Presentation on theme: "Phonics for Parents at Rosh Pinah Primary"— Presentation transcript:
1Phonics for Parents at Rosh Pinah Primary Helen CheungBPSI Advisor
2Parents and Carers make a Real Difference to Learning at School To close the gap in reading achievement we must understand its causes more fully. One starting point is the recognition that the quality of children’s home experience matters even more than parental income. The extent to which parents become involved in their children’s education and are able to create a home environment that encourages learning and communicates high, yet reasonable, expectations for achievement and future careers, provides an even more accurate indicator of children’s future academic success. Of all school subjects, reading has been found to be most sensitive to parental influences. UKLA
3Reading At HomeOne in five parents easily find the opportunity to read to their children, with the rest struggling to read to their children due to fatigue and busy lifestyles.Of the parents that read to the children, 67% are mothers compared to just 17% of fathers.Parents are the most important reading role models for their children and young people.
4What kind of help at home? The review established that parental involvement has a significant positive effect on children’s achievement, and that the kind of involvement that makes the most difference is the conversations parents have with their children at home.
5Ofsted – Reading by 6 Getting Them Reading Early Reading as a key indicator of school effectiveness.The diligent, concentrated and systematic teaching of phonics is central to the success of all the schools that achieve high reading standards in Key Stage 1.Effective schools provide rich opportunities to talk and listen in a wide range of contexts. This contributes to developing their familiarity with books and stories and their knowledge of the meanings of words. There is a strong focus on developing the children’s capacity to listen, concentrate and discriminate between sounds.
6Early EducationLearning Together Series – The Road to Reading and Making Their MarkThe National Literacy TrustAge appropriate book listsWords For Life‘I spy picture books’Booktrust – Inspiring a love of booksLiteracy events in your area
7+ Phonics at a glance phonics is skills of segmentation and blending knowledge of the alphabetic code+Explanationa phoneme can be represented by one or more letterssh, th, eethe same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one wayrain, may, lakethe same spelling may represent more than one phonememean, deaf
9Terminology Oral blending: Segmentation Blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds (phonemes) and merging them together to make a spoken word. No text is used.For example, When a teacher calls out ‘b-u-s’ or ‘c-r-ay-o-n, the children say ‘bus’ or ‘crayon.’BlendingMerging the individual phonemes together to pronounce a word.To read unfamiliar words a child must recognise (sound out) each grapheme, not each letter, then merge the phonemes together to make a word.SegmentationHear and say the individual phonemes within words.In order to spell, children need to segment a word into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme.ORAL BLENDING: This skill should be taught within Phase 1 before blending and reading printed words.Make sure all children are INVOLVED & ENGAGED in the segmenting & blending process>>>>
10Some definitions Trigraph: Three letters, which make one phoneme. Digraph:Two letters, which make one phoneme.A consonant digraph contains 2 consonants:sh ck th llA vowel digraph contains at least one vowel:ai ee ar oyTrigraph:Three letters, which make one phoneme.igh dgeCVC refers to the number of letters and not the number of phonemesConsonant digraphs are not identified as in CVC words Ship is ‘digraph vowel consonant’ CVCChurch is consonant digraph vowel consonant digraph CVCSplit digraph:A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent – e.g. make
11Teaching phonics - enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation.Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely.Video clip:Phase 2 video 1 – articulation of phonemes
12Pronouncing Phonemesa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, l,m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x,y, x, sh, th, ng, igh,So it is important to pronounce the consonant sounds /phonemes correctly.egYou will hear children and some adults pronouncing Suh a muh SAM when the letters should be hissed or hummed ssss a mmmACTIVITY have a go at prouncing the phonemes without to much sharw muh ahh tuhLine 1 ffff llll mmmnnnnnnrrrrssssLine 2 harder soundsLine 3 hold adams apple hard to pronounce cleanlyPIPS has all this info and CD rom gives training.
13Phase 1 speaking and listening activities; develop language structures;increase vocabulary;developing phonological awareness;improve ability to distinguish between sounds;become familiar with rhyme, rhythm and alliteration.Introduces blending & segmenting.Activities in phase one are mainly adult led such as story time, circle time singing time etc. These activities then can be used by the children in child initiated tasks.Typical duration: FS1 but continues throughout
14Phase 1 has 7 Aspects Environmental Sounds Instrumental Sounds Body SoundsRhythm and RhymeAlliterationVoice SoundsOral Blend and Segment
15More Technical Vocabulary! A tricky word is one which is not phonetically decodable at the phonics phase.A high frequency word is that which occurs most frequently in children’s literature – it could be decodable or not.
