Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Critical Links between Oral Language Development, Early Literacy, And Reading Scientifically Based Reading.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Critical Links between Oral Language Development, Early Literacy, And Reading Scientifically Based Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Critical Links between Oral Language Development, Early Literacy, And Reading Scientifically Based Reading

3 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Project Goal : Establish and implement a coordinated, regionalized system of personnel development that will increase school systems’ capacity to provide early intervening services [with an emphasis on reading], aligned with the general education curriculum, to at-risk students and students with disabilities, as measured by improved student progress and performance. Illinois ASPIRE A lliance for S chool-based P roblem-solving & I ntervention R esources in E ducation Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-Funded Initiative of ISBE. All Funding is From Federal Sources.

4 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Objectives: 1. Deliver research-based professional development and technical assistance in Problem-Solving Service Delivery Systems, Response-to-Intervention (RTI), scientifically based reading instruction, and Standards Aligned Classrooms (SAC). 2. Increase the participation of parents in decision-making across district sites. 3. Incorporate professional development content into higher education general and special education preservice & graduate level curricula. 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of project activities. Illinois ASPIRE A lliance for S chool-based P roblem-solving & I ntervention R esources in E ducation Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-Funded Initiative of ISBE. All Funding is From Federal Sources.

5 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS WE WISH TO THANK THESE PANELS, INSTITUTIONS, AND INDIVIDUALS FOR SHARING THEIR KNOWLEDGE AND WISDOM. Dr. Ed Kame’enui Dr. Mark Shinn Dr. Deborah SimmonsDr. Barb Curl Dr. Roland GoodDr. Madi Phillips Dr. Joseph TorgesenDr. Corinne Harmon Dr. Marcia Kosanovich Dr. Melissa Bergstrom Dr. Sharon VaughnDr. Amy Dahlstrom Klainer Dr. Reid LyonDr. Sally Shaywitz Dr. Louisa MoatsDr. Barbara Foorman Dr. Paula McGuireDr. Viorica Marian Florida Center for Reading Research National Reading Panel Oregon Reading First/University of Oregon National Center on Student Progress Monitoring

6 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scientifically Based Core Reading Programs Trophies and Story Town, published by Harcourt Reading Street, published by Scott Foresman (Sidewalks is intervention kit) A Nations’s Choice, published by Houghton Mifflin Treasures, published by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill (Triumphs is intervention kit) Open Court, published by SRA Reading Mastery Plus. published by SRA Al Otaiba S., Kosanovich, M.L., Torgesen J.K., Hassler, L. & Wahl, M. (2005). Reviewing core kindergarten and first-grade reading programs in light of no child left behind: an exploratory study. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 21,

7 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

8 HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM.

9 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Childrenofthecode.org

10 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

11

12 The Obvious: Why we need to change our practices. 1. Far too many poor and minority children are being “left behind” when it comes to growth of proficient reading skills. 2. Prevention of reading problems is far more effective and humane than trying to remediate after children fail. New discoveries from scientific research about reading can provide the basis for improved outcomes for all children. The National Reading Panel and many national reading experts have also told us WHAT WE NEED TO DO. The question is WHY AREN’T WE DOING IT?

13 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Hypothesis: As SLPS and reading teachers, we are not all aware of the Critical Links between Oral Reading Development, Early Literacy, and Reading. Without this understanding, Science will not drive our practices. Instead, a belief/philosophical system may. When a Belief/Philosophical system vs. Science drives reading instruction, we are not teaching ALL students all the skills-to-mastery they need to become proficient readers.

14 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Language Continuum Oral LanguageEarly LiteracyLearning toReadingWriting DevelopmentDevelopmentReadto Learn -Phonology -Lang. Dev. -Lang. Dev. -Vocab. -Semantics -Phon. Process. -Phon.Aware. -Comprehension -Syntax -Print Knowledge -Phonics -Word Analysis -Pragmatics -Fluency

15 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

16 Illinois ASPIRE The Science of Language/ Language Hierarchy Inner Language (Experiences-Basis for Comprehension) Receptive Language (Listening and Understanding/Input) Expressive Language (Speaking/Output) Reading (Language in print/Input) Writing (Language in print/Output)

17 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading and Writing are forms of Language..… “The print on any page is a visual representation of language form and structure….When we teach reading and writing, we are teaching language at one or all of its many layers. Reading, after all, is not an exercise in recitation of words, but a translation of speech to print to meaning that is mediated by the language centers of the brain. Language itself is the substance of reading instruction.” (Moats, 2000, p. 2)

18 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What children bring to the printed page is knowledge of spoken language… “Students without awareness of language systems will be less able to sound out new words when they encounter them, less able to spell, less able to interpret punctuation and sentence meaning, and less able to learn new vocabulary words…” (Moats, 2000, p. 2)

19 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Science of Language Development and Reading and their Critical Links Each has its own Developmental Sequence. The difference is that Language develops naturally. Reading does not. It must be explicitly and systematically taught.

20 Illinois ASPIRE The Language Continuum Oral LanguageEarly LiteracyLearning toReadingWriting DevelopmentDevelopmentReadto Learn -Phonology -Semantics -Syntax -Pragmatics

21 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language Four Components: Phonology: Language sounds and their perceptions Vocabulary: Meaning of words; Semantics Syntax and Grammar: Structure of language Pragmatics: The appropriate use of language Hart Paulson, 2009

22 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

23 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

24 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

25 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

26 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Language Continuum/ Language-Literacy Connection All SLPs, Reading teachers, including teachers of ELL students need knowledge of our language structures and the processes/science of reading development. All teachers need insight into ‘our symbol system’ in order to teach children acquisition of our language ‘code’. Learners are dependent on systematic learning of our symbol system. (p. 4, Moats, 2009)

27 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Everything about Reading is about Language Development.

