attendants).
Additional Obligations Under ADA Title II and Section 504 for Public Entities Develop and implement a Self-Evaluation Develop and implement a Transition Plan Public notification of ADA/504 obligations Designate an ADA/504 Coordinator Develop complaint/grievance procedure
Self-Evaluation Required by ADA and Section 504 to be completed by both public entities and recipients, respectively Identifies services, policies and practices that are not accessible Plan is retained for three years Corrective action via Transition Plan
ADA Title II Transition Plans Purpose: to eliminate structural barriers to program accessibility in state/local government buildings and facilities State and local government agencies that have a responsibility for roads, highways and pedestrian facilities must have a curb ramp installation schedule as part of the transition plan and may be used for other pedestrian facilities
Transition Plans – Types of Buildings and Facilities to Include Include, but not limited to… HQ, District, Region and Field Offices Rest Areas Picnic Areas/Parks/Historic Sites Scenic Overlooks Ferry Boats Public Transit (bus, commuter rail) Airports Seaports; and Pedestrian Right-of-Way Facilities
Transition Plans – Getting Started Appoint someone to coordinate Plan development, implementation and completion (should be the organization’s ADA/504 Coordinator) Determine if a Self-Evaluation and Transition Plan was already done Form a committee representing all applicable sectors of the organization to assist in this effort
Transition Plan – STA Advisory Committee Members ADA/504 Coordinator serves as the Committee Chair Should also include staff from STA divisions, including: Design Construction Operations/Maintenance (highways) Building/Facility Management Planning ROW Finance Public Involvement Human Resources Bicycle/Pedestrian and Safe Streets to Schools Other Local Aid Programs Information Technology
Transition Plans – Curb Ramp/Pedestrian Facilities Installation Compile an inventory of locations (streets, intersections) to be made accessible; Prioritization of locations to be modified Location of government services (city hall, schools) Locations of places of public accommodations (shops) All other areas (residential) Identify type of modification (such as curb ramps) Specify public involvement efforts: –Groups, organizations, individuals contacted –Methods of public involvement (meetings, surveys) –Comments received should reflect the Transition Plan focus and scope – provide contact information –Make the document available for public inspection (place on website)
Example: Texas DOT Transition Plan Initial Curb Ramp Prioritization Plan PriorityCriteria 1AExisting curb ramp with running slope >12% AND Location near hospital, school, transit stop, government bldg., etc 1BNo curb ramp where sidewalk or pedestrian path exists AND Location near hospital, school, transit stop, government bldg., etc 2AExisting curb ramp with running slope >12% (NOT located near hospitals, etc.) 2BNo curb ramp where sidewalk or pedestrian path exists (NOT located near hospitals, etc.) 3No curb ramp and striped crosswalk exists 4One curb ramp per corner and another is needed to serve the other crossing direction 5AExisting curb ramp with either running slope >1:12 or insufficient landing 5BExisting curb ramp with obstruction in the ramp or landing 5CExisting curb ramp with any of the following conditions: a)cross slope >3% b)width <36 inches c)no flush transition, OR 5DMedian/island crossing that are inaccessible 5EExisting diagonal curb without the 48” extension in the crosswalk 5FExisting curb ramp without truncated dome texture contract OR without color contrast 6Pedestrian push button is not accessible from the sidewalk and/or ramp
The following factors should be considered in the development of the PROW portion of the Transition Plan Pedestrian Level of Services (PLOS) analysis Specific project demand Population density Presence of individuals with disability population Existence of accessible features Cost
Other Things to Consider for Transition Plan Development Developing a procedure for installation of accessible facilities Monitoring the transition plan via milestones Providing an avenue for citizens to request curb ramps, APS, sidewalk repair Coordinating or incorporating Transition Plan with Pedestrian Master Plan or Bike- Pedestrian Plan, as well as the STIP and TIP
Public Notification of ADA/504 Obligations Recipients and Public Entities must inform the public in publicly disseminated materials that: It does not discriminate on the basis of disability in its programs, services or activities. Title II ADA/Section 504 obligations The name, office address and office phone number of its ADA/504 Coordinator The Notification is available in alternative formats (Braille, large-type texts, audio recording)
STA Grievance Procedures for ADA/504 Complaints STAs must develop and implement grievance procedures for the investigation and adjudication of ADA/504 complaints that they receive STA can use its existing discrimination complaint procedures No obligation for a complainant to file with Federal Agency first FHWA does not require the complainant to file with the STA first before filing with FHWA
Relationship Between Title II and Title III (Public Accommodations) Title III Enterprises (Concessionaires) in public entity facilities follow Title III in their immediate leased space Title II Entities in commercial facilities (office buildings) follow Title II in their immediate leased space Barrier-free access vs. program access
Accessibility of Existing Facilities Public entities are not necessarily required to renovate each and every facility for accessibility Public entities must achieve “program accessibility”, which means that programs, when viewed in their entirety, must be accessible
Alterations to Existing Facilities When an existing facility or part of an existing facility is altered, it must be made readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, to the maximum extent feasible Applies to facilities altered after January 26, 1992
Accessibility of Existing Facilities Undue Burden Public entities do not need to take actions that would result in fundamental alteration in programs or undue financial or administrative burdens, or… Destroy the historic significance of historical sites to achieve accessibility Always document these determinations!
