Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Human Resource Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Eighth EditionDeCenzo and RobbinsChapter 14Understanding Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining
2 IntroductionA union is an organization of workers, acting collectively, seeking to promote and protect its mutual interests through collective bargaining.
3 Introduction Impact of unionization Only about 13% of the private sector work force is unionized.Labor contracts typically stipulate:wageshoursterms and conditions of employmentlimit management’s discretion
5 Why Employees Join Unions Higher wages and benefits: The strength of large numbers and negotiating skills of professional bargainers give unions an advantage over individuals.
6 Why Employees Join Unions Greater job security: Collective bargaining contracts limit management’s ability to arbitrarily hire, promote or fire.Influence over work rules: Unions represent workers and define channels for complaints and concerns.
7 Why Employees Join Unions Compulsory membershipUnion shops require that all employees hired into positions covered under the collective-bargaining agreement must join the union.Agency shops require nonunion employees to pay an amount equal to union fees and dues.
8 Why Employees Join Unions Compulsory membershipOpen shops allow union membership to be totally voluntary.Maintenance of membership clauses require union members to remain for the duration of the contract.Dues checkoff provisions require employers to withhold union dues from members’ paychecks.
9 Union Organizing Process Unionizing EmployeesUnion Organizing Process
10 Unionizing EmployeesThirty percent of employees must sign authorization cards indicating their interest in having an election.A representation certification (RC), a secret-ballot election is heldIf the union is accepted by a majority of eligible voting workers, the union becomes the workers’ legal representative.
11 Unionizing EmployeesOnce the National Labor Relations Board certifies a union, each worker must abide by the negotiated contract.Most organizations’ managements will try to influence workers against voting for union representation.
12 Unionizing EmployeesRepresentation Decertification (RD) elections can be held to vote unions out.RMs are decertification elections initiated by management.Most agreements bar the use of decertification elections during the terms of a contract.
13 Collective Bargaining The negotiation, administration, and interpretation of a written agreement between two parties, at least one of which represents a group that is acting collectively, that covers a specific period of time.
14 Collective Bargaining Objective and Scope of Collective BargainingContracts must be acceptable to management, union representatives and union membership.Four issues appear in all labor contracts. (The first three are mandated by the Wagner Act)wageshoursterms and conditions of employmentgrievance procedure
15 Collective Bargaining Collective Bargaining ParticipantsManagement is represented by senior management for industrial relations, corporate executives and company lawyersIn small companies, the president typically represents the company.
16 Collective Bargaining Collective Bargaining ParticipantsUnion bargaining teams include an officer of the local union, local shop stewards and representation from the international/national union.Government watches to ensure rules are followed.Financial institutions set limits on the cost of the contract
17 Collective Bargaining The Collective Bargaining ProcessPreparing to negotiateFact-gathering: Includes internal information (e.g., employee performance records, overtime) and external (i.e., data on what similar organizations are doing and the economy).Goal-setting: Management decides what it can expect from the negotiation.Strategy development: This includes assessing the other side’s power and tactics.
18 Collective Bargaining The Collective Bargaining Process
19 Collective Bargaining Negotiating at the bargaining tableEach side usually begins by publicly demanding more than they are willing to accept.More realistic assessments and compromises take place behind closed doors.After oral agreement, a written contract is submitted to the union for ratification.
20 Collective Bargaining Contract administration refers to the implementation, interpretation and monitoring of the negotiated contract between labor and management.Information dissemination includes helping staff and workers understand the new contract provisions.Implementing refers to making the changes to comply with contract terms.
21 Collective Bargaining Interpreting the contract and grievance resolutionGrievance procedures are specified in the contract and outline the steps for resolving complaints as quickly as possible by starting at the lowest level with the immediate supervisor.
22 Collective Bargaining Interpreting the contract and grievance resolutionGrievance (rights) arbitration is typically the final step in the grievance processDisputes that cannot be resolved are resolved by an arbitrator, or third party, whose decision is final.
24 Collective Bargaining MonitoringBoth union and management keep track of how effective the current contract is and any need for changes.
25 Collective Bargaining Failure to Reach AgreementStrikes versus lockoutsEconomic strikes - labor and management cannot reach agreement before the current contract expires.Wildcat strikes - unauthorized and illegal strikes that occur because of worker dissatisfaction during an existing contract.Lockouts - when organizations deny unionized workers access to their jobs during an impasse.
26 Collective Bargaining Failure to Reach AgreementImpasse-Resolution Techniques: Used when labor and management cannot reach agreement.Conciliation and mediation involve a third party to either keep negotiations going or make non-binding settlement recommendations.Fact-finding involves a neutral third-party who conducts a hearing and recommends a non-binding settlement.
27 Collective Bargaining Interest arbitrationInvolves a panel of one neutral, one management and one union representative who hear testimony and render a decision to settle a contract negotiation dispute.Primarily in public-sector bargaining.Binding only if there is unanimous agreement.
28 Critical Issues for Unions Today Union membership: Where have the members gone?Union membership in the U.S. reached a high of 36% in the early 1940s; there has been a steady decline since then.
29 Critical Issues for Unions Today Union membership: Where have the members gone?Reasons for decline in membership include:new concerns of a growing middle-classgreater diversity of the work forcegrowth of the service sectordiminished financial resources of unionsanti-union pressures resulting from increased competitivenesslayoffs of large numbers of union workershiring of replacement workers for strikers
30 Critical Issues for Unions Today Union membership: Where have the members gone?Unions are changing some of their organizing tactics and may currently be gaining public support.They also are placing more emphasis on the service sector.
31 Critical Issues for Unions Today Labor-Management CooperationSome unions recognize that they can gain more by cooperating with management rather than fighting.The Electromation Inc. case illustrates the potential legal difficulties of cooperative efforts: The NLRB ruled that employee committees were an unfair labor practice.
32 Critical Issues for Unions Today Public-Sector UnionizationMembership of government workers in unions has increased from 11% in 1970 to nearly 38% in 2002.Public sector labor relations differs from private sector labor relations.Sunshine laws in some states mandate that labor-management negotiations be open to the public.
33 Critical Issues for Unions Today Unionizing the Nontraditional EmployeeNew targets for unionization include service, government and management workers.As restructuring, delayering and de-jobbing change economic conditions of workers, interest in unions may grow, as exemplified by the successful unionization of health care workers.
34 International Labor Relations Differing Perspectives Toward Labor RelationsCountries differ in their labor relations histories, government involvement, and public acceptance of labor unions.The labor relations function for international companies is more likely to be centralized with the parent company when domestic sales are larger than those overseas.
35 International Labor Relations The European CommunityBrings together a dozen or more labor relations systems.Countries wishing to do business in Europe must keep up with changing labor legislation.