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Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics Late Spring School Cognitive Semiotics Sofia, NBU 29th of May.

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1 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics Late Spring School Cognitive Semiotics Sofia, NBU 29th of May

2 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 2 Condillac`s thesis Abbé de Condillac formulated in 1746 the thesis that language issued from a signaling behavior/language based on non signaling behavior; i.e. a “language” of action. Abbé de Condillac formulated in 1746 the thesis that language issued from a signaling behavior/language based on non signaling behavior; i.e. a “language” of action. This was considered as the common ground making animal communication and human language comparable. This was considered as the common ground making animal communication and human language comparable. As a corollary he assumed a language of gestures prior to a phonic language in the development of early men. As a corollary he assumed a language of gestures prior to a phonic language in the development of early men. He is thus the grandfather of evolutionary pragmatics; the father would be Darwin who assumes a real continuity between species and as a consequence on the behavioral side a continuity between animal communication and human language. He is thus the grandfather of evolutionary pragmatics; the father would be Darwin who assumes a real continuity between species and as a consequence on the behavioral side a continuity between animal communication and human language.

3 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 3 Basic thesis of evolutionary pragmatics 1.Pragmatic principles, i.e. those governing the behavioral patterns and motion schemata of animate beings are the bottom line of any signaling behavior. 2.In the transition of social signaling to social language the meaning of linguistic signs is primarily motivated by the action they allow or even constitute (define).

4 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 4 Ernst Cassirer (1874 – 1945) and his „philosophy of symbolic forms“ (1923-29)

5 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 5 On the relation between different symbolic forms For Cassirer the symbolic organization of thinking (giving symbolic form to pre-symbolic thought) demarcates the transition between nature and culture. For Cassirer the symbolic organization of thinking (giving symbolic form to pre-symbolic thought) demarcates the transition between nature and culture. The symbolic forms are manifestations of man’s basic symbolic capacity. The symbolic forms are manifestations of man’s basic symbolic capacity. They emerge as a plurality: myth, language, science. Intermediary symbolic forms are technology and art. They emerge as a plurality: myth, language, science. Intermediary symbolic forms are technology and art. It follows that the evolution of symbolic behavior may be followed in all these manifestations. It follows that the evolution of symbolic behavior may be followed in all these manifestations. As a consequence it is possible to use the evolution of technology and art to fill observational lacunae in the evolution of language. As a consequence it is possible to use the evolution of technology and art to fill observational lacunae in the evolution of language.

6 Some facts about the evolution of technologies and art

7 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 7 Instrumentality in higher mammals and man The use of instruments and the goal-oriented adaptation (manufacturing) of tools can be observed in many orders of animals: ants (insects), birds, and mammals all use simple instruments. In some cases, this allows them to access difficult areas of their body (elephants) or to reach under surfaces. Chimpanzees shape twigs to facilitate “fishing” for termites in termite-hills. The use of instruments and the goal-oriented adaptation (manufacturing) of tools can be observed in many orders of animals: ants (insects), birds, and mammals all use simple instruments. In some cases, this allows them to access difficult areas of their body (elephants) or to reach under surfaces. Chimpanzees shape twigs to facilitate “fishing” for termites in termite-hills. The use of instruments may be inborn and even the evolution of limbs may be connected to instrumental functions, i.e., limbs are “shaped” evolutionarily to adapt for specific instrumental functions. Thus, primate and human hands take over functions originally located in the head (mouth) for attack, defense, preparation of food, for mastication, etc. The use of instruments may be inborn and even the evolution of limbs may be connected to instrumental functions, i.e., limbs are “shaped” evolutionarily to adapt for specific instrumental functions. Thus, primate and human hands take over functions originally located in the head (mouth) for attack, defense, preparation of food, for mastication, etc. Our gestured language, facial expressions, art practices and vocal language presuppose a kind of “instrumental” evolution of the human (and hominid) hand and face. Our gestured language, facial expressions, art practices and vocal language presuppose a kind of “instrumental” evolution of the human (and hominid) hand and face.