Accessibility of New Facilities Facilities or parts of facilities that are newly constructed after January 26, 1992 must be readily accessible and usable by individuals with disabilities Temporary Structures/Construction Zones must also be accessible
Accessibility Guidelines Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) –January 2004 – Access Board approved revised ADAAG, now in rule making process Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) – To be phased out once revised ADAAG is adopted by USDOT and US Department of Justice
Pedestrian Access Minimum Requirements (ADAAG) One accessible route linking all facilities and services Sidewalks 36” minimum clear width Ramps required if grade exceeds 8.33% Cross-slope no greater than 2% Curb ramp or other method required if change in levels is greater than 1/2’”
ADAAG – Technical Infeasibility New Construction – Structurally impractical due to terrain Alterations – Jeopardize structural integrity Historical Sites – threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or facility Still provide alternate access route, accessible services or accessible facilities to the “maximum extent feasible” Document all exception requests and decisions!
Title II – Maintaining Accessibility Maintaining Accessibility 28 CFR 35.133 State and local governments must maintain the accessible features of facilities in operable working conditions (for example: curb ramps, sidewalk breaks, buckled bricks) Poorly maintained facilities are not accessible or safe
Curb Ramps Required when streets, roads or highways are newly built or altered; or sidewalks, crosswalks and paths are newly built or altered, when they intersect roads Installed on existing facilities by way of the transition plan
Curb Ramps The ADA specifically requires curb ramps for new construction and modification of existing facilities Also required under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, USDOT’s Section 504 implementing regulations (when Federal Aid is used to construct pedestrian crosswalks)
Curb Ramps (Cont.) Kinney v. Yerusalem 1993 Curb ramps must be constructed when roadway is altered (milling and/or repaving) Not required when routine maintenance tasks (pothole repair) are performed
Can you Identify What’s Wrong? …And what about the solutions?
Can you Identify What’s Wrong? …And what about the solutions?
Pedestrian Accessibility Resources FHWA’s Parts I and II of “Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access” is accessed on line at: www/fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bideped/ access-1.htm www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalk2/p df.htm
Clarification of FHWA’s Oversight Role in Accessibility Memorandum issued in September, 2006 http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/civilrights/ada_memoclarificationa.htm Also includes Questions and Answers (Q&A) section http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/civilrights/ada_qa.htm Covers the following : FHWA responsibilities New Construction and Alterations/Maintenance Transitions Plans Technical Feasibility and Cost Accessibility Design for Sidewalks, Street Crossings and Trails
Pedestrian Rights-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG) Currently on second draft version, released in November, 2005 PROWAG supplements ADAAG, which actually covers building and facilities FHWA endorses the second draft as a “best practice” for situations where ADAAG does not fully address accessibility issues. Covers curb ramps, APS, signage and more
Barden v. Sacramento (2002 and 2003) Ninth Circuit ruled that sidewalks constitute a city “program, service or activity” under both the ADA and Section 504 ADA applies to the maintenance of public sidewalks USDOJ brief supported ruling
Detectable Warnings FHWA May 6, 2002 Memorandum ADAAG Detectable Warnings (Truncated Domes) ADAAG Requirements for Detectable Warnings (March, 2003)
Detectable Warnings Original design as per ADAAG Standards are currently in effect (4.29.2) FHWA and Access Board endorse using the new design in the PROW Guidelines Equivalent Facilitation Clause in ADAAG permits usage of the new design now Departure from ADAAG permitted if there is equal or greater access than ADAAG Standard
Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) Access Board Report (April, 2003) Four Types of Signals Pedhead - Mounted Pushbutton – Integrated Vibrotactile – Only Receiver - Based
Roundabouts Replacing traditional intersections across the US Access Board Report (August, 2003) Accessible Pedestrian Signals at Crosswalks Balancing vehicular and pedestrian mobility
Parking Placards/License Plates for Individuals with Disabilities FHWA Regulations 23 CFR 1235 Defines standards for license plates and placards Eligibility requirements to obtain plates and placards Reciprocity
Parking Placards for Individuals with Disabilities - Concerns Too easy to obtain “Inherited” placards Misuse by individuals who do not have disabilities or impairments Users with non-visible impairments Parking meters Residential parking
Parking Guidelines for Individuals with Disabilities 23 CFR 1235 ADAAG/UFAS 1:25 ration of accessible/total spaces 96” wide/marked with signage Next to access aisle on accessible route
Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devises (MUTCD) 2003 Edition provides accessibility guidelines for pedestrians with disabilities in a variety of situations such as: Temporary Traffic Control Signage Standards Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Complaints Title II ADA complaints may be filed with USDOT (FHWA) Individual or class complaints Filed within 180 days of most recent incident Can’t retaliate against complainants or investigation participants (witnesses)
Complaints (Cont.) ADA complaints against STA or public entities are investigated by FHWA ADA complaints against STA sub-recipients are investigated by STA Voluntary compliance for violations If no voluntary compliance, FHWA may refer complaint to Justice Department
For More Information US Department of Justice www.ada.gov Access Board www.access-board.gove Equal Employment Opportunity Comm. www.eeoc.gov US Department of Transportation/FHWA http://www.dot.gov/ost/docr http://www.fhwa.dot.gov