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Fostering Fluency via Read Naturally Margaret Adams, Melrose Public Schools December 2012 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Fostering Fluency via Read Naturally Margaret Adams, Melrose Public Schools December 2012 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fostering Fluency via Read Naturally Margaret Adams, Melrose Public Schools December 2012 1

2 Objectives Define fluency and its components. Discuss the importance of fluency Discuss how to use Read Naturally to develop fluency. 2

3 What is Fluency? Turn to a partner. Explain what fluency is. 3

4 What is Fluency? Rate and accuracy in oral reading Hasbrouck and Tindal 2001, Torgesen et al. 2001 Accurate reading at a minimal rate with appropriate prosodic features (expression) and deep understanding Hudson, Mercer and Lane 2000 4

5 Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes 5

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7 He had never seen dogs fight as these w___ish c________ f_____, and his first ex________ t____t him an unf______able l____n. It is true, it was a vi_______ ex_______, else he would not have lived to pr___t by it. Curley was the v_____. They were camped near the log store, where she, in her friend__y way, made ad______ to a husky dog the size of a full-_____ wolf, th_____ not half so large as _he. __ere was no w___ing, only a leap in like a flash, a met_____ clip of teeth, a leap out equal__ swift, and Curly’s face was ripped open from eye to jaw. From Call of the Wild by Jack London Taken from the NICHD Research Program: What We now Know About How Children Learn to Read Bonita Grossen 03-27-97 Full report at: www.cftl.org/30years/30years.html 7

8 From Call of the Wild by Jack London He had never seen dogs fight as these wolfish creatures fought, and his first experience taught him an unforgettable lesson. It is true, it was a vicarious experience, else he would not have lived to profit by it. Curly was the victim. They were camped near the log store, where she, in her friendly way, made advances to a husky dog the size of a full-grown wolf, though not half so large as she. There was no warning, only a leap in like a flash, a metallic clip of teeth, a leap out equally swift, and Curly's face was ripped open from eye to jaw. 8

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10 Fluency and Comprehension Fluent reading allows the reader to attend to the meaning of the text rather than the mechanics of decoding. Fluent readers construct meaning as they read as evidenced by their phrasing, intonation and expression. 10

11 What can fluent readers do? * Read every letter in every word. * Read almost every word. * Perceive letters in chunks; recognize high frequency letter combinations. * Apply syllabication strategies to divide lengthy words with little conscious analysis. 11

12 What can fluent readers do? * Read fluently with adequate speed, phrasing, intonation; their reading sounds like they’re speaking. * Apply their knowledge of orthography to help identify unknown words they encounter. * Activate, apply their extensive vocabulary. 12

13 What can fluent readers do? * Use their knowledge about the structure of written text to anticipate words as they read. * Rely little on contextual information because word recognition is rapid, automatic and efficient. * Construct meaning as they read. 13

14 Partner Activity 14

15 Passage #1 Please take turns reading the following passage to your partner. After reading, discuss with your partner whether your reading of this selection was accurate and fluent. Why were you able to read this passage with accuracy and fluency? 15

16 First Reader By Billy Collins I can see them standing politely on the wide pages that I was still learning to turn, Jane in a blue jumper, Dick with his crayon-brown hair, playing with a ball or exploring the cosmos of the backyard, unaware they are the first characters, the boy and girl who begin fiction. Beyond the simple illustrations of their neighborhood, the other protagonists were waiting in a huddle: frightening Heathcliff, frightened Pip, Nick Adams carrying a fishing rod, Emma Bovary riding into Rouen. But I would read about the perfect boy and his sister even before I would read about Adam and Eve, garden and gate, and before I heard the name Gutenberg, the type of their simple talk was moving into my focusing eyes. 16

17 It was always Saturday and he and she were always pointing at something and shouting, “Look!” pointing at the dog, the bicycle, or at their father as he pushed a hand mower over the lawn, waving at aproned mother framed in the kitchen doorway, pointing toward the sky, pointing at each other. They wanted us to look but we had looked already and seen the shaded lawn, the wagon, the postman. We had seen the dog, walked, watered and fed the animal, and now it was time to discover the infinite, clicking permutations of the alphabet’s small and capital letters. Alphabetical ourselves in the rows of classroom desks, we were forgetting how to look, learning how to read. They wanted us to look but we had looked already and seen the shaded lawn, the wagon, the postman. We had seen the dog, walked, watered and fed the animal, and now it was time to discover the infinite, clicking permutations of the alphabet’s small and capital letters. Alphabetical ourselves in the rows of classroom desks, we were forgetting how to look, learning how to read. 17