8 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 8 Possible evolutionary steps leading to cave art 10 million y. 7 million y. 2 million y. 400.000 y. 40.000 Primates like gorillas, orang-utans and chimpanzees Australopithecus, upright locomotion Homo erectus, lithic technology, protolanguage H. sapiens, language Cave art

9 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 9 The development of tool-use and tool making implies learning, social imitation or even teaching. Tembrok (1977: 186 f) distinguishes six levels: The development of tool-use and tool making implies learning, social imitation or even teaching. Tembrok (1977: 186 f) distinguishes six levels: ad-hoc tool-using ad-hoc tool-using purposeful tool-using purposeful tool-using tool-modifying for immediate purpose tool-modifying for immediate purpose tool-modifying for future eventuality tool-modifying for future eventuality ad-hoc-tool-making ad-hoc-tool-making cultural tool-making cultural tool-making The last stage, “cultural tool-making”, can only be observed in primates and in man. The evolution of tool use

10 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 10 Lithic technologies. Left: reconstruction of the technique; right: products of the Levallois technique Human tool use in the Paleolithic

11 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 11 The Design of Lithic Instruments The industry had to consider the following factors: Form and quality of a stone found (this includes a geographic knowledge of places, where they may be found). Form and quality of a stone found (this includes a geographic knowledge of places, where they may be found). Splitting of the stone and isolation of the kernel. Splitting of the stone and isolation of the kernel. Separation of sharp blades from the kernel. Separation of sharp blades from the kernel. Use of instruments for choking stone on one side and use of stone instruments for the manufacturing of other instruments (bone and wood). Use of instruments for choking stone on one side and use of stone instruments for the manufacturing of other instruments (bone and wood).

12 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 12 Handaxe in the early Paleolithic (above) Abbévillien- Biface (Le Stade) Le Champs de Mars (below) Middle Acheuléen (Saint Acheul) (cf. Weiner, 1972: 130) Abbévillien= 600.000-350.000, second glacial period; Acheuléen= 350.000-100.000; third glacial period

13 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 13 (left) Moustérien; until 40.000, fourth glacial period; Charente (middle), La Quina (right), La Quina (all in the Mousterian period)

14 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 14 Blades from the Solutrean Blades from the Magdale- nean

15 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 15 Stages of glaciations ky BP Lithic technologies Stylistic periods of cave art in France (recent man) Interglacial 128- 118 Core/chopping tool No cave art found yet Early glacial/temperate 118-75 Flake, core /chopping tool Early glacial, glacial 75-32 Handaxes, scrapers Full glacial 32-13Blades Perigordian (ca. 34 ky-19 ky) Aurignacian (33 – 18 ky) Late glacial 13-10 Microlithic elements Solutrean (18 –16 ky) Magdalenian (16 – 10 ky) Current interglacial 10-0 Transition to the metallic ages From tool-use to cave art Periods in ky = 1000y.

16 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 16 The beginning of graphical art The beginning of graphical arts can be dated by the first appearance of concentrated color pigments in the context of hominid dwellings. Barham (2001) reports that in south central Africa pieces of iron hematite (often called ochre) and specularite were recovered from an archeological site near Twin Rivers, in Zambia. They had been brought to the site, processed and rubbed against surfaces. One can infer that these materials were used to color objects, bodies or surfaces. The use of such pigments establishes a continuity, which reaches from the archeological sites mentioned (i.e., from 270.000y. BP) to contemporary hunter-gathers in the Kalahari. The first engravings on stone were also found in Africa and can be dated to 70.000y. BP. One can conclude that archaic Homo sapiens used colors to paint (e.g., their bodies, objects, and/or large surfaces). The beginning of graphical arts can be dated by the first appearance of concentrated color pigments in the context of hominid dwellings. Barham (2001) reports that in south central Africa pieces of iron hematite (often called ochre) and specularite were recovered from an archeological site near Twin Rivers, in Zambia. They had been brought to the site, processed and rubbed against surfaces. One can infer that these materials were used to color objects, bodies or surfaces. The use of such pigments establishes a continuity, which reaches from the archeological sites mentioned (i.e., from 270.000y. BP) to contemporary hunter-gathers in the Kalahari. The first engravings on stone were also found in Africa and can be dated to 70.000y. BP. One can conclude that archaic Homo sapiens used colors to paint (e.g., their bodies, objects, and/or large surfaces).