28 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

29 Illinois ASPIRE EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT

30 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Language Continuum Oral LanguageEarly LiteracyLearning toReadingWriting DevelopmentDevelopmentReadto Learn -Phonology -Lang. Dev. -Semantics -Phon. Process. -Syntax -Print Knowledge -Pragmatics

31 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Humans have devised systems of written symbols to represent sounds, syllables, and morphemes of spoken language. Alphabets, systems that use symbols for individual speech sounds, were invented little more than 3,000 years ago. It is understandable, then, that learning to read is not as natural or biological “wired in” as are speaking and listening and that reading must be taught directly to most children. Learning to read and write are much more challenging for most of us than learning to speak. (Moats, 2000, p. 3)

32 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

33 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

34 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

35 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

36 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Hart Paulson, 2009

37 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

38 Illinois ASPIRE LEARNING TO READ and READING TO LEARN

39 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Language Continuum Oral LanguageEarly LiteracyLearning toReadingWriting DevelopmentDevelopmentReadto Learn -Phonology -Lang. Dev. -Lang. Dev. -Vocab. -Semantics -Phon. Process. -Phon.Aware. -Comprehension -Syntax -Print Knowledge -Phonics -Word Analysis -Pragmatics -Fluency

40 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 “We now KNOW how to help almost all children become accurate and fluent readers by third grade.” 5 BIG IDEAS IN READING Florida Center for Reading Research Dr. Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research

41 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Taught by methods that are… Systematic and explicit!! “The 5 Big Ideas is what reading instruction and intervention planning is all about.” (Dr. Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research) Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Identifying words accurately and fluently Constructing meaning once words are identified

42 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Reading War should be over…. There is a strong relationship between PA, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension Learning to Read Phonemic Awareness Phonics/Automatic and fluent word recall Vocabulary and Comprehension are not ignored in this phase- done through oral language activities, read alouds Reading to Learn Vocabulary Comprehension Phonics is not ignored in this phase- still teaching students word analysis skills for reading multi- syllabic words. FLUENCY Students need all of this- the right doses at the right time.

43 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Reading War should be over…. Learning to Read Reading to Learn Phonemic Awareness and Phonics/Word Analysis are the ‘engines’ that drives automatic word recognition/fluency. Fluency is the ‘engine’ that drives vocabulary and comprehension skills. Fluency is the skill that links these two phases.

44 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Relationships Among Strands…. Changes over time, adding layers of complexity as emphasis shifts. For example, oral reading fluency involves accurate decoding proficiency to promote vocabulary development. Another example: as readers get older, the success of vocabulary knowledge becomes increasingly important to promote comprehension. All strands interact with one another at all times.

45 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas Comprehension Vocabulary Automaticity and Fluency with the Code Alphabetic Principle Phonological Awareness 321K Listening Reading Listening Reading Multisyllables Letter Sounds & Combinations The right doses at the right time.

46 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Informed classroom reading instruction… …that begins to teach critical language and reading skills in p-K and kindergarten and that is sustained throughout school ensures success for all but a few students. There are Many children who would learn to read and write MUCH better IF their instruction were to teach them to understand the systems of their own language (sounds, spellings, meaningful networks, sentences, text organization) as well as the strategies to comprehend narrative and expository text. (Moats, 2000, p. 4)

47 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Teach students that we have a lively and interesting sound system.Graphemes represent phonemes/letters represent sound. We need to teach this explicitly- using symbols to anchor sounds.

48 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER In primary grades (Lyon, 1999) VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION (Build Foundational Skills from the bottom up and then loop.) At the same time, CONSTANT EXPOSURE) Learning to Read So students achieve: Reading to Learn. PHONEMIC AWARENESS PHONICS FLUENCY ORAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

49 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary 5 Big Areas: A simultaneous bottom up and top down approach is Best Practice. Comprehension Oral Language Development

50 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What does this mean ? “ A simultaneous bottom up and top down approach is Best Practice.” It means students, especially strugglers, need ALL these skills taught explicitly and systematically. In the primary grades, focus on oral language development, phonemic awareness and phonics. Teach reading comprehension by building oral language development as students learn to ‘crack the code’. This is the Learning to Read phase. As students become automatic with word recognition and fluency, gradually transition from oral language development to reading comprehension strategies- the Reading to Learn phase.

51 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading, fluency and comprehension processes

52 ReadingComprehension Knowledge Fluency* We Refer to It as General Reading Skills Metacognition Language Prosody Prosody Automaticity/Rate Automaticity/Rate Accuracy Accuracy Decoding Decoding Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness Oral Language Skills Oral Language Skills Knowledge of Language Knowledge of Language Structures Structures Vocabulary Vocabulary Cultural Influences Cultural Influences Life Experience Life Experience Content Knowledge Content Knowledge Activation of Prior Activation of Prior Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge about Knowledge about Texts Texts Motivation & Motivation & Engagement Engagement Active Reading Active Reading Strategies Strategies Monitoring Strategies Monitoring Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Fix-Up Strategies *modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research;

53 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

54 Illinois ASPIRE Where and How does ELL fit into this Continuum? Bilingual and ELL students are as diverse as any group of readers. Teaching ELL students SHOULD NOT be about Belief Systems, but about the Science of Language Development and Reading.

55 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Language Continuum Oral LanguageEarly LiteracyLearning toReadingWriting DevelopmentDevelopmentReadto Learn -Phonology -Lang. Dev. -Lang. Dev. -Vocab. -Semantics -Phon. Process. -Phon.Aware. -Comprehension -Syntax -Print Knowledge -Phonics -Word Analysis -Pragmatics -Fluency

56 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Major Findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth: Instruction that provides substantial coverage in the key components of reading- identified by the National Reading Panel as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension- has clear benefits for language- minority students. National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, 2006

57 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What do we know about instructional programs? National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, 2006

58 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Individual differences contribute significantly to English literacy development. Research shows that the development of English literacy entails cumulative, hierarchical processes for all language-minority students. Certain components of literacy cannot fully develop until students acquire other, precursor skills. For students to develop efficient word recognition skills, for example, they must first have good decoding and orthographic, or spelling, skills. Without fast and accurate word recognition skills, they cannot achieve satisfactory levels of reading comprehension. National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, 2006

59 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading difficulties among language-minority students… May be more a function of individual differences than of language-minority status. Similar proportions of language-minority students and monolingual English speakers are classified as poor readers. In fact, with the exception of English oral- language skills, the profiles of poor readers in the two groups are very similar. Both groups demonstrate difficulties with phonological awareness. These findings suggest that underlying phonological deficits, as opposed to language-minority status, are the primary issue for students experiencing word- level difficulties. National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, 2006

60 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What we know about ELL students: Cardenas-Hagen, 2009.

