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Classwide Instruction Individual Instruction Models for selecting individual interventions Supporting READING skills.

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Presentation on theme: "Classwide Instruction Individual Instruction Models for selecting individual interventions Supporting READING skills."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classwide Instruction Individual Instruction Models for selecting individual interventions Supporting READING skills

2 Background School psychology professor at Utah State Teacher  school psychologist  researcher Strategies to strengthen our responses to learning and behavior problems. Pleased to Be at This Conference

3 UNIVERSAL TIER 1: Core Programs Monitor 3 to 4 times/ year ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% TIER 2 : Strategic/Supplemental Monitor monthly TIER 3: Individualized Intervention Monitor 1 time a week Providing systematic support

4 With Progress monitoring ( CBM) TRW=73 Omitted Words=11 Errors=5 CRW=58

5 Tier 1 3 x year CBM OUTCOME 1

6 Tier 1 CBM Outcome 2

7 Reading classwide intervention

8 Beat the Buzzard Routine Get READY Quietly take out Demonstration Reading # 1 Write name on it. Switch with a person next to you Then look at me quietly.

9 LISTEN I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day. I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard. There were many pretty flowers. There were also many birds in the trees. They all sang pretty songs. I stopped to listen to them for a while. Their songs were nice. When I finished playing in the woods, I went to the boy’s house next door. We played fetch for a little while. Then we played ball. Next we played with the frisbee. Then the boy had to go inside. I went home. When I got there, my owner was home. He took me riding in the back of his truck. We went very fast and the wind blew through my fur. I had a great day!

10 PRACTICE for 2 minutes Partner 1 reads. Partner 2 LISTEN AND SAY misread and stuck words until timer rings. DO NOT WRITE. Trade jobs

11 1 minute TIMED READING “GO” Partner 1 reads Partner 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words When timer rings, MARK last word read. Trade jobs

12 COUNT AND GRAPH Demonstration 2

13 READING PARTNERS STEP 1: GET READY Take out pencil, folder, one story, and chart. Go into reading partner assigned seating Write your name on story and trade stories. STEP 2: LISTEN Follow along as the teacher reads the story STEP 3: PRACTICE 2 minutes PARTNER 1 reads. PARTNER 2 LISTEN AND SAY misread and stuck words. Trade jobs when timer rings STEP 4: 1 minute TIMED READING PARTNER 1 reads PARTNER 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words MARK last word read when timer rings. Trade jobs STEP 5: COUNT AND GRAPH Count every word that is not circled. Write the score on the story page and on your chart.

14 SETTING UP PAIRS

15 Step 1SIGNAL FOR STUDENT ATTENTION. (clapping, stare, count down) Wait for students attention before going on to the next step. Step 2TELL THE STEPS THAT STUDENTS NEED TO DO. I need for you to…. quietly take out folders, pencils move to your reading partner assigned look at me Step 3PROVIDE THE TIME LIMIT Set timer for < 2 minutes amount of time. Tell students they have 2 minutes to do task. Step 4MONITOR Walk around the room. Redirect/prompt students who are off task Step 5GIVE FEEDBACK PRAISE COMPLIANCE Great Job! I like how you got ready in less than 2 minutes! PRACTICE NONCOMPLIANCE Some of you did not get ready in the time provided. Step 6BEGIN THE INTERVENTION Beat the Buzzard IDEAL TIME: < 2 MINUTES

16 Organize 1 two pocket folder per reading partner Copy different stories (numbered) for each student Put 2 sets of these stories per folder. NAME: ________ DATE: _____ I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day. I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard. STORY # 1 NAME: ________ DATE: _____ I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day. I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard. STORY # 1

17 Before intervention After 2 week intervention 8 week follow-up Children below benchmark 51%14%29%Results 100% treatment integrity when giving teachers scripts, materials, a classroom training session, and weekly support. 97% of the students above benchmark before intervention also increased scores.

18 Response to Class-wide Intervention DECISION RULES When class median has reached mastery, are there children with scores below red line? YES Given another week’s growth of their previous average growth score would not reach instructional range in one more week? YES ACTION TO BE TAKEN: Participate in Performance/Skill Deficit Assessment.

19 Universal CBM OUTCOME 1

20 TIER 2: Strategic/Supplemental 1.Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin) 2.Read Well (Sopris West) 3.Reading Mastery (SRA) 4.Early Reading Intervention (Scott Foresman) 5.Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.) 6.REWARDS (Sopris West) 7.Ladders to Literacy (Brookes) 8.Read Naturally ~80% of Students ~15% ~5%

21 Tier 2 Monthly CBM DATA Are 80% of the Tier 2 students responding? YES  target those students who are not responding NO  target program.