17 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 17 Rock engravings and later plastic art in stone may be understood as the origin of representational art. Rock engravings and later plastic art in stone may be understood as the origin of representational art. As this line also leads to the invention abstract (motivated by cultural memory) signs and finally to writing, the modern cultures of fine arts and literature have their origin in Paleolithic symbol techniques. As this line also leads to the invention abstract (motivated by cultural memory) signs and finally to writing, the modern cultures of fine arts and literature have their origin in Paleolithic symbol techniques. Color was originally used for body-painting, later in the context of funeral practices, and finally in the art of caves (after 40.000 BP) Color was originally used for body-painting, later in the context of funeral practices, and finally in the art of caves (after 40.000 BP) Rock-engravings and color use

18 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 18 Drawings on portable art Bone of a mammoth with ornaments from Mezin (Ucrainia) The engraved bone in the possession of a person and the engraving on it may be used as a prototype (or a model of imitation) which orients further perception of similar objects. It is also an object of value (it can be given, stolen, inherited or buried with the owner). Becoming an object of value marks the point of transition to ritual and magical objects.

19 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 19 Varieties of Venus-Figures in Western- and Eastern Europe. A: Willendorf; B: Lespuge; C: Grimaldi; D: Dolné-Vêstonice,; E,F und L: Kostienki; G: Khotylevo; H und J: Avdevo; I und K: Gargarino The dominance of female statuettes and female symbols (“vulvas”) was interpreted as the consequence of a more “gendered” society in the Upper Paleolithic. Eventually a more egalitarian society was replaced by a society with social differentiation and a divergence between female and male roles From: Sanchidrián, 2001: 12

20 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 20 Abstract representations of human bodies Males and females Russia

21 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 21 Paleolithic cave paintings Cave paintings occur mainly in an area north and west of the Pyrenees: mainly in Périgord, Toulouse (France) and Cantabrica (Spain). Probably the area was a very early economic “Kulturbund” (network of civilizations) in Europe. The herds of reindeer (as in northern Finland today) defined the relevant ecological dynamics. They probably came to the plains in winter and returned to higher grounds in the Pyrenees, the Cantabrica Mountains or the Massif Central in France in summer. The populations of Cro-Magnon men followed the herds and thus met other populations in southern France and northern Spain. Cave paintings occur mainly in an area north and west of the Pyrenees: mainly in Périgord, Toulouse (France) and Cantabrica (Spain). Probably the area was a very early economic “Kulturbund” (network of civilizations) in Europe. The herds of reindeer (as in northern Finland today) defined the relevant ecological dynamics. They probably came to the plains in winter and returned to higher grounds in the Pyrenees, the Cantabrica Mountains or the Massif Central in France in summer. The populations of Cro-Magnon men followed the herds and thus met other populations in southern France and northern Spain. Other forms of Paleolithic art show an extension of this cultural region to Switzerland, Italy, Southern Germany and Eastern Europe. Other forms of Paleolithic art show an extension of this cultural region to Switzerland, Italy, Southern Germany and Eastern Europe.

22 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 22 Drawing techniques and body motion Monochrome drawing of a horse (Peña de Candamo)

23 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 23 Patterns of locomotion are not only relevant for the content of pictures but also for their production. Beltran et al (1998: 72) have shown that painters in the cave of Altamira stood with their left arm on the cave wall and traced along it to get a long curved line; i.e., they used their (left) arm and hand as a mold for lines. In a similar way the natural motion of the arm with fixed body was the basis for larger curved lines, e.g., the shoulder and back of a bison, i.e., the human limbs were used as instruments in a ritualized act of painting. The drawing of a bison can thus be decomposed into a series of natural motion patterns, which begin at the head and end at the hind legs (variants of this technique are common). Patterns of locomotion are not only relevant for the content of pictures but also for their production. Beltran et al (1998: 72) have shown that painters in the cave of Altamira stood with their left arm on the cave wall and traced along it to get a long curved line; i.e., they used their (left) arm and hand as a mold for lines. In a similar way the natural motion of the arm with fixed body was the basis for larger curved lines, e.g., the shoulder and back of a bison, i.e., the human limbs were used as instruments in a ritualized act of painting. The drawing of a bison can thus be decomposed into a series of natural motion patterns, which begin at the head and end at the hind legs (variants of this technique are common). The surface can be further structured by lines which separate light and dark parts, or by areas with different color or texture and further details can be added. In this context it is worthwhile to note that certain body parts of animals receive special attention: the hair of a bison or its eye and nose (in Altamira), the heads of horses (e.g., a sequence of four heads with necks in cave Chauvet) and of lions (e.g., the sketched or elaborated heads and necks in cave The surface can be further structured by lines which separate light and dark parts, or by areas with different color or texture and further details can be added. In this context it is worthwhile to note that certain body parts of animals receive special attention: the hair of a bison or its eye and nose (in Altamira), the heads of horses (e.g., a sequence of four heads with necks in cave Chauvet) and of lions (e.g., the sketched or elaborated heads and necks in cave

