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Phonics for Parents at Rosh Pinah Primary

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1 Phonics for Parents at Rosh Pinah Primary
Helen Cheung BPSI Advisor

2 Parents and Carers make a Real Difference to Learning at School
To close the gap in reading achievement we must understand its causes more fully. One starting point is the recognition that the quality of children’s home experience matters even more than parental income. The extent to which parents become involved in their children’s education and are able to create a home environment that encourages learning and communicates high, yet reasonable, expectations for achievement and future careers, provides an even more accurate indicator of children’s future academic success. Of all school subjects, reading has been found to be most sensitive to parental influences. UKLA

3 Reading At Home One in five parents easily find the opportunity to read to their children, with the rest struggling to read to their children due to fatigue and busy lifestyles. Of the parents that read to the children, 67% are mothers compared to just 17% of fathers. Parents are the most important reading role models for their children and young people.

4 What kind of help at home?
The review established that parental involvement has a significant positive effect on children’s achievement, and that the kind of involvement that makes the most difference is the conversations parents have with their children at home.

5 Ofsted – Reading by 6 Getting Them Reading Early
Reading as a key indicator of school effectiveness. The diligent, concentrated and systematic teaching of phonics is central to the success of all the schools that achieve high reading standards in Key Stage 1. Effective schools provide rich opportunities to talk and listen in a wide range of contexts. This contributes to developing their familiarity with books and stories and their knowledge of the meanings of words. There is a strong focus on developing the children’s capacity to listen, concentrate and discriminate between sounds.

6 Early Education Learning Together Series – The Road to Reading and Making Their Mark The National Literacy Trust Age appropriate book lists Words For Life ‘I spy picture books’ Booktrust – Inspiring a love of books Literacy events in your area

7 + Phonics at a glance phonics is skills of segmentation and blending
knowledge of the alphabetic code + Explanation a phoneme can be represented by one or more letters sh, th, ee the same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way rain, may, lake the same spelling may represent more than one phoneme mean, deaf

8 Terminology Notes of Guidance page 18

9 Terminology Oral blending: Segmentation Blending
Hearing a series of spoken sounds (phonemes) and merging them together to make a spoken word. No text is used. For example, When a teacher calls out ‘b-u-s’ or ‘c-r-ay-o-n, the children say ‘bus’ or ‘crayon.’ Blending Merging the individual phonemes together to pronounce a word. To read unfamiliar words a child must recognise (sound out) each grapheme, not each letter, then merge the phonemes together to make a word. Segmentation Hear and say the individual phonemes within words. In order to spell, children need to segment a word into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme. ORAL BLENDING: This skill should be taught within Phase 1 before blending and reading printed words. Make sure all children are INVOLVED & ENGAGED in the segmenting & blending process>>>>

10 Some definitions Trigraph: Three letters, which make one phoneme.
Digraph: Two letters, which make one phoneme. A consonant digraph contains 2 consonants: sh ck th ll A vowel digraph contains at least one vowel: ai ee ar oy Trigraph: Three letters, which make one phoneme. igh dge CVC refers to the number of letters and not the number of phonemes Consonant digraphs are not identified as in CVC words Ship is ‘digraph vowel consonant’ CVC Church is consonant digraph vowel consonant digraph CVC Split digraph: A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent – e.g. make

11 Teaching phonics - enunciation
Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation. Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely. Video clip: Phase 2 video 1 – articulation of phonemes

12 Pronouncing Phonemes a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, x, sh, th, ng, igh, So it is important to pronounce the consonant sounds /phonemes correctly.eg You will hear children and some adults pronouncing Suh a muh SAM when the letters should be hissed or hummed ssss a mmm ACTIVITY have a go at prouncing the phonemes without to much sharw muh ahh tuh Line 1 ffff llll mmmnnnnnnrrrrssss Line 2 harder sounds Line 3 hold adams apple hard to pronounce cleanly PIPS has all this info and CD rom gives training.

13 Phase 1 speaking and listening activities;
develop language structures; increase vocabulary; developing phonological awareness; improve ability to distinguish between sounds; become familiar with rhyme, rhythm and alliteration. Introduces blending & segmenting. Activities in phase one are mainly adult led such as story time, circle time singing time etc. These activities then can be used by the children in child initiated tasks. Typical duration: FS1 but continues throughout

14 Phase 1 has 7 Aspects Environmental Sounds Instrumental Sounds
Body Sounds Rhythm and Rhyme Alliteration Voice Sounds Oral Blend and Segment

15 More Technical Vocabulary!
A tricky word is one which is not phonetically decodable at the phonics phase. A high frequency word is that which occurs most frequently in children’s literature – it could be decodable or not.