22 ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% TIER 2 : Strategic/Supplemental TIER 3: Individualized Intervention Matching intervention to student needs

23 1. Target Skills Models for selecting an intervention to match student needs

24 WON’T DO: Fluent skills but does not want to do it. CAN’T DO: Inadequate skills to do it. Not enough help to do it right (accuracy) Not enough time doing it (fluency). It is just too hard (instructional level). 2. Common reasons for poor performance

25 3. Powerful Effective teaching

26 How To…. 1)Select students for intervention using screening data 2)Identify Can’t do problems 3) Conduct reading level of assessment. 3) Set up progress monitoring. Select a measure, set a goal, etc. 4) Plan for implementation. Who will do what and when.

27 Are you a Won’t do or Can’t do? Demonstration reading # 1 Listen to your goal.

28 Are you a Won’t do or Can’t do? DO a 1 minute TIMED READING –Partner 1 reads for 1 minute –Partner 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words –When timer rings, MARK last word read. COUNT Did you beat last score?

29 Performance/Skill Deficit Assessment PURPOSE OF DATA? To rule out lack of motivation as a factor HOW? Administer CBM probe that student performed poorly on during class assessment. This time give the student a chance to earn reward for improved score. OUTCOME? When student’s score falls above instructional grade level range, proceed to motivational intervention. When student’s score falls below instructional, proceed to an instructional intervention.

30 Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment

31 Without incentive: 8 children With incentive: 5 children

32 Fuchs rule of thumb: If student reads words correct in 1 minute but with less than 85-90% accuracy, move to next lower level Assessing READING Level 3rd grade 15Words 2nd grade 25 words 10 errors 1 st grade 39 words 1 errors

33 Grade3 story Scores Middle Score Assessment Decision Fourth1.___ 2.___ 3.___ ____  If 70 or more  If less than 70 STOP. Reading level Continue to next lower grade Third 1.___ 2.___ 3.___ ____  If 70 or more  If less than 70 STOP. Reading level Continue to next lower grade Second 1.___ 2.___ 3.___ ____  If 40 or more  If less than 40 STOP. Reading level Continue to next lower grade First 1.___ 2.___ 3.___ ____  If 40 or more  If less than 40 STOP. Reading level Teach phonemic awareness skills Start at grade level passage. Give three 1-minute assessments on three different grade level stories. Score words read correctly in one minute. If middle score is not at instructional level, administer three 1-minute reading assessments on next lower grade level.

34 CBM Data & Can’t Do Reason PHONEMIC AWARENESS PROBLEM -READINGLEVEL AT 1 st GRADE OR LOWER ACCURACY PROBLEM –SLOW AND > 4 ERRORS FLUENCY PROBLEM –-SLOW AND < 4 ERRORS VOCABULARY PROBLEM –LOW COMPREHENSION AND MANY CIRCLED UNKNOWN WORDS COMPREHENSION PROBLEM –FLUENT BUT FEW QUESTIONS ANSWERED CORRECTLY, POOR RETELL

35 Keep it Simple Selecting a Few Good Interventions Won’t Do AccuracyFluencyVocabularyComprehension ReadingListening Preview Error correction Repeated Readings Key words Drill Sandwich Concept maps Generate Q before and Summarize after Reciprocal teaching: what know, what want to know & what found out

36 A FEW PROVEN OPTIONS (skills + reason why + effective teaching) Accuracy  Listening Passage Preview + Phase Drill. Improve reading accuracy through modeling and error correction Fluency  Repeated Readings. Four repeated reading trials to increase fluency with increased practice opportunities Vocabulary  Key Words. Help students to comprehend unknown vocabulary words through presentation and discussion of words definition and usage Comprehension  Comprehension training (information, summarize, inference, prediction) with fluency

37 READING INTERVENTIONS BASED ON 1. Skill TARGET 2. Can’t DO 3. Effective Teaching STEPS

38 1. Accuracy (Slow and > 6 errors) Listening Preview + Phase Drill STEP 1: LISTEN Follow along as the teacher reads the story STEP 2: PRACTICE Have the student read the passage aloud while you underline errors (skips, mispronounces, hesitates 3 sec) on your copy. Supply the words missed. STEP 3: DRILL ERROR CORRECTION. Show the student the underlined words. Say the word and have the student read each sentence containing the error word three times. STEP 4: 1 minute TIMED READING STEP 5: COUNT AND RECORD

39 Accuracy Demonstration READING # 4 MODEL & LISTEN I see a boy and a girl. They come by day after day. The girl can eat a lot. She is little. The boy is big. He does not talk to the girl. He plays with his dog. I like his dog. I want a dog. The dog is very big. The boy will read a book. The girl does not like to read. The girl will run and play. She does not like to sit. She will run up and down the street. She does like to talk. The girl will talk to any boy or girl. She will talk all day. She will talk all night. The girl and her mother talk a lot. I like to play with the girl. The girl and I play all day

40 GUIDED practice I see a boy and a girl. They come by day after day. The girl can eat a lot. She is little. The boy is big. He does not talk to the girl. He plays with his dog. I like his dog. The dog is very big. The 3-sec pats 3-sec