61 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What we know about ELL students: Cardenas-Hagen, 2009

62 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What we know about ELL students: Cardenas-Hagen, 2009

63 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What we know about ELL students: Cardenas-Hagen, 2009

64 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What we know about ELL students: Cardenas-Hagen, 2009

65 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 ELL Students… ELL students need explicit and systematic instruction in all the 5 components of reading. Students should be ‘sorted’ by their reading needs, not on the basis of their ELL status.

66 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 For some children, Reading to Learn is a relatively simple task HOWEVER, for others (approximately 40% of our population), this is the most difficult task of their lifetime. For these children, explicit and systematic instruction is CRUCIAL. Children vary considerably in how well they master the Alphabetic Principle. (Shaywitz, 2003)

67 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading and the Brain and Why Readers Struggle

68 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

69 Brain research has been the key to understanding Who needs more and Why.

70 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

71 Illinois ASPIRE Why so many readers struggle: 2 broad categories of developmental language disorders: 1.General oral language weaknesses 2.Phonological core deficit (this is the largest category!) (Shaywitz, 2003)

72 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

73 1.General Oral Language Weakness Language SystemsReading Discourse Semantics Phonology Syntax Comprehension Decoding (Shaywitz, 2003)

74 Illinois ASPIRE Phonological Core Deficit Language SystemsReading Discourse Semantics Phonology Syntax Comprehension Decoding ( Shaywitz, 2003) 2. Aka: Mastering the Alphabetic Principle/Cracking the Code

75 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Phonological core deficit: (aka ‘Cracking the Code’)- Inability to process accurately and efficiently the phonological building blocks of language and the units of print that represent them. This type of struggling reader makes up the majority. 2. Phonological Core Deficit Decoding Phonology (Shaywitz, 2003) Aka: Mastering the Alphabetic Principle/Cracking the Code

76 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Teaching Reading… Is like Language therapy…. Instruction needs to stimulate different parts of the brain. When this occurs, students learn to read. Skillful teaching prevents most Reading Problems. (Shaywitz, 2003)

77 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 We may not realize… That difficulties with word recognition, accuracy, rate, reading fluency, and comprehension strategies all contribute to poor reading in older students, but that word recognition and fluency problems are characteristic of most. Students who cannot read words well usually demonstrate weaknesses in phonological processing- but one might not perceive this weakness without training that begins with language study. (Moats, 2000, p. 8)

78 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Some children learn language concepts and their application very easily in spite of incidential teaching and very few examples. New data show that 80% of the variance in reading comprehension at the first-grade level is accounted for by how well students SOUND OUT words and recognize words out of context. Comprehension strategies and knowledge of word meanings become more of a factor in reading success as students move into more advanced stages. (Moats, 2000, pgs. 8-9)

79 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 We know what to do… Use Scientifically-Based Programs! Dr. Shaywitz recommended programs: Language! Reading Mastery/Corrective Reading REWARDS Jolly Phonics Shaywitz, 2003

80 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

81 Advanced Organizer I. Links between Language and Literacy- 2. Oral Language Development- 3. Early Literacy Development- 4. Learning to Read and Reading to Learn- 5. ELL- 6. Language and Reading Disorders- 7. Effective Reading Programs- 8. Q & A

82 Illinois ASPIRE Given what we know… About the Science of Oral Language Development and Reading, why aren’t we teaching more children to read?

83 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Why aren’t we teaching more students to be better readers? The article by Dr. Louisa Moats addresses this question. You will be particularly interested if your district uses a Four Blocks/ Guided Reading/Literature-Based program as your core reading program. Her article clearly articulates why this approach is NOT best practice for struggling readers. “Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When ‘Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction’ Isn’t” mid=82

84 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Why is an effective core reading program crucial? “Teaching reading is far more complex than most professionals and layperson realize. The demands of the phonologic, alphabetic, semantic, and syntactic systems of written language require a careful schedule and sequence of prioritized objectives, explicit strategies, and scaffolds that support students’ initial learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to other contexts. The requirements of curriculum construction and instructional design that effectively move children through the ‘learning to read’ stage to the ‘reading to learn’ stage are simply too important to leave to the judgement of individuals, even the best teachers. The better the core program addresses the instructional priorities, the less teachers will need to supplement and modify instruction for the majority of learners.” From: “Teaching Reading is Rocket Science,” Dr. Louisa Moats (1999) Is Dr. Moats suggesting that what teachers are expected to do in Guided Reading too difficult and an unrealistic expectation…? Could this be contributing to why we have so many strugglers?

85 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Highlights from “Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When ‘Scientifically- Based Reading Instruction’ Isn’t” Despite the National Reading Panel’s landmark report..”discredited and ineffectual practices continue in many schools. Although the term ‘whole language’ is rarely used today, programs based on its premises, such as Reading Recovery, Four Blocks, Guided Reading, and especially, ‘balanced literacy’ are as popular as ever. These approaches may pay lip service to reading science, but they fail to incorporate the content and instructional design proven to work best with students learning to read”. (Moats, 2007, p. 4)

86 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 “For more than three decades, advocates of ‘whole- language’ instruction (and its derivatives) have argued- to the delight of many teachers and administrators- that learning to read is a ‘natural’ process for children. Create reading centers in classrooms; put good, fun books in children’s hands and allow them to explore then encourage them to ‘read’, even if they can’t make heads or tails of the words on the page.” Scientists have established that about 60% of students will learn to read adequately (though not necessarily well) regardless of the instructional method. “40% are less fortunate. For them, explicit instruction in the 5 big areas of reading (including phonics) is necessary if they are ever to become capable readers”. ( Moats, 2007, p. 6)

87 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Words are not recognized by shape and has nothing to do with word recognition.