16 Phase 2 Introduces the 19 grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs)
Segmenting and blending taught as reversible processes. As soon as children have a small number of grapheme/phoneme correspondences, blending and segmenting can start. (/s/a/t/p/I/n/) ‘Tricky’ words Typical duration: up to 6 weeks Reception phase 2 PHASE 2 – The beginning of letters and sounds! (Although you may have children entering FS2 within phase 2).This is where practitioners need to keep up the pace and STICK with it, follow the programme – not incidental teaching Purpose of this phase is to teach at least 19 letters and move the children on from oral blending and segmentation to blending and segmenting with letters. Teach that segmenting and blending go together. Teach tricky words. Pg 64 During this phase they will also be introduced to reading two syllable words and simple captions. They will also learn to read some high frequency ‘tricky words.’ Page 47 – structure of the book different Page 48 5 sets of phonemes + programme for weeks Introduces 4 part lessons – lesson structure the same between the phases – no more than minutes – highly interactive Page 64 – guidance on teaching tricky words Page 68 – assessment – sits directly in line with new framework – 5 points that children should be able to do – if they haven’t got them all they can still access Phase 3 – think FLEXIBILITY Pg 69 bank of words and captions that use the letters taught – look for simple captions in the environment that children can access and read. By the end of the phase many children should be able to read some VC and CVC words and to spell them either using magnetic letters or by writing them on paper or on whiteboards. Watch video clips ‘Teaching grapheme – phoneme correspondences h,g,b ‘Teaching and practising segmentation for spelling’

17 Phase 3 Introduces another 25 graphemes
Most comprising two letters- sh, th, ch. Representation of each of the 44 GPCs Reading and spelling two syllable words and captions Typical duration: Up to 12 weeks Children link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet. They recognise letter shapes and say a sound for each. They hear and say sounds in the order in which they occur in the word, They read simple words by sounding out and blending the phonemes all through the word from left to right. They recognise common digraphs and read some high frequency words.

18 dog, black, flat, strip, chest
Phase 4 Consolidates knowledge of GPCs Introduces adjacent consonants No new GPCs cvcc ccvc reading & spelling dog, black, flat, strip, chest Phase 4 Phase 3 and 4 very close – Phase 4 consolidates knowledge Children entering phase 4 will be able to represent each of the 42 phonemes by a grapheme and be able to blend phonemes to read CVC words and segment CVC words for spelling. They will have some experience in reading simple two syllable words and captions. They will also know letter names and be able to read some tricky words. The purpose of this phase is to consolidate the children’s knowledge of graphemes in reading and spelling words containing adjacent consonants and polysyllabic words. Watch Video Clip Practising grapheme recall and reading CVC words (review part of 4 part lesson) Writing captions Children are able to blend and segment adjacent consonants in words They apply this skill when reading unfamiliar texts and in spelling. Typical duration: 4-6 weeks

19 Phase 5 Introduces alternative graphemes for spelling
Introduces alternative pronunciations for reading Developing automaticity mean bread read may make pain Children will: use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes and spelling the phonemes corresponding to long vowel phonemes. identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and three-syllable words and be able to read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words. recognise an increasing number of high frequency words automatically. apply phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach in reading and spelling when the words are unfamiliar and not completely decodable. Throughout Year One

20 Phase 6 Increasing fluency and accuracy Past & present tense
Use of prefix & suffixes Throughout Year Two (although teaching of spelling continues well into KS2) During this phase children become fluent readers and increasingly accurate spellers. Links with spelling objectives and ‘Year 2 and Year 3 planning exemplification and spelling programme’ Spelling is phonemically accurate. Strategies for spelling are embedded. Watch Video Clip – Writing

21 The Phonics Lesson Daily 20 mins interactive multi sensory. Include partner work observe pupils target and focus. Provide follow up activities in classroom homework. Start the lesson with a fun rhyme song alphabet song game Revise phonemes taught ie point to letters on chart chant , play a game Introduce a new phoneme a day say words with the sound at the beginning help them to say the sound read the grapheme that represents the sound write the grapheme Blend and segment words to read and spell captions.. Apply into shared reading and writing.

22 High-Frequency Words 100 common words that recur frequently in much written material (phase 2 to 5) Most are decodable End of Phase 2, 26 HF words are decodable; further 12 by the end of Phase 3; further 6 by the end of Phase 4 During Phase 5 children learn many more graphemes so more words become decodable Some of the ‘tricky’ words have been taught in earlier phases. 16 new ‘tricky’ words to be taught in Phase 5 Young children need them for reading and writing. Most are decodable by using sounding and blending skills if GPC knowledge known.