41 ERROR Correction I see a boy and a girl. They come by day after day. The girl can eat a lot. She is little. The boy is big. He does not talk to the girl. He plays with his dog. I like his dog. The dog is very big. The 3-sec pats 3-sec

42 INDEPENDENT PRACTICE 1 minute timing I see a boy and a girl. They come by day after day. The girl can eat a lot. She is little. The boy is big. He does not talk to the girl. He plays with his dog. I like his dog. I want a dog. The dog is very big. The boy will read a book. The girl does not like to read. The girl will run and play. She does not like to sit. She will run up and down the street. She does like to talk. The girl will talk to any boy or girl. She will talk all day. She will talk all night. The girl and her mother talk a lot. I like to play with the girl. The girl and I play all day Demonstration READING # 2

43 IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK Graph My best score or goal is: _______ My score on the timed test is: ________ Did I beat my score? _____

44 Individually-administered Materials: Copy of the school-wide reading passage and Copy of Screening scores “Treasure chest” Administer and score a 1-minute timed reading. Provide a reward if child score on this reading exceeds the screening score. Weekly Progress Monitoring

45 Rationale Why the same probe? Eliminates probe variability Increases efficiency (1 probe verses 3 “cold” probes) Poor readers who struggle on all reading are identified. When students advance on 1 probe assessment, may monitor with 3 probes and take median score to see who should continue intervention another week.

46 Progress Monitoring

47 2. Fluency (Slow but < 4 errors) Repeated Readings STEP 1: GET READY STEP 2: PRACTICE 3 TIMES Teacher starts a timer and tells student to read passage Student reads from one passage. Teacher LISTENS and SAYS misread or stuck words At the end of the passage, tell the student the time it took to read the passage. Do this 3 times. STEP 3: 1 minute TIMED READING STEP 4: COUNT AND RECORD

48 Demo 1231 min timing Jeff’s mom is having a baby. Jeff is very happy. He will have a new brother or sister. He does not know whether the baby will be a boy or a girl. He will be happy with a new little brother or sister. He will help the baby learn new things. He will teach the baby how to crawl, and then how to walk. He will help teach the baby how to talk. When the baby gets older, he will play with the baby. If he gets a little brother, the baby will be named James. When he is old enough, he will teach the baby how to play tag and football. He will ride bikes with the baby.

49 Same routine Peers and/or adult tutor Daily for 15 minutes Weekly CBM monitoring

50 3. Vocabulary and Fluency problem Key Words STEP 1: IDENTIFY KEY WORDS Student circles any word that looks hard to read or understand. STEP 2: LISTEN. Student follows along on one copy as teacher reads. STEP 3: GUIDED PRACTICE. Student reads with teacher help. STEP 4: PRACTICE KEY WORDS Write the first 5 circled words on erase board. (or select words that were errors during practice or important words for story). Read the five words to the student and student repeats words. Define the words (verbal explanation, gestures and/or modeling). Use the word in a sentence. STEP 5: 1 minute TIMED READING STEP 6: COUNT AND RECORD

51 Circle unknowns, key words

52 fresh silver prepare brick decide

53 4. Comprehension STEP 1: PRIOR TO READING Review a list of 6 to 10 questions that is to be completed. Identify if the question is about material that will be right there in the reading material, implied from material in the text that needs to be searched and thought about, or require you to predict or infer something after reading the material. Preview by scanning material and search for clues about what the reading is about, what you may already know about the material.

54 Comprehension STEP 2: READ PASSAGE OUT LOUD with teacher help. STEP 3: AFTER READING Turn the reading passage over. Without looking at the passage, answer the questions. Check your answer with the teacher Count the number of questions you got right. Write score on chart.

55 Comprehension Option after reading for vocabulary practice: Clinks Write a few words that seems to be important to the story Clunks Write words that you do not understand. What does the Clunk mean? Look up or ask teacher for help

56 Comprehension Option after reading for main idea concept: Write a “gist” sentence about the main idea in 10 or less words. __________________________________________________ Write 2-3 important facts, ideas, or supporting details. 1._______________________________________________ 2._______________________________________________

57 Phonics Programs to practice using phonic skill –Basic Skill Builders program (Beck, Conrad, & Anderson, 1995) -practice sheets that are systematically sequenced for teaching brief units of reading skills. – Free –http://www.funnix.com/ (direct instruction) –Read, Write and Type learning-system.htmlhttp://www.talkingfingers.com/readwritetype/RWT- learning-system.html –www.Headsprout.com (direct instruction)www.Headsprout.com

58 Keep it Simple Which Few Good Interventions will you select? PhonicsAccuracyFluencyVocabularyComprehension ReadingFunnixListening Preview Repeated Readings Key wordsReview questions + vocabulary

59 TEAM Support Planning 1. Match an intervention to the problem 2. Prepare materials and train. 3. Set up a routine. Set a daily minute intervention routine 4 to 5 days a week at a set location. 4. Monitor using a weekly CBM routine

60 Contact information Donna Gilbertson, PhD Utah State University School Psychology Program


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