88 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 This practice is inconsistent with research and occurs in the absence of real knowledge of how to teach reading and sound-symbol relationships.

89 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Arabic ‘Learning to Read’ exercise. Keep reading and it will make sense!

90 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 This is possible to read- IF you know sound-symbol relationships!

91 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 “Many ‘pseudo’-SBRR programs…. Claim to adhere to SBRR guidelines. She identifies tell-tale signs of whole-language programs masquerading as SBRR programs. Among the most common: a stress on ‘cueing systems’, ‘teacher modeling’ rather than direct instruction, and an overemphasis on ‘authentic literature’ and ‘process writing’. (p. 9) “Four blocks is particularly insidious because it appears to be a ‘balanced’ framework, but does not require a teacher to know very much about language or reading”. (p. 20) “For English-language learners, SBRR programs are critical, yet this fact is ignored and whole-language spin-offs remain the dominant approach to teaching ELL students”. (Moats, 2007, p. 22)

92 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 And finally…. “A good reading program, well implemented, teaches each of the five components thoroughly, explicitly, and with planned connections to the others..” (p. 16) “No program is perfect, and some are stronger than others, but several are reasonably faithful to SBRR and are far more apt to succeed with children. For example, Harcourt’s Trophies, SRA/McGraw-Hill’s Open Court, and Scott Foresman’s Reading Street have all five components and good instructional design.” Read Well and Reading Mastery are also effective programs. “(Moats, 2007, p. 14)

93 Illinois ASPIRE GUIDED READING GROUPS OR SKILLS FOCUSED READING GROUPS?

94 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Guided Reading Format As outlined in the work of Fountas and Pinnell, “Guided Reading is a context in which a teacher supports each reader’s development of effective strategies for processing novel texts at increasingly challenging levels of difficulty” (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, p. 3). The structure of a typical Guided Reading lesson roughly follows the following pattern:  Selecting the text  Introducing the text  Reading the text  Discussing the text  Teaching for strategic activities  Extending meaning (optional)  Word Work (optional) Fountas I., & Pinnell G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational.

95 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Guided Reading works well for Skilled Readers Identify words accurately and fluently Understand the meaning of words Develop meaningful ideas from groups of words Draw inferences Relate what he or she already knows to the text being read

96 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

97 Guided Reading may not be appropriate for struggling readers. Important! READ THIS!

98 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Skill Focused lessons may be more effective In providing explicit and systematic instruction For stuggling readers. Important! READ THIS!

99 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 EMPHASIS: Skills-focused Format Skills-Focused Lessons are teacher-planned lessons that provide the opportunity for more systematic, explicit, and focused practice on a relatively small number of critical elements at a time (e.g., unknown consonant digraphs, vowel teams, r-controlled vowels, etc.). They would also provide the opportunity for sustained, systematic, and interesting “word work” (e.g., Beck, 2006) in order to build fluency and confidence in the application of these skills to reading words. Skills-Focused Lessons will be successful to the extent that they are fast-paced, interactive, and targeted appropriately on critical skills for each reading group.

100 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

101 Recent work has indicated- and many teachers have discovered- … …that the combination of literature-based instruction and phonics is more powerful than either method used alone. Rayner, et al, 2007

102 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Teahers obviously need to strike a balance… But in doing so, we urge them to remember that reading must be grounded in a firm understanding of the connections between letters and sounds. Instructors should recognize the ample evidence that youngsters who are directly taught phonics become better at reading, spelling and comprehension than those who must pick up all the confusing rules of English on their own. Educators who deny this reality are neglecting decades of research. They are also neglecting the needs of their students. Rayner, et al, 2007

103 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary 5 Big Areas: A simultaneous bottom up and top down approach is Best Practice. Comprehension Oral Language Development

104 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scientifically Based Core Reading Programs Trophies and Story Town, published by Harcourt Reading Street, published by Scott Foresman (Sidewalks is intervention kit) A Nations’s Choice, published by Houghton Mifflin Treasures, published by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill (Triumphs is intervention kit) Open Court, published by SRA Reading Mastery Plus. published by SRA Al Otaiba S., Kosanovich, M.L., Torgesen J.K., Hassler, L. & Wahl, M. (2005). Reviewing core kindergarten and first-grade reading programs in light of no child left behind: an exploratory study. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 21,

105 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Research-Based Interventions Language Development Language Development: Language for Learning Language for Thinking Language for Reasoning Ladders to Literacy Language First! Building Language for Literacy Building Vocabulary Skills Elements of Reading- Vocabulary Reviews of all programs be accessed on Florida’s Center for Reading Research at

106 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Supplemental Research-Based Interventions Early Literacy-Learning to Read PALS Jolly Phonics Michael Heggerty Fundations Read Well Reviews of all programs be accessed on Florida’s Center for Reading Research at

107 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Research-Based Interventions Older Readers SIM- University of Kansas- Strategic Instruction Model Corrective Reading Language! REWARDS REACH Reviews of all programs be accessed on Florida’s Center for Reading Research at

108 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 How to match the demographics of my community to the best core reading program: Differentiate High SES communities from Low SES communities?? Educationally, the main criteria are background knowledge and language development. The lower the SES, the MORE systematic and explicit interventions need to be in all 5 big areas of reading.

109 Illinois ASPIRE 2009

110

111 Harcourt Trophies “A research-based, developmental reading/language arts program. Explicit phonics instruction; direct reading instruction; guided reading strategies; phonemic awareness instruction; systematic, intervention strategies; integrated language arts components; and state-of-the-art assessment tools ensure every student successfully learns to read.”

