Greed VS. Grievance Paul Collier & Anke Hoeffler World Bank Paper Greed = When combatants are motivated to better their situations by joining the rebellion. Grievance = When combatants are motivated to join a rebellion due to ethnic and cultural difference rather economic strife. As demonstrated by the war in Sierra Leone, no conflict is created by just one or the other. Often, both come into play.
New Wars Warfare associated with globalization and the disintegration of states. Traits of New Wars: Inclusion of external actors Targeting civilians for purposes of terror Exacerbates the disintegration of the state
Structural Violence The vicious cycle of suffering. What about other axes of suffering? Axes of gender Axes of age Any other axes you can think of in relation to the Sierra Leone war?
Nigeria The World Bank categorizes Nigeria as a "fragile state," beset by risk of armed conflict, epidemic disease, and failed governance.
Political liberalization ushered in by the return to civilian rule in 1999 has allowed militants from religious and ethnic groups to express their frustrations more freely, and with increasing violence.
Tensions Fundamentalist Muslims clashing with Christians Inter-ethnic clashes- eg. Itsekiris and Ijaws Tensions between indigenous people and new settlers Failure of the state to provide basic services and employment for people
THE FORMER BRITISH COLONY IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST OIL PRODUCERS, BUT THE INDUSTRY HAS PRODUCED UNWANTED SIDE EFFECTS.
Tensions Few Nigerians, including those in oil-producing areas, have benefited from the oil wealth Corruption Pollution State military vs. insurgents- and the effects on civilians
Greed vs. Grievance Illegal “bunkering”- stealing oil and selling it to the black market Surge in militancy led by youth groups demanding access to the oil wealth in their territories Rival ethnic groups fighting for improved political position and access to oil resources Militarization of politics
MEND Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (2005) Group Kidnappings, strategic bombing, and attacks against oil production within Niger Delta Acts as an umbrella organization: linking together smaller groups by providing weapons, organization, and sophisticated tactics “Leave our land while you can or die in it…our aim is to totally destroy the capacity of the Nigerian government to export oil.”
Agenda MEND stresses that they do not aim for Nigerian civilians Government and oil industry targets: refinery, military barracks, state govt. house, and parking lots of oil companies (2006) Encourages kidnappings by smaller groups to create ungovernable region Threat to shut down entire oil production “We are not communists or even revolutionaries…we’re just extremely bitter men.”
Other Movements Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) Organized mass protests with the aim to shut down oil production Demand $10 billion in royalties and enviromental- damage compensation Operation Climate Change Ijaw groups delcare Ijaw territory off limits to national government and oil extraction
The Resource Curse Parallels the situation with Sierra Leone Even though both countries are extremely rich in resources, the general population has seen none of the positive effects Greed on the part of the oil companies, chiefs, and governments vs. grievances of the rebel groups and citizens RUF and MEND have similar views regarding their grievances People within each country agree with their sentiments
Nigeria as a New War Intrastate conflict and non state actors MEND, FNDIC, NDPVF, NDV, and many other militant groups, the role of Multinational Corporations, and the Nigerian Government as a player rather than a protector Guerrilla and terror tactics used MEND insurgents are not uniformed soldiers Funding of war comes from many sources
Kaplan vs. Keen Kaplan argues that many African conflicts are doomed to anarchy Keen argues that it is the limited lens of the people examining the conflict that leads to this assumption In Nigeria, there are countless actors involved in the conflict, so it can appear to be simply chaos
THE HISTORY OF THE CONGOLESE CONFLICT, ITS RESOURCES AND INTERNATIONAL INTEREST Congo: Who’s In Power
External Actors Congolese citizens that were quoted in a BBC article on the thoughts about the fighting and the involvement of Rwanda in the war, “…most people hate Rwanda. They say Rwanda- and more particularly President Kagame- has exploited and dominated the DRC like many other countries (BBC).”
Conflict Minerals: DR Congo http://www.treehugger.com/galleries/2009/06/the-incredible-story-of-conflict-mineral-mining-in- images.php
Used in the production of http://www.nirmaltv.com/2007/12/12/how-to- increase-your-productivity-on-the-move/ http://mobilereview24.com/blackberry-9000- bold-review/ http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article12 9.html
From Congo to consumers http://planetgreen.discovery.com/work-connect/conflict-minerals-congo-act.html Photo credit: AP Photo/Andre Penner
People: War Against Civilians in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) This map, published by Human Rights Watch (HRW, copyright 2009), zooms in on North and South Kivu, two provinces in Eastern DRC that have been, and are still currently being subjected to brutal conflict. Government and rebel forces regularly clash in these provinces, and all groups involved have committed atrocities against the civilian populations.