24 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 24 The cultural achievement of Paleolithic art presupposes a rather general grid of meanings on the level of values in a probably multilingual society of hunters. It would be exceptional if the existence of a large-scale system of values for exchange had not produced a collective system of meanings. The cultural achievement of Paleolithic art presupposes a rather general grid of meanings on the level of values in a probably multilingual society of hunters. It would be exceptional if the existence of a large-scale system of values for exchange had not produced a collective system of meanings. The diversity of conventional signs (cf. Leroi-Gourhan, 1992: 137-140) shows a range of distribution corresponding in size to actual dialect-areas and suggests that the populations living in the Franco-Cantabric area had many different subcultures. The diversity of conventional signs (cf. Leroi-Gourhan, 1992: 137-140) shows a range of distribution corresponding in size to actual dialect-areas and suggests that the populations living in the Franco-Cantabric area had many different subcultures. Nevertheless these “dialects” formed an assembly on the level of basic semantics and pragmatics used in cultural contacts, rituals, in the oral tradition of myths and the practice of rituals. Nevertheless these “dialects” formed an assembly on the level of basic semantics and pragmatics used in cultural contacts, rituals, in the oral tradition of myths and the practice of rituals. They formed probably one of the largest preliterate symbolic civilizations before the introduction of writing. They formed probably one of the largest preliterate symbolic civilizations before the introduction of writing.

25 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 25 Paleolithic paintings contain many signs, which cannot be interpreted as pictures or figures. The transition between iconic signs and abstract signs (symbols) occurs first with very frequent contents. Two human body-parts appear regularly in the paintings and engravings: Paleolithic paintings contain many signs, which cannot be interpreted as pictures or figures. The transition between iconic signs and abstract signs (symbols) occurs first with very frequent contents. Two human body-parts appear regularly in the paintings and engravings: The human hand. The human hand. The female vulva. The female vulva. In the case of the hand the most concrete picture is created either by pressing the (left) hand on the wall and painting the contours (or by spraying chewed color with the mouth) or by painting the hand with color and pressing it against the wall. The picture is really the trace of the hand (it indicates the act of touching the wall with the hand). Other tokens abstract the shape of the human hand to a line (a band) with three, four, five branches In the case of the hand the most concrete picture is created either by pressing the (left) hand on the wall and painting the contours (or by spraying chewed color with the mouth) or by painting the hand with color and pressing it against the wall. The picture is really the trace of the hand (it indicates the act of touching the wall with the hand). Other tokens abstract the shape of the human hand to a line (a band) with three, four, five branches

26 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 26 Styled Represen- tations of hands Cave Santian (Spain)). Cave Santian (Spain)). First signs of abstraction

27 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 27 The relation of hands to their body is metonymical (pars pro toto), i.e., one can guess the whole if one has the necessary knowledge, which is easy in the case of the hand. In some cases, the hands are deformed (e.g., have only four fingers); they could therefore be the personal signature of a painter; some authors even guessed an underlying gestured language. The relation of hands to their body is metonymical (pars pro toto), i.e., one can guess the whole if one has the necessary knowledge, which is easy in the case of the hand. In some cases, the hands are deformed (e.g., have only four fingers); they could therefore be the personal signature of a painter; some authors even guessed an underlying gestured language.

28 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 28 Methonymic abstraction Giant deer Contours of a deer’s head Sketch of a deer’s head

29 Graphical and writing technologies as symbolic manifestations parallel to an evolved (but not yet diocumented) language

30 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 30 Many pictures in the painted caves cannot be linked with specific contents, from which they are derived. Leroi-Gourhan (1992: chapter IX) made an inventory of the Franco-Cantabric signs and distinguished three major classes: small signs (e.g., sticks and ramified forms), small signs (e.g., sticks and ramified forms), full signs; e.g., triangles, squares, rectangles (tecti-forms), key shapes (clavi-forms), and full signs; e.g., triangles, squares, rectangles (tecti-forms), key shapes (clavi-forms), and punctuated signs. punctuated signs. Leroi-Gourhan comes to the conclusion that all these signs have only a very indirect association with the animals represented in the paintings. They are a supplementary code. This is very clear in Lascaux, where signs and pictures are systematically combined into one gestalt and have corresponding sizes (cf. ibidem: 337).