23 Segmenting WORD PHONEMES shelf dress think string sprint flick

24 Segmenting shelf sh e l f dress d r ss think th i n k string s t ng
WORD PHONEMES shelf sh e l f dress d r ss think th i n k string s t ng sprint p flick ck

25 Sounds

26 Consonant phonemes and their more usual graphemic representations
/s/ sun, mouse, city, science /t/ tap /v/ van /w/ was /wh/ where /y/ yes /z/ zebra, please, is /th/ then /th/ thin /ch/ chip, watch /sh/ ship, mission, chef /zh/ treasure, /ng/ ring, /b/ baby /d/ dog /f/ field, photo /g/ game /h/ hat /j/ judge, giant, barge /k/ cook, sock, Chris /l/ lamb /m/ monkey,comb /n/ nut, knife, gnat /p/ paper /r/ rabbit, wrong Notes of Guidance page 23

27 Teaching alternative spelling for phonemes
Notes of Guidance page 25

28 Spelling There are patterns or regularities that help to determine choices or narrow possibilities – for example for each vowel phoneme some digraphs and trigraphs are more frequently used before certain consonants than others Children need to explore these patterns through word investigations

29 Certain representations of a phoneme are
Reducing uncertainty Certain representations of a phoneme are more likely in initial, medial and final position in monosyllabic words Children need to be given opportunities to investigate spelling patterns and formulate reasons for choices which will narrow possibilities within the context of the word they wish to spell. ACTIVITY Using slide 36 as a prompt, list words which have the /ae/ phoneme in the initial/medial/final position. What do you notice about the grapheme representing the /ae/ phoneme in the varying positions?

30 The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay (hay)
The best bets for representing /ae/ at the beginning and in the middle of a word are a-e and ai (make and rain) The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay (hay) Practitioners need to understand these patterns in order to structure and effectively deliver phonics teaching.

31 Spelling rules - ‘ss’ at the end of a word
Double ‘ss’ appears at the end of a word when: …a short vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word. a e i o u mass mess miss moss fuss lass dress kiss loss grass Bess hiss boss guess Ross Jess toss less Tess bus gas yes this pus Exceptions in red - Contraction of omnibus – bus Letter set 5.

32 Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’?
Spelling rules - ‘k’ at the end of a word   Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’? ‘k’ sound is preceded by a consonant eg. ‘nk’, ‘sk’ ‘ck’ is always preceded by a vowel Letter set 4 Consonant ‘c’ not usually used at the end of a word. Short vowel /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ duck sock neck lock rock tick kick peck rack sick clock shock

33 It is not a reading test! Phonic Screening
Every Year 1 child in the country will be taking the statutory phonics screening check in June. The focus of the check is to ensure that all children can read by the end of Year 2. The phonics screen only checks children’s competency in decoding phonetically. The Year 1 screening (mid point) will provide evidence to help teachers plan for Year 2. It is not a reading test!

34 What will children do The check takes approx 5 to 10 minutes to complete Children will be asked to read a word which they can sound out or read by sight. e.g. d-o-g – dog The check will consist of 40 words and non-words Children will be told if the word is a real or ‘alien’ word, with a corresponding alien image

35 Examples of Words

36 How it will be Administered
Teachers will conduct all of the screening checks with the children The children will complete the check one to one in a quiet area of the school We are not permitted to indicate to the children at the time whether they have correctly sounded out and / or blended the word

37 Results The children will be scored against a National Standard (determined by DfE) The school will inform you of the results in the summer term report. If your child’s score falls below the National Standard they will be supported in Year 2 with booster reading and additional phonic intervention. They will undertake the screening again in Year 2

38 Rosh Pinah Phonic Screening Test Results
Phonic Screening Results RP 2013 N 2013 RP 2014 N 2015 % 78 69 93 74

39 How can you help? Encourage your child to use their knowledge of sounds to work out the words when reading and writing. Digraph- 2 letters making one sound cow the children should say this as c-ow and not c-o-w Trigraphs- 3 letters making one sound night the children should say this as n-igh-t and not n-i-g-h-t which does not sound like night. Split digraphs- 2 vowels with a consonant in between. Use to be known as the magic e! spine i_e home – o_e cube – u_e

40 How can you help? Children can practise their phonics by playing games on line. They can choose phase 3,4,5 Buried Treasure Poop Deck Pirates Dragons Den

41 How can you help? REMEMBER: Phonics is not the only way you become a good reader. Continue to read with your child each night and encourage them to: Sound out the words and blend the sounds together. re-read to check it makes sense, and use pictures for clues. Ask questions about the book. And most importantly ENJOY READING!

42 More things to do at home
Practice the GPC with correct enunciation. Remember when to use tricky words – don’t even try to decode them. Have conversations about letters, words and spelling patterns. Use the correct terminology. Help children use their phonics is both reading and spelling. Remember it is a gentle road to accurate spelling not a race! Encourage children to use their phonics in their reading and writing. Don’t be afraid to point out repeated spelling errors so that habits don’t form. This is a balancing act with encouraging children to write and celebrating their efforts. Handwriting and phonics are brother and sister not the same thing – try not to let one distract you from the other.

43 Games and Activities Simon says – everybody /c/ /l/ /a/ /p/
I spy – something beginning with, something ending with…. Grapheme detectors Make collections of real objects and later pictures and words Treasure hunts with phonetically decodable clues Play phonic games and use phonic webistes


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