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) In September 2010, HRW published a report entitled, “Always on the Run” detailing displacement in the DRC. Its findings include: as of April 2010, approximately 1.8 million people have been displaced from the eastern provinces of the DRC. As of May 25, 2010, the UN estimates that 86% of IDPs live with host families. The remaining 14% move to “spontaneous sights.” IDPs are vulnerable to violence. In some of the more recent waves of violence, FDLR members attacked IDPs and villagers as punishment for “betrayal” to the FARDC and its allies. All groups have been known to attack IDPs as they flee. Some IDPs have been able to return home. On Aug. 12, 2010, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that since April 2009, 900,000 IDPs in North Kivu have been able to return to areas near their homes, allowing the UNHCR to shut down 6 of its 7 camps in the province. Many IDPs suffer from lack of basic necessities such as food, water and medical care. The situation is complicated by the fact that criminal gangs attack humanitarian aid workers, preventing them from reaching people in need (United Nations, 3/8/10).
IDP camps Right: This photo of a makeshift refugee camp in the DRC was published in the Telegraph on Nov. 4, 2008 (credited to Getty Images). Left: A refugee camp outside Goma in North Kivu. Photograph from BBC, November 1, 2008.
Violence against Women Violence against women has been used as a weapon of war by all armed parties involved in the conflict. Women are often gang raped and taken as sex slaves. (UN, 3/8/2010). Anderson Cooper, a reporter for CNN, has traveled to the Eastern DRC. He wrote in his blog that, “Most of the rapes are gang rapes, and they are extraordinarily brutal. Many women have had objects inserted into their vaginas -- broken bottles, bayonets, some women have even been shot between the legs.” (1/14/2008) Young women and their babies in the DRC. This photo was taken from a blog post by CNN’s Anderson Cooper on January 14, 2008
Sexual Violence and the FARDC In July 2009, HRW published a report entitled “Soldiers Who Rape, Commanders Who Condon,” detailing the sexual violence perpetrated by the Congolese Army, the FARDC. “FARDC soldiers have committed gang rapes, rapes leading to injury and death, and abductions of girls and women…commanders have frequently failed to stop sexual violence…the sheer size of the Congolese army and its deployment throughout the country make it the single largest group of perpetrators.” FARDC soldiers “during a ceremony marking the formation of the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) Light Infantry Battalion's establishment, February 17, 2010.” This battalion will be trained by the US Army. Photo: Nicole Dalrymple, US Africa Command
Colombia as a Model Example Statistics According to analysis by the Colombian government, there exist about 80,000 hectares (over 300 square miles) of coca farms in Colombia In areas where paramilitary groups and FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) operate, 42% and 58% of the crops cultivated is coca Colombia exports approximately $13 billion a year in cocaine An average of 430 tons of cocaine/year are exported to Mexican cartels
History of Modern Conflict in Colombia Left-wing revolutionary groups formed in the mid 1900s such as FARC Peace accords and rise of right-wing paramilitary groups Increased use of narcotics for revenue on both sides Decline of right-wing paramilitaries and resurgence of FARC through present day
Major Narco-trafficking routes and crop areas (CIA, 2000) http://journeyman.tv/9292/short-films/death-by-coca.html
The Key Players FARC – The Guerillas Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia Claim to fight for the poor against the government and the elite Kidnappings and illegal drug trade Drug Traffickers and the Cartels Medellin Cartel: headed by Ochoa brothers and Pablo Escobar Cali Cartel: run by the Rodriguez Orejuela brothers and Santacruzo Londono The US “War on Drugs” Maximum demand for Colombian cocaine Military aid Paramilitary organizations Consists of 37 armed groups which make up the AUC (United Self- Defense Forces of Colombia) Formed between 2003- 2006 Responsible for most of the human rights violations and crimes
Connection to Sierra Leone “New war” Rebel groups Importance of natural resource Young participants Large number of civilian casualties Greed vs. grievance Foreign interest (continuation & prevention)
Discussion Questions Can you see how this cycle plays into the 4 conflicts discussed thus far? If not, where do you see the disconnection? Why hasn’t the conflict in the DRC based on what we’ve presented been as highly publicized as other conflicts and received as much international attention as it should of? Do you think that the conflict in Nigeria reflects a coming anarchy motivated by greed or targeted violence motivated by grievances? What course of action can bring about peace in Columbia?