31 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 31 Combination (and separation) of pictorial and abstract signs in the Paleolithic period. Combination (and separation) of pictorial and abstract signs in the Paleolithic period. (cf. J. Jelinek, 1975, 433) (cf. J. Jelinek, 1975, 433) The abstract sign is of the tectiform type

32 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 32 The small signs could be derived by “disjunction”, i.e., certain figural features from pictures are isolated, cut off. The general tendency is one of geometrical abstraction. Small pictures as in portable art could have triggered the abstraction. The conventionalized miniature signs were later added to full-scale pictures in the cave paintings. This is the same process as the one observed in the evolution of early writing systems, e.g., in Egypt. The small signs could be derived by “disjunction”, i.e., certain figural features from pictures are isolated, cut off. The general tendency is one of geometrical abstraction. Small pictures as in portable art could have triggered the abstraction. The conventionalized miniature signs were later added to full-scale pictures in the cave paintings. This is the same process as the one observed in the evolution of early writing systems, e.g., in Egypt. Leroi-Gourhan associates these signs with the male sex (as phallic symbols). Full signs are associated with the female sex. Either they are derived from the form of the vulva, or from a female profile (without head and feet). Leroi-Gourhan associates these signs with the male sex (as phallic symbols). Full signs are associated with the female sex. Either they are derived from the form of the vulva, or from a female profile (without head and feet).

33 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 33 The signs called “tecti-forms” or rectangular (cf. ibidem: 208 f.) look like huts or shelters and could refer secondarily to the domain of females (In a matrilineal society, daughters inherit the house and objects in the house and these are associated with the female sex). Figure 17 shows some examples from Leroi-Gourhan (1992: 319). The signs called “tecti-forms” or rectangular (cf. ibidem: 208 f.) look like huts or shelters and could refer secondarily to the domain of females (In a matrilineal society, daughters inherit the house and objects in the house and these are associated with the female sex). Figure 17 shows some examples from Leroi-Gourhan (1992: 319). The punctuated signs can be related to a basic technique of painting and engraving, i.e., to aligned points, which produce a curve or two rows of them, which fill a surface. It is thus a discrete variant in the representation of lines and surfaces. There is some evidence that counting or representing mathematical structures may underlie these signs The punctuated signs can be related to a basic technique of painting and engraving, i.e., to aligned points, which produce a curve or two rows of them, which fill a surface. It is thus a discrete variant in the representation of lines and surfaces. There is some evidence that counting or representing mathematical structures may underlie these signs

34 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 34 A list of abstract symbols Tectiform symbols 1-16; 1-10 Dordogne ( Les Eyzies) 11-16: Northern Spain (Altamira, Castillo, u.a.) 17 23: isolated signs

35 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 35 Transition to writing (the last 10.000 years): Object signs Original functions: Representation of objects for the purpose of bookkeeping (a sign stands for an object in the economic world)Representation of objects for the purpose of bookkeeping (a sign stands for an object in the economic world) Creation of a representational universe of discourse (where the buying, selling, transfer., loss etc. of objects is represented).Creation of a representational universe of discourse (where the buying, selling, transfer., loss etc. of objects is represented). Calculation (origin of mathematics)Calculation (origin of mathematics)