16Phase 2 Introduces the 19 grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) Segmenting and blending taught as reversible processes.As soon as children have a small number of grapheme/phoneme correspondences, blending and segmenting can start. (/s/a/t/p/I/n/)‘Tricky’ wordsTypical duration: up to 6 weeksReception phase 2PHASE 2 – The beginning of letters and sounds! (Although you may have children entering FS2 within phase 2).This is where practitioners need to keep up the pace and STICK with it, follow the programme – not incidental teachingPurpose of this phase is to teach at least 19 letters and move the children on from oral blending and segmentation to blending and segmenting with letters.Teach that segmenting and blending go together.Teach tricky words. Pg 64During this phase they will also be introduced to reading two syllable words and simple captions.They will also learn to read some high frequency ‘tricky words.’Page 47 – structure of the book differentPage 48 5 sets of phonemes + programme for weeksIntroduces 4 part lessons – lesson structure the same between the phases – no more than minutes – highly interactivePage 64 – guidance on teaching tricky wordsPage 68 – assessment – sits directly in line with new framework – 5 points that children should be able to do – if they haven’t got them all they can still access Phase 3 – think FLEXIBILITYPg 69 bank of words and captions that use the letters taught – look for simple captions in the environment that children can access and read.By the end of the phase many children should be able to read some VC and CVC words and to spell them either using magnetic letters or by writing them on paper or on whiteboards.Watch video clips‘Teaching grapheme – phoneme correspondences h,g,b‘Teaching and practising segmentation for spelling’
17Phase 3 Introduces another 25 graphemes Most comprising two letters- sh, th, ch.Representation of each of the 44 GPCsReading and spelling two syllable words and captionsTypical duration: Up to 12 weeksChildren link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.They recognise letter shapes and say a sound for each.They hear and say sounds in the order in which they occur in the word,They read simple words by sounding out and blending the phonemes all through the word from left to right.They recognise common digraphs and read some high frequency words.
18dog, black, flat, strip, chest Phase 4Consolidates knowledge of GPCsIntroduces adjacent consonantsNo new GPCscvcc ccvc reading & spellingdog, black, flat, strip, chestPhase 4Phase 3 and 4 very close – Phase 4 consolidates knowledgeChildren entering phase 4 will be able to represent each of the 42 phonemes by a grapheme and be able to blend phonemes to read CVC words and segment CVC words for spelling. They will have some experience in reading simple two syllable words and captions. They will also know letter names and be able to read some tricky words.The purpose of this phase is to consolidate the children’s knowledge of graphemes in reading and spelling words containing adjacent consonants and polysyllabic words.Watch Video ClipPractising grapheme recall and reading CVC words (review part of 4 part lesson)Writing captionsChildren are able to blend and segment adjacent consonants in wordsThey apply this skill when reading unfamiliar texts and in spelling.Typical duration: 4-6 weeks
19Phase 5 Introduces alternative graphemes for spelling Introduces alternative pronunciations for readingDeveloping automaticitymeanbreadreadmaymakepainChildren will:use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes and spelling the phonemes corresponding to long vowel phonemes.identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and three-syllable words and be able to read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words.recognise an increasing number of high frequency words automatically.apply phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach in reading and spelling when the words are unfamiliar and not completely decodable.Throughout Year One
20Phase 6 Increasing fluency and accuracy Past & present tense Use of prefix & suffixesThroughout Year Two(although teaching of spellingcontinues well into KS2)During this phase children become fluent readers and increasingly accurate spellers.Links with spelling objectives and ‘Year 2 and Year 3 planning exemplification and spelling programme’Spelling is phonemically accurate.Strategies for spelling are embedded.Watch Video Clip –Writing
21The Phonics LessonDaily 20 mins interactive multi sensory. Include partner work observe pupils target and focus. Provide follow up activities in classroom homework.Start the lesson with a fun rhyme song alphabet song gameRevise phonemes taught ie point to letters on chart chant , play a gameIntroduce a new phoneme a day say words with the sound at the beginning help them to say the sound read the grapheme that represents the sound write the graphemeBlend and segment words to read and spell captions.. Apply into shared reading and writing.
22High-Frequency Words100 common words that recur frequently in much written material (phase 2 to 5)Most are decodableEnd of Phase 2, 26 HF words are decodable; further 12 by the end of Phase 3; further 6 by the end of Phase 4During Phase 5 children learn many more graphemes so more words become decodableSome of the ‘tricky’ words have been taught in earlier phases.16 new ‘tricky’ words to be taught in Phase 5Young children need them for reading and writing.Most are decodable by using sounding and blending skills if GPC knowledge known.