112 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness80%100% Phonics75%86%75%100% Fluency83%75%67% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL77%87%75%80% High Priority Items Discretionary Items KindergartenFirst Grade Second Grade Third Grade Phonemc Awareness 88%80% Phonics88%79%73%66% Fluency63%50%83% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL88%77%67%70% Design Features KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade TOTAL50%55%65%80%

113 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt Trophies Reading Program Components for Kindergarten LiteratureStudent Practice Teacher’s Material Big Books and Big Books Collection with Audiotape Library Books Collection Big Book of Rhyme and Songs Read Aloud Anthology Alphabet Books Little Books Collection Practice Book Picture/word cards Phonics Practice Book Pre-decodable/Decodable Books w/take-home version Independent Readers High-frequency word cards Word builders/cards Letter cards Write on boards with Phonemic Awareness Discs Magnetic Letters Teacher’s Edition Teacher’s Resource Book Oo-pples and Boo-noo-oos: Songs and Activities for Phonemic Awareness with CD Letter & Sounds Chart Letter & Sounds Sentence Strip Collection Music CD Assessment Handbook Alphie Rabbit puppet

114 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt Trophies Reading Program Components for Grades 1-3 LiteratureStudent PracticeTeacher’s Material Big Books Student Anthology Intervention Readers (2,3) Audiotapes for Student Anthology Library Books with Teacher’s Guide Big Book of Rhymes (1,2) Read Aloud Anthology (1,2) Practice Book Picture Cards (1) Letter/Word Cards (1) Word Builders/Cards Decodables with take- home version (1,2) Phonics Practice Books Leveled Readers -- Below, On, Advanced, ELL Extra Support Masters Challenge Masters Teacher’s Edition Teaching Chart (1) Oo-pples and Boo-noo- oos:Songs and Activities for Phonemic Awareness with CD (1) Teaching Transparencies Decoding and Word Recognition Assessment

115 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt: Instructional Materials Teacher’s manual with suggested lesson plans, strategies for reaching diverse learners, homework ideas and classroom management strategies Cross curricular centers Supplemental support activities Intervention materials English Language Learner Guides Placement, diagnostic and theme assessments

116 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt: Sample Reading Blocks Whole Group Instruction (15-20 minutes) K: Phonemic Awareness, Sharing Literature, Literature Focus, Letter/sound Practice, High-Frequency Word Practice Grade 1: Oral Language, Sharing Literature, Phonemic Awareness, Word Practice Grade 2-3: Sharing Literature, Phonics Small Group Rotations (20 minutes each) All students participate in Harcourt materials according to level/need K: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, related activities Grade 1: Phonics, Word Work, Comprehension, Vocabulary, Oral Reading Fluency, Reading Practice Grade 2-3: Word Work (Phonics, Vocabulary, High-Frequency Words), Reading (Comprehension, Fluency) Supplemental/Intervention Programs Utilizes Harcourt Intervention Materials and any additional intervention programs to address student need

117 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Harcourt: Professional Development Support Two full day trainings, K-1 and 2-3 by CORE consultant on Harcourt Two full day trainings, K-1 and 2-3 by Harcourt consultant One half day training for Classroom Literacy Assistants by Harcourt consultant.

118 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Pros, Cons, and Pre-corrections Pros Daily Plans in Teacher’s Edition Additional Support Activities Theme Resources Cons Matching program to school calendar Material to cover Pre- corrections Pacing Calendars for 2005/06– reteaching lessons and reviewing skills Lesson Maps - WRRFTAC

119 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin “Meet the needs of each and every reader with the latest in scientifically based, explicit instruction. Powerful intervention resources combined with built-in assessment tools and a wealth of leveled literature make this program highly effective and easily manageable.”

120 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness85%100% Phonics83%82%88% Fluency75%92%67% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL84%82%89%75% High Priority Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness100% Phonics88%96%90%75% Fluency25%50%42% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL94%87%81%66% Discretionary Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade TOTAL90%85%80%75% Design Items

121 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin: Elements A Nation’s Choice, 2003 Comprehensive, step-by-step systematic instruction in the five strands of reading Powerful assessment to diagnose needs, inform instruction, and document results Easy-to-use lesson plans and timesaving management tools Built-in resources to support every student An array of authentic, motivating literature Emphasis on teacher modeling and opportunities for practice

122 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin: Instructional Framework Foundations for learning to read: oral language, knowledge of letter names, phonemic awareness and concepts of print Decoding Skills: phonics/sequential decoding, analogy, context and instant word recognition Fluency Texts for reading instruction Reading comprehension: vocabulary and background knowledge, strategic reading Writing, spelling and grammar Motivation, independent reading and writing, home connections

123 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin: Elements Scope and sequence through shared and guided reading experiences, oral language experiences, writing experiences, read alouds, and self-selected reading opportunities Presented in 3-week themes (K-1) and 4-6 week themes (2-5). Differentiated instruction is supported within the core and handbooks.

124 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin Reading Program Components: Kindergarten LiteratureStudent PracticeTeacher’s Material Big Books Plus Content Links Little Big Books Plus Content Links Big Books Audiotapes Read Aloud Books Phonics Library On May Way Practice Readers Practice Book Letter, Word, and Practice Cards On My Way Practice Readers Word and Picture Books Kindergarten Phonics Center Teacher’s Edition Teacher’s Resource BLM Phonics Library BLM Alphafriends Package Theme Posters Home/Community Connection

125 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghton Mifflin Reading Program Components: Grades 1 st - 3 rd LiteratureStudent Practice Teacher’s Material Big Books Plus Content Links Student Anthology Audiotapes for Student Anthology Read Aloud Books Phonics Library/Readers Library On May Way Practice Readers I Love Reading Books Practice Book Sound Spelling Cards On My Way Practice Readers I Love Reading Books Phonics Library/Readers Library Leveled Readers -- Below, On Level, Challenge, Language Support Theme Paperbacks Teacher’s Edition Teacher’s Resource BLM Phonics Library BLM I Love Reading BLM Readers Library BLM Theme Posters Home/Community Connection Phonics/Decoding Screening Test Blending/Syllable Division Posters

126 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Text Type Definitions Wordless: Books containing no words, only pictures. Pre-Decodable (High-Frequency): May be predictable, lots of repetition of the high-frequency words learned in the accompanying lesson. Predictable: These books have repetitive phrases with a predictable pattern and are often leveled by the publisher. Decodable: Controlled by the previously taught phonic elements and high- frequency words. Controlled: Controlled for vocabulary and not considered trade books or authentic by most educators. No particular phonic focus or enough repetition of a phonic element to be considered decodable. Leveled: May be leveled by many elements (phonics, vocabulary, interest, etc.) Usually used as below-level, on-level, and advanced-level readers. Authentic: Literature which may be leveled to determine grade level. May be sold as trade books.