36 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 36 The abstraction process from pictures to writing symbols corresponds to a general mnemonic principle. This is also valid for messages in an object language employed by Yoruba tribes and in Australian messenger-sticks. The message is coded for the messenger, who “reads” it when he arrives after a long journey. This guarantees that he does not forget important contents, but it presupposes that he knows the message. This means that the written message can only be “read” accurately if the reader has a knowledge of its contents independently from the “written” document (cf. Friedrich, 1960: 17). The abstraction process from pictures to writing symbols corresponds to a general mnemonic principle. This is also valid for messages in an object language employed by Yoruba tribes and in Australian messenger-sticks. The message is coded for the messenger, who “reads” it when he arrives after a long journey. This guarantees that he does not forget important contents, but it presupposes that he knows the message. This means that the written message can only be “read” accurately if the reader has a knowledge of its contents independently from the “written” document (cf. Friedrich, 1960: 17). Full-fledged writing-systems presuppose a writing industry, i.e., the frequent production and usage of writing in proper contexts. The Paleolithic stone industries established the context for the manufacturing of functionally optimal artifacts (weapons, tools), the Mesolithic and Neolithic picture and symbol industries established the necessary context for writing systems Full-fledged writing-systems presuppose a writing industry, i.e., the frequent production and usage of writing in proper contexts. The Paleolithic stone industries established the context for the manufacturing of functionally optimal artifacts (weapons, tools), the Mesolithic and Neolithic picture and symbol industries established the necessary context for writing systems

37 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 37 The communicative/functional usage of writing was systematically developed in Mesopotamia, which became a melting pot of many cultures and concentrated large populations into one organized political system. The paths for the exchange of goods, values, and ideas became complex and difficult to control. The civilizations of Mesopotamia (and the “golden crescent”) took their new shape between 11 and 8.000y. BP. The first “token” systems, called “object languages” by Schmandt-Besserat (1978), appeared ca. during this area and were not dramatically changed for almost five millennia. Only in the Bronze Age, between 7,500y. BP and 5,100y. BP, did the number of tokens increase and their shape differentiate and finally give rise to Sumerian writing (ca. 5.000y. BP; cf. also Friedrich, 1966: 42 f.). The context was not religious but economic. The storage, transport and control of goods motivated a system of bookkeeping. A closed jar contained a number of symbolic objects, which stood for the goods sent to a destination. On the jar, a list of the symbolic objects in the jar was marked. The communicative/functional usage of writing was systematically developed in Mesopotamia, which became a melting pot of many cultures and concentrated large populations into one organized political system. The paths for the exchange of goods, values, and ideas became complex and difficult to control. The civilizations of Mesopotamia (and the “golden crescent”) took their new shape between 11 and 8.000y. BP. The first “token” systems, called “object languages” by Schmandt-Besserat (1978), appeared ca. during this area and were not dramatically changed for almost five millennia. Only in the Bronze Age, between 7,500y. BP and 5,100y. BP, did the number of tokens increase and their shape differentiate and finally give rise to Sumerian writing (ca. 5.000y. BP; cf. also Friedrich, 1966: 42 f.). The context was not religious but economic. The storage, transport and control of goods motivated a system of bookkeeping. A closed jar contained a number of symbolic objects, which stood for the goods sent to a destination. On the jar, a list of the symbolic objects in the jar was marked. The next slide shows the state of the system in the intermediate period of the Bronze age (before Sumerian writing arrived). The next slide shows the state of the system in the intermediate period of the Bronze age (before Sumerian writing arrived).

38 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 38 Early object- symbols (choice from a field of 12 categories)

39 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 39 Conclusions The pragmatics of modern languages concern the embedding of linguistic utterances into contexts of use (speaker, hearer, situation, time, etc.) and the action patterns, formed by linguistic utterances (i.e. speech acts, conversational sequences). In an evolutionary perspective these contexts of action (the ecology, the group structure) become dominant, because language itself is only emerging step-by-step and reshaping, developing the earlier action patterns. At the same time, the social ecology (and later the physical ecology) is dramatically changed by the effect of linguistic thinking and communication. The pragmatics of modern languages concern the embedding of linguistic utterances into contexts of use (speaker, hearer, situation, time, etc.) and the action patterns, formed by linguistic utterances (i.e. speech acts, conversational sequences). In an evolutionary perspective these contexts of action (the ecology, the group structure) become dominant, because language itself is only emerging step-by-step and reshaping, developing the earlier action patterns. At the same time, the social ecology (and later the physical ecology) is dramatically changed by the effect of linguistic thinking and communication.