Sources (Congo) "Democratic Republic of Congo." Country Profile. BBC, 2010. Web. 24 Sept. 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1076399.stm#overview. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1076399.stm#overview "Democratic Republic of Congo." Crimes of War. N.p., 2003. Web. 24 Sept. 2010. http://www.crimesofwar.org/thebook/congo-democratic.html. http://www.crimesofwar.org/thebook/congo-democratic.html Hockstein, Evelyn. Death in the Congo. 2003. Time: n. pag. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2010. http://www.time.com/time/photoessays/congo/index.html.http://www.time.com/time/photoessays/congo/index.html "The Democratic Republic of Congo." Race and History. N.p., 2003. Web. 24 Sept. 2010. http://raceandhistory.com/selfnews/viewnews.cgi?newsid1058160235,35742,.shtml. http://raceandhistory.com/selfnews/viewnews.cgi?newsid1058160235,35742,.shtml "Why Congo." Raise Hope for Congo. Center for American Progress, 2010. Web. 24 Sept. 2010. http://www.raisehopeforcongo.org/content/why/why-congo.http://www.raisehopeforcongo.org/content/why/why-congo
Sources (Congo) The Drucker Institute: Claremont Graduate University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-qxbdnD1Bs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-qxbdnD1Bs Improvisational economics: Coltan production in the eastern Congo by Jeffrey W. Mantz (July 10, 2008) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8676.2008.00035.x/full http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8676.2008.00035.x/full LA Times Editorial: Congo's conflict minerals (July 26, 2010) http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jul/26/opinion/la-ed-congo-20100726 http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jul/26/opinion/la-ed-congo-20100726 Enough Project: Stories form the Mouth of the Mine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLoPU9Wdwh0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLoPU9Wdwh0 Conflict Minerals 101: Coltan, the Congo Act, and How you Can Help by Rachel Cernansky (April 19, 2010 ) http://planetgreen.discovery.com/work-connect/conflict-minerals-congo-act.html http://planetgreen.discovery.com/work-connect/conflict-minerals-congo-act.html Time: The Deadliest War In the World by Simon Robinson (May 28, 2006) http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1198921-3,00.html http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1198921-3,00.html BBC: Q&A: DR Congo Conflict (August 27, 2010) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11108589 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11108589 H.R.4128- Conflict Minerals Trade Act http://www.opencongress.org/bill/111-h4128/show http://www.opencongress.org/bill/111-h4128/show Enough Project: Eastern Congo http://www.enoughproject.org/conflict_areas/eastern_congo http://www.enoughproject.org/conflict_areas/eastern_congo
Bibliography - Text Cooper, A. (2008, January 14, 2008). Anderson's view: War against women. Message posted to http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/anderson.cooper.360/blog/2008/01/andersons- view-war-against-women.htmlHassan, Y. (2010). DRC: Thousands return home. United Nations: United Nations High Commission for Refugees.Simpson, G. (2010). Always on the run: The vicious cycle of displacement in eastern congo. United States of America: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/09/14/always-runUnited Nations Experts. (2010). Technical assistance and capacity building. United Nations: United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved from http://daccess-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/118/53/PDF/G1011853.pdf http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/anderson.cooper.360/blog/2008/01/andersons- view-war-against-women.htmlHassan, Y. (2010). DRC: Thousands return home. United Nations: United Nations High Commission for Refugees.Simpson, G. (2010). Always on the run: The vicious cycle of displacement in eastern congo. United States of America: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/09/14/always-runUnited Nations Experts. (2010). Technical assistance and capacity building. United Nations: United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved from http://daccess-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/118/53/PDF/G1011853.pdf Hassan, Y. (2010). DRC: Thousands return home. United Nations: United Nations High Commission for Refugees. Simpson, G. (2010). Always on the run: The vicious cycle of displacement in eastern congo. United States of America: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/09/14/always-run http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/09/14/always-run United Nations Experts. (2010). Technical assistance and capacity building. United Nations: United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved from http://daccess-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/118/53/PDF/G1011853.pdf?http://daccess-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/118/53/PDF/G1011853.pdf?
Sources (Columbia) http://www.hrw.org/en/node/88058/section/4 http://www.colombiasupport.net/warondrugs/supplyside.html http://journeyman.tv/9292/short-films/death-by-coca.html http://journeyman.tv/15258/documentaries/cocaine-war.html http://journeyman.tv/60165/short-films/faces-of-colombias-war.html PBS timeline of Colombian conflict - http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/colombia/timeline.html http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/colombia/timeline.html Information on cocaine exports http://colombiareports.com/colombia- news/news/5972-cocaine-colombias-number-one-illicit-export-continues-to- boom.htmlhttp://colombiareports.com/colombia- news/news/5972-cocaine-colombias-number-one-illicit-export-continues-to- boom.html NY Times article on Colombia and cocaine - http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/world/americas/22colombia.html?_r=1 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/world/americas/22colombia.html?_r=1 NPR Story on peasants in Rural Colombia - http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9298685 http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9298685 Article on Colombian DMZ - http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/colombia/1353947/Co lombian-rebels-plan-for-cocaine-war.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/colombia/1353947/Co lombian-rebels-plan-for-cocaine-war.html History of FARC - http://www.cocaine.org/colombia/farc.htmlhttp://www.cocaine.org/colombia/farc.html