127 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Houghtin Mifflin: Instructional Materials Teacher manual with suggested lesson plans for themes Resources for supporting differentiated learning, including materials to challenge, extend, and reteach lessons English Language Learner Handbook Classroom management handbook Built-in assessments  Theme Selection (1-6) and Skills Tests (K-6)  Emerging Literacy Survey (K-2)  Phonic/Decoding Screening (1-6)  Integrated Theme Tests (K-6)

128 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Core Components: Kindergarten and Grade 1 Benchmark: 1. Core Program Components: Opening Routines, Reading the Big Book, Teacher Read Aloud, Comprehension Strategy and Skill Instruction, High Frequency Words, Phonics/Word Work, Content Link, Vocabulary Strategy and Skill Instruction, Spiral Review, Building Fluency/Rereading for Fluency, Practice Book, Spelling, Concepts of Print, Anthology Selections, Phonics Library, etc. 2. Differentiation: Use the Challenge Handbook and/or Classroom Management Handbook for additional resources. Strategic/Intensive: 1.Core Program Components: Same as Benchmark. 2.Differentiation: Use Extra Support Handbook and ELL Handbook for additional resources to preteach and reteach lessons. *Based on your data, a supplemental program may be needed to support/supplant these children in/from the core program.

129 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Core Components: Grades 2-3 Benchmark: 1. Core Program Components: Teacher Read Aloud, Phonics/Word Work, High Frequency Word Instruction, Vocabulary Strategy and Skill Instruction, Anthology Selections, Phonics Library (2 nd only), Spelling, Structural Analysis, Comprehension Strategy and Skill Instruction, Spiral Review, Practice Book, Building Fluency/Rereading for Fluency, etc. 2. Differentiation: Use the Challenge Handbook and/or Classroom Management Handbook for additional resources. Strategic/Intensive: 1.Core Program Components: Same as Benchmark. 2.Differentiation: Use Extra Support Handbook and ELL Handbook for additional resources to preteach and reteach lessons. *Based on your data, a supplemental program may be needed to support/supplant these children in/from the core program.

130 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 HM 2005: K and 1st Kindergarten 5 Big Ideas Color Coded in Teacher’s Edition Overall Format is More Organized New Read Alouds New Leveled Readers for Social Studies, Reading (June) and Science (September) First Grade Anthologies 1.1 and 1.2 (Themes 1, 2, 3, and 4) have 3, instead of 2, stories. The Main selection is less decodable than 2003 edition. (**Recommend purchasing at least 10 copies of Phonics Library books for every classroom) Other Changes: Information on Assessing Student Progress, Managing Flexible Groups, and Planning for Assessment

131 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 HM nd and 3rd New Weekly 5 Day Lesson Plan Like K and 1 Overall Format is More Organized 2 New Selections (1 fiction/1 nonfiction) Instruction and Review of Theme Skills/Strategies 1 Week of Lesson Plans in All Six Themes Section on Management Routines/Instructional Routines Additional Leveled Readers with Lesson Plans No Longer Reader’s Library Books Information on Assessing Student Progress and Planning for Assessment

132 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Pros, Cons, and Pre-Corrections Pros Teachers Manuals Variety of materials and texts to meet needs of all learners Spiral Reviews Consistent Scope and Sequence Consistent weekly pattern of instruction Con Not enough daily explicit teaching, modeling, guided practice and review of explicit phonics for struggling readers (K-3) Not enough exposure of explicit teaching, modeling and student fluency practice using decodable and controlled texts (K-3) Pre- Corrections Adding daily explicit phonics lessons for struggling readers (K-3) Pacing Calendars – reteaching lessons and reviewing for mastery (utilizing possible 7-day plan for second and third grade) Preview Theme Skills tests and review test results

133 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Open Court “Reading and writing program that uses a balanced approach of systematic direct instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics, grade level decodable text, and incorporation of language arts materials.”

134 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Open Court KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness80%75% Phonics81%89%56%63% Fluency63%83%92% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL80%77%68%80% High Priority Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness100%90% Phonics100%83%55%84% Fluency88%67%75% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL100%87%58%82% Discretionary Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade TOTAL80% 90%85% Design Items

135 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Open Court: Elements Teaching: Early Reading Teacher directed instruction in alphabetic and phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension and writing Reinforcement and repeated practice of phonemic awareness through sound and spelling cards, alliterative stories and reading materials that incorporate instructed words and sounds Focus on blending through direct instruction, teacher modeling and student response Dictation, spelling and word building games to link phonics to writing Incorporation of literature beginning with big books (beginning kindergarten) followed by grade appropriate texts (mid first grade) Teaching: Language Arts Grade level authentic literature organized that include famous fiction and non-fiction writers, science and social studies units Multicultural focus is full-length texts Emphasis on vocabulary, comprehension and exploring concepts

136 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Open Court: Instructional Materials Teacher manual, toolboxes and instructional kits to guide instruction, including differentiation (levels K-6) Big and little books (K-1) Pre-decodable and decodable text (K-3) Student Anthologies (1-6) Reading, phonemic awareness and phonics package (K) Reading and phonics package (1-3) Sound and letters workbook (K) Language Arts skills workbook (K) Phonics skills workbook (K) Comprehension and Language Arts workbooks (1-6) Inquiry journal (2-6) Unit assessments (K-6) Desk strips (K-3) Transparencies (K-6) Spelling and Vocabulary skills workbook (K-6) Intervention Support (K-6)

137 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Open Court: Professional Development One half day orientation One day grade level professional development including introduction to materials, examples of lessons and modeling of strategies 6-8 week follow-ups for classroom observation, demonstration and debriefing Additional support as needed

138 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Pros and Cons Pros Teachers Manuals Materials for differentiation Interventions supports Cons Pacing may be too fast for struggling students and ELL students

139 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman Reading Street “Designed to help teachers build readers through motivating and engaging literature, scientifically research- based instruction, and a wealth of reliable teaching tools for instruction, pacing, assessments, and grouping.”