40 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 40 Bibliography Bax, Marcel, Barend van Heusden and Wolfgang Wildgen (eds.), 2004. Semiotic Evolution and the Dynamics of Culture, Lang, Bern. Bax, Marcel, Barend van Heusden and Wolfgang Wildgen (eds.), 2004. Semiotic Evolution and the Dynamics of Culture, Lang, Bern. Becker, Peter René, 1993. Werkzeuggebrauch im Tierreich. Wie Tiere hämmern, bohren, streichen. Stuttgart: Hirzel. Becker, Peter René, 1993. Werkzeuggebrauch im Tierreich. Wie Tiere hämmern, bohren, streichen. Stuttgart: Hirzel. Boesch, Christophe, 1993. Aspects of Transmission of Tool-use in Wild Chimpanzees, in Gibson & Ingold (1993: 171-183). Boesch, Christophe, 1993. Aspects of Transmission of Tool-use in Wild Chimpanzees, in Gibson & Ingold (1993: 171-183). Boesch, Christophe and Michael Tomasello (1998). Chimpanzee and Human Cultures, in: Current Anthropology, 39(5), 591-614. Boesch, Christophe and Michael Tomasello (1998). Chimpanzee and Human Cultures, in: Current Anthropology, 39(5), 591-614. Bühler, Karl (1934/1965). Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. [2nd edition (1965)]. Stuttgart: Fischer. Bühler, Karl (1934/1965). Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. [2nd edition (1965)]. Stuttgart: Fischer.

41 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 41 Cassirer, Ernst, 1953/1957. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 1 to 3, Yale U.P., New Haven. Cassirer, Ernst, 1953/1957. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 1 to 3, Yale U.P., New Haven. Davidson, Iain and William Noble, 1993. Tools and Language in Human Evolution, in: Gibson and Ingold (1993: 363-388). Davidson, Iain and William Noble, 1993. Tools and Language in Human Evolution, in: Gibson and Ingold (1993: 363-388). Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold (Eds.), 1993. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold (Eds.), 1993. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. Quiatt, Diane and Vernon Reynolds, 1993. Primate Behaviour. Information, Social Knowledge, and the Evolution of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. Quiatt, Diane and Vernon Reynolds, 1993. Primate Behaviour. Information, Social Knowledge, and the Evolution of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. Reynolds, Peter C. (1983). Ape Constructional Ability and the Origin of Linguistic Structure, in: Grolier (1983: 185-200). Reynolds, Peter C. (1983). Ape Constructional Ability and the Origin of Linguistic Structure, in: Grolier (1983: 185-200). Tomasello, Michael, 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition, Harvard U.P., Cambridge (Mass.). Tomasello, Michael, 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition, Harvard U.P., Cambridge (Mass.).

42 Wolfgang Wildgen Evolutionary Pragmatics 42 Wildgen, Wolfgang, 1999. Hand und Auge. Eine Studie zur Repräsentation und Selbstrepräsentation (kognitive und semantische Aspekte). Bremen: Bremen U.P. (download from the homepage: http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/homepages/wildgen.htm). Wildgen, Wolfgang, 1999. Hand und Auge. Eine Studie zur Repräsentation und Selbstrepräsentation (kognitive und semantische Aspekte). Bremen: Bremen U.P. (download from the homepage: http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/homepages/wildgen.htm). http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/homepages/wildgen.htm Wildgen, Wolfgang 2001. Kurt Lewin and the Rise of “Cognitive Sciences” in Germany: Cassirer, Bühler, Reichenbach, in: Albertazzi (2001, 299-332). Wildgen, Wolfgang 2001. Kurt Lewin and the Rise of “Cognitive Sciences” in Germany: Cassirer, Bühler, Reichenbach, in: Albertazzi (2001, 299-332). Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2004. The Evolution of Human Languages. Scenarios, Principles, and Cultural Dynamics, Benjamins, Amsterdam. Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2004. The Evolution of Human Languages. Scenarios, Principles, and Cultural Dynamics, Benjamins, Amsterdam. Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2007. Evolutionary Pragmatics, in: Handbook of Pragmatics (compiled by Jef Vrschueren and Jan-Ola Östman, Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2007: pdf. Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2007. Evolutionary Pragmatics, in: Handbook of Pragmatics (compiled by Jef Vrschueren and Jan-Ola Östman, Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2007: pdf.pdf Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2008. Semiotic Hypercycles Driving the Evolution of Language, in: Axiomathes 18 (1): 91-116: pdf. Wildgen, Wolfgang, 2008. Semiotic Hypercycles Driving the Evolution of Language, in: Axiomathes 18 (1): 91-116: pdf.pdf


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