18 Passage #2 Take turns reading this passage to your partner. After reading, discuss whether your reading of this passage was accurate and fluent. Why or why not? 18

19 Excerpt from Journal of Optics and Acoustics Using methods associated with polynomial expansion, we discussed atmospheric dispersion effects in dual wavelength adaptive optics systems. On the basis of dual frequency correlations associated with phase expansion coefficients, we solved for residual phase errors produced by atmospheric dispersion. Taking the product 19

20 Passage #2 continued amount of beacon phase distortion and specific value of ratio (lambda 2) (lambda 1)(the beacon wavelength/ transmitted wavelength) to be phase predistortion, it is possible to rectify relatively well the phase distortion transmitted light beams. Y. Yeng 20

21 Characteristics of dysfluent readers Slow rate of reading Hesitates at unknown words Difficulty applying learned word identification strategies Repeats, rereads words and phrases Recognizes few words at sight 21

22 Possible reasons for slow, dysfluent reading include: Lack of automaticity: Letter naming/recognition Letter sound Recognition of phonic patterns, syllables Sight words OR child is automatic at word level but Lacks fluency at: Phrase Sentence Paragraph Passage level 22

23 Sequence of Fluency Instruction 23

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25 Automaticity Most complex behaviors include underlying subskills which must be mastered to an automatic level. Once automaticity is achieved, performance is fluent, more enjoyable, and attention can be devoted to higher goals. 25

26 Automaticity and Reading Difficulties in automatic word recognition affect accuracy, rate of reading and a reader’s ability to efficiently comprehend what they read. (Lyon 1995; Torgesen 2001) 26

27 Automaticity and Fluency Automaticity refers to fast, accurate and effortless word identification at the single word level. (Hook, Jones 2002) Fluency refers to not only automatic word identification but also to the application of appropriate prosodic features at the phrase, sentence and text levels. (Hook and Jones 2002) 27

28 General principles for instruction Text used for fluency instruction and practice should be carefully chosen by teacher. Frequent, brief practice on successive days. Charting of accuracy and rate is highly motivating and provides record of progress. Comprehension checks may be part of fluency lessons. 28

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30 Read Naturally http://www.readnaturally.com/knowle dgebase/how-to/24/245 Listen for the instructional strategies behind Read Naturally. 30

31 Read Naturally Placement Process http://www.readnaturally.com/knowle dgebase/how-to/24/255 Listen for the steps in placement within the Read Naturally program. 31

32 Placement Table 32

33 Steps for Initial Placement 1.Estimate the reading level. 2.Find the placement story. 3.Time the student for one minute. 4.Calculate the number of words read correctly. 5.Determine whether the level at which the student read is appropriate. 33

34 Steps for Initial Placement 6. If the level is not a math, continue to test. 7. Select a series and level. 8. Set an initial goal. 34

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36 Student Steps for Read Naturally http://www.readnaturally.com/knowle dgebase/how-to/24/254 Look for the steps for the Read Naturally Program. 36

37 Implementing the Steps 1.Select a story 2.Key words 3.Prediction 4.Cold Timing 5.Graph Cold-Timing Score 6.Read Along 7. Practice 8. Answer the questions 9. Pass 10. Graph Hot-Timing Score 11. Retell the Story 37

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42 References Adams, M.(1990) Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge MA. The MIT Press. Chall, J. (1983) Stages of Reading Development. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill. Fischer, P. (1995) Speed Drills for Decoding Automaticity, Farmington, ME, Oxton House. 42

43 References, cont. Hasbrouck (1998) Reading fluency: Principles for instruction and progress monitoring. Austin, TX: Texas Center for Reading and Language, University of Texas at Austin.  Hook, P. and Jones, S. (2002). The Importance of Automaticity and Fluency for Efficient Reading Comprehension. Perspectives, winter 2002, Vol. 28, no. 1 43

44 References, cont.  National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidenced based assessment of scientific research literature on reading and its implications for instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.  Snow, C., Burns, M. (1998) Preventing reading difficulties in Young Children. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. 44

45 References, cont.  Torgesen, J. (2001) Principles of Fluency Instruction in Reading: relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.) Dyslexia, Fluency and the Brain. Parkton MD: York Press. 45

46 Resources www.uoregon.edu,www.uoregon.edu www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp www.sopriswest.com www.neuhaus.org www.mghihp.edu/hill www.doe.mass.edu 46


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