27Teaching alternative spelling for phonemes Notes of Guidance page 25
28SpellingThere are patterns or regularities that help to determine choices or narrow possibilities – for example for each vowel phoneme some digraphs and trigraphs are more frequently used before certain consonants than othersChildren need to explore these patterns through word investigations
29Certain representations of a phoneme are Reducing uncertaintyCertain representations of a phoneme aremore likely in initial, medial and finalposition in monosyllabic wordsChildren need to be given opportunities to investigate spelling patterns and formulate reasons for choices which will narrow possibilities within the context of the word they wish to spell.ACTIVITYUsing slide 36 as a prompt, list words which have the /ae/ phoneme in the initial/medial/final position.What do you notice about the grapheme representing the /ae/ phoneme in the varying positions?
30The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay (hay) The best bets for representing /ae/ at the beginning and in the middle of a word are a-e and ai (make and rain)The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay (hay)Practitioners need to understand these patterns in order to structure and effectively deliver phonics teaching.
31Spelling rules - ‘ss’ at the end of a word Double ‘ss’ appears at the end of a word when: …a short vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word.aeioumassmessmissmossfusslassdresskisslossgrassBesshissbossguessRossJesstosslessTessbusgasyesthispusExceptions in red - Contraction of omnibus – busLetter set 5.
32Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’? Spelling rules - ‘k’ at the end of a word Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’?‘k’ sound is preceded by a consonant eg.‘nk’, ‘sk’‘ck’ is always preceded by a vowelLetter set 4Consonant ‘c’ not usually used at the end of a word.Short vowel /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ducksocknecklockrocktickkickpeckracksickclockshock
33It is not a reading test! Phonic Screening Every Year 1 child in the country will be taking the statutory phonics screening check in June.The focus of the check is to ensure that all children can read by the end of Year 2. The phonics screen only checks children’s competency in decoding phonetically. The Year 1 screening (mid point) will provide evidence to help teachers plan for Year 2.It is not a reading test!
34What will children doThe check takes approx 5 to 10 minutes to completeChildren will be asked to read a word which they can sound out or read by sight. e.g. d-o-g – dogThe check will consist of 40 words and non-wordsChildren will be told if the word is a real or ‘alien’ word, with a corresponding alien image
36How it will be Administered Teachers will conduct all of the screening checks with the childrenThe children will complete the check one to one in a quiet area of the schoolWe are not permitted to indicate to the children at the time whether they have correctly sounded out and / or blended the word
37ResultsThe children will be scored against a National Standard (determined by DfE)The school will inform you of the results in the summer term report.If your child’s score falls below the National Standard they will be supported in Year 2 with booster reading and additional phonic intervention.They will undertake the screening again in Year 2
39How can you help?Encourage your child to use their knowledge of sounds to work out the words when reading and writing.Digraph- 2 letters making one sound cow the children should say this as c-ow and not c-o-wTrigraphs- 3 letters making one sound night the children should say this as n-igh-t and not n-i-g-h-t which does not sound like night.Split digraphs- 2 vowels with a consonant in between. Use to be known as the magic e! spine i_e home – o_e cube – u_e
40How can you help?Children can practise their phonics by playing games on line. They can choose phase 3,4,5Buried TreasurePoop Deck PiratesDragons Den
41How can you help?REMEMBER: Phonics is not the only way you become a good reader. Continue to read with your child each night and encourage them to:Sound out the words and blend the sounds together.re-read to check it makes sense, and use pictures for clues.Ask questions about the book.And most importantly ENJOY READING!
42More things to do at home Practice the GPC with correct enunciation.Remember when to use tricky words – don’t even try to decode them.Have conversations about letters, words and spelling patterns.Use the correct terminology.Help children use their phonics is both reading and spelling.Remember it is a gentle road to accurate spelling not a race!Encourage children to use their phonics in their reading and writing.Don’t be afraid to point out repeated spelling errors so that habits don’t form. This is a balancing act with encouraging children to write and celebrating their efforts.Handwriting and phonics are brother and sister not the same thing – try not to let one distract you from the other.
43Games and Activities Simon says – everybody /c/ /l/ /a/ /p/ I spy – something beginning with, something ending with….Grapheme detectorsMake collections of real objects and later pictures and wordsTreasure hunts with phonetically decodable cluesPlay phonic games and use phonic webistes