140 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman (2004) KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness75% Phonics72%79%81%75% Fluency75% 50% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL73%77%79%60% High Priority Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness69%85% Phonics81%83% 38% Fluency75%67%25% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL72%83%79%34% Discretionary Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade TOTAL70%80%60%45% Design Features

141 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman: Elements Provides systematic instruction and repeated practice opportunities emphasizing different skills at various grade levels (“right skill at right time with right emphasis”) Provides learning opportunities through shared reading, guided reading, oral language experiences, writing, read alouds and self-selected reading Scope and sequence through 6 week thematic units (k- 1) and 5 week thematic units(2-6) Emphasis on daily assessment and differentiated instruction ELL component available

142 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman: Elements Teaching: One week lessons that focus on a specific targeted skill and highlight predictor skills for success Weekly anthologies that target social studies and science standards 150 instructional days that focus on reading, word work, oral language, language arts, and social studies and science connections 90-minute instructional blocks (additional 60 minutes with language arts component) Strategic Intervention lessons that parallel grade-level content and incorporates systematic scaffolding Guidelines for making data-based decisions

143 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman Reading Program Components Kindergarten LiteratureStudent PracticeTeacher’s Materials 22 Big Books 15 Trade Books *Read, Write and Listen *Practice Book w/ Family Times Books *Leveled Readers wordless stories, kindergarten readers, independent readers for extra practice *Magnetic Word Building Cards (teacher & student) *Phonics Activity Mats *Teacher’s Editions - 6 *Teacher’s Resource Book *Daily Oral Language Flip Chart *Phonics Songs and Rhymes Flip Chart *ABC picture cards *Picture/Word cards *Word Building Wall Cards

144 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman Reading Program Components Grades 1-3 Teacher Materials * Teacher Editions (6) w/ Links *Big Books (Gr’s 1 and 2 only) *Trade Books *Teacher Resource Book (BL’s) *Adding English and Posters *10 Important Sentences *Vocabulary Flip Chart *Collection For Readers and Intervention Handbook for Remediation (Gr 3 and up only) *Phonics Source Book/Games Kit & Phonics Handbook *Phonics Songs and Rhymes Charts CD’s/cassettes *Assessment Handbook and Testing Books *Grammar/Spelling Practice Student Materials *2-5 Student Books *Leveled Readers Challenge Easy On-Level *Collection for Readers Books (see Teacher Materials) *Phonics Readers (gr 1-3) *Decodable Readers (gr 1 only) *Take Home Readers *Practice Books Other “Enhancements” *Typed SF passages for fluency *Index Cards for Word Walls, etc. *Word Walls in every classroom *Sight Word & Fluency Building Activities *Research Based Methods of Reading Instruction K-3 Books for all teachers (by Vaughn and Thompson) *White Boards/markers *Guided Reading Coaching Tool *Pocket Charts/Easels

145 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman: Instruction Reading: Focus on comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, cross- curricular comparisons and independent reading Word Work: Phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling and high frequency words Oral Language: Concept building and shared literature Additional Language Arts: Writing, grammar, speaking, listening, technology, research/study skills

146 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman: Instructional Materials Teacher Edition with suggested lesson plans (Unit overview, weekly overview broken into “big ideas”, instructional strategies for each day) Resources for small group strategies and reteaching Leveled readers Intervention handbooks Classroom Routines folders English Language Learner supports

147 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Scott Foresman: Professional Development Ongoing professional development on progress monitoring and use, components of effective reading program and elements of effective instruction Reading Professional Development package available with presenter package, 8 modules and videos for reading instruction

148 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Pros, Cons, and Precorrections Pros versions are almost identical – save some of your 2002 materials for IA’s and extra doses. The program is comprehensive. There are materials that can be used for extra/double dosing. Think about purchasing extra: Decodable Stories Phonics Stories Take Home Stories Cons Lower functioning students will struggle in SF. Newer teachers will need to learn how to boost their own delivery skills in that the directions for guiding reading, diagnosing errors, interpreting test data and administering correction procedures are minimal. Areas such as phonics in the lower grades or fluency in grades 2/3 need to be enhanced. Learning what skills to teach (where to get the most bang for the buck) takes time. Precorrections K/1 – For intensive students, ERI layers well. For 2/3 students who need fluency, Read Naturally layers well. Additional coaching or team planning (see Guided Reading Coaching Tool) can support teacher’s instructional deliveries. Stay focused on the most useful vocab (tier 2), the target skills and regularly check in with the RF scope and sequence to check pacing.

149 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Similarities of Core Programs Systematic and explicit instruction of Big 5 reading areas Units, themes, and skills integrated throughout instruction and activities Teacher manuals and resources to assist in instruction of themes Student materials and books that reinforce units and lessons English Language Learner Handbooks Material for differentiating based on student need

150 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 What Criteria…. Differentiate High SES communities from Low SES communities?? Educationally, the main criteria are background knowledge and language development. The lower the SES, the MORE systematic and explicit interventions need to be in all 5 big areas of reading.

151 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 High SES Example

152 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Middle SES Example

153 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Low SES Example

154 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery “Explicit phonics, fluency, and comprehension are key building blocks in the Reading Mastery Program”

155 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery Ages 5-11 Based on DISTAR All instruction is direct and unambiguous New concepts are introduced in small steps Students practice skills until mastered Reading skills and strategies are specifically taught, applied and reviewed, maximizing student achievement. All stories are composed entirely of words students have decoded in isolation Immediate corrective feedback provided for errors Students receive consistent daily practice in reading, writing, listening, and speaking Entry level and continuous monitoring of students Strong research based to support success with at risk students

156 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness95%100% Phonics86%93%81%100% Fluency84%100%83% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL89%90%89%90% High Priority Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness94%100% Phonics75%95%90%84% Fluency75%92%100% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL84% 90%89% Discretionary Items KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade TOTAL90% 55% Design Features

157 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery Levels 1, 2 and Fast Cycle: Use knowledge of letter sounds and patterns to decode and spell words. Learn to recognize common irregular words. Develop a reading vocabulary of over 1,200 words. Respond to questions, follow instructions, make predictions and draw conclusions. Reading Mastery Levels 3-6: Provides students with the structure and challenging materials required for developing: Strong vocabulary and multiple decoding skills. Comprehension strategies for understanding content.

158 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery: Fast Track Combines Levels 1 and 2 into accelerated one year program Designed for students with “average” learning rates

159 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery: Link to 5 Areas of Reading Phonemic Awareness: explicitly taught beginning with easiest tasks (saying drawn out words fast) through the continuum of more difficult tasks (isolate, blend, discriminate) Phonics: explicit instruction of common letter-sounds and blending incorporated into text for practice Fluency: one-minute timed partner readings from daily stories Comprehension: begins in level 3 with specific strategies for understanding content (making predictions, answering questions, drawing conclusions incorporated in Levels 1-2)

160 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Reading Mastery: Pros and Cons Pros: Focuses on 40 more frequently used letter sounds Incorporation of orthography into meaningful and interesting text Provides immediate corrective feedback on oral reading errors Cons: Concern related to authenticity of texts and reading passages Struggling students may need more systematic and explicit instruction, review of high priority skills and building links between fundamental and higher order skills (especially grade 2 and higher)

161 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language! Jane Fell Greene, Ed.D “Designed specifically for students performing two or more years behind grade-level placement”

162 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language! Designed for Grades 3 - Adult Integrates reading, spelling, writing, and critical language arts strands Developed for students who benefit from explicit instruction in a structured language curriculum Sequenced, systematic, cumulative explicit instruction in two daily 90 minute blocks Individualized instruction based on entry assessments Students continue on a level until mastery completed Small group and individual activities

163 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language!: Oregon Reading First Review KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness Phonics56% Fluency56% Vocabulary Comprehension TOTAL56%

164 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language! Florida Center for Reading Research Review PAPFVC +++ Area of Reading Notes: a, b, c, d (systematic, explicit, aligned to student materials, ample practice opportunities

165 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Curriculum Three levels of 18 units Students spend approximately 1 year on each level Series of increasing decodable readers with activities for before, during, and after reading Activities focus on vocabulary expansion, pre-reading summary, writing extension, and questions for discussion based on Bloom’s taxonomy Master lesson plans, instructional resource guides, and supplemental materials that systematically guide teacher Lessons flow from phonemic skills to connected text

166 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Alignment with Big 5 Phonemic Awareness: book of activities including rhyming, production, isolation, segmentation, blending, deletion, substitution, and reversal of phonemes Phonics: taught directly by linking correct letter symbol to phoneme Vocabulary: study of structures including comparative forms, tenses, affixes and roots in Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon Fluency: independent readings and direct practice with timed readings of words, phrases, and passages Comprehension: exercises and support materials for comprehension strategies including graphic organizers, pictoral sequencing, and semantic maps

167 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Language!: Pros and Cons Pros: Thorough presentation of reading, spelling and language arts strands that are systematic Instructor manual and resource guide that offer materials for teaching content as well as background knowledge needed Highly structured and individualized (students move through at own pace) Lesson plans for units tie together skills, materials, and activities needed for instruction Cons: Majority of research conducted with middle and high school students

168 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading “Intensive intervention for students who are reading below grade level. ” -SRA McGraw Hill

169 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading Designed for Grades 3-Adult Direct instruction approach Tightly sequenced lessons focusing on decoding, fluency and comprehension Appropriate for small groups or whole classrooms Consistent with SBRR

170 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading: Oregon Reading First Review KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness98% Phonics100% Fluency75% Vocabulary Comprehension Level A

171 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading: Oregon Reading First Review KindergartenFirst GradeSecond GradeThird Grade Phonemic Awareness Phonics92%99% Fluency84% Vocabulary Comprehension Levels B1 and B2

172 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading: Florida Center for Reading Research Review PAPFVC +++ Area of Reading Notes: a, b, c, d (systematic, explicit, aligned to student materials, ample practice opportunities

173 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Curriculum 2 strands with 4 levels: Decoding and Comprehension Levels A, B1 and B2 designed for half year Level C designed for full year Teacher materials: Series Guide for sample lessons and placement tests, Decoding Presentation Book, Comprehension Presentation Book, Teacher Guide, Blackline Masters, standards and benchmark checklists, assessment tools Student Materials: hardcover decoding and comprehension textbooks, decoding and comprehension workbooks, placement and mastery tests

174 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Alignment with Big 5 Decoding Strand: focus on phonemic awareness, word identification and efficient reading  Level A: Word Attack Basics (nonreaders) – basic decoding skills and phonemic awareness activities  Level B1: Decoding Strategies (nonfluent or high errors on like words) – phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency and comprehension through predication questions  Level B2: Decoding Strategies (nonfluent or high errors on like words) – phonemic awareness auditory activities, phonics, fluency and comprehension through predication questions  Level C: Skills Applications (bridging word attack with reading text) – fluency, vocabulary and comprehension through predication questions

175 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Alignment with Big 5 Comprehension Strand: focus on vocabulary, information and comprehension strategies for academic success Expository text for cause/effect, inference, main idea, text structure and sequencing Instruction for interpreting graphs, maps, charts and diagrams  Level A: Thinking Basics (difficulty with literal questions and following directions) - focus on oral language foundation  Level B1 and B2: Comprehension Skills (literal and inferential comprehension strategies) – read to learn new information  Level C: Concept Applications – build skills for secondary content areas, organizing information for retention and reporting

176 Illinois ASPIRE 2009 Corrective Reading: Pros and Cons Pros: Explicit and systematic instruction Scaffolded professional development and coaching Well-organized teacher materials (less preparation time required) Video libraries for direct instruction Cons : Minimal fluency goals Structured and repetitive style may not lend well to teacher style


Download ppt "Illinois ASPIRE 2009 The Critical Links between Oral Language Development, Early Literacy, And Reading Scientifically Based Reading."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google