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Balanced Reading and Language Arts Program

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1 Balanced Reading and Language Arts Program
Molly Flynn Phonics Strategies Comprehension Oral Language Vocabulary Content Area Study Spelling Literature

2 Balanced Literacy Program
This website offers fun educational games that encourage creative learning and investigation

3 Components of a Balanced Literacy Instruction
Whole group instruction Small group instruction Classroom library Word wall Literacy stations Writers workshop

4 A Balanced Literacy Approach Whole Group
A balanced literacy approach for whole group instruction should include: Defined area for whole group meeting Post-it notes Teacher chair Big books Easel Read aloud books Chart paper Sentence strips Teacher white board Correction tape Markers Reading pointer Places to display anchor charts from Lessons Pocket charts Carpet Magnetic letters organized on a cookie 12sheet or in a tackle box

5 A Balanced Literacy Approach Small Group
A balanced literacy approach for small group instruction should include: Defined area for small groups Familiar texts Leveled books Organized magnetic letters on a cookie sheet or in a tackle box magnetic letters Conversation tips chart White boards White board markers Teacher conference folder (or other documentation system) example: tabbed notebook, index cards, individual notepads Group management chart of students and the schedule of when each group is seen Guided reading lesson plans Post its Chart paper /markers

6 Classroom Library "I have always imagined that paradise will be a kind of library." — Jorge Luis Borges Classroom library- A collection of books organized by genre, author, or reading level A classroom library should include: Sorted and labeled baskets of books example: reading level, content area, genre, and author Library checkout system for bringing books home (defined and posted) Designated place to showcase new books, familiar read alouds, or class favorites Library shopping times (defined and posted) Library shopping procedures (defined and posted) “Choosing just right books” Book bags or book boxes for each student All library books and baskets organized in one general area

7 Word Walls Word walls are words posted on a classroom wall
that students can refer to while they are writing and during word study. A well developed word wall includes: Uninterrupted space to fit A-Z or two stacked horizontal rows of A-N and M-Z Environmental print Words are large enough for every student to see from their desk Displayed at student eye-level All words are written in black

8 Literacy Stations Literacy stations have meaningful activities that students can use in small groups. Literacy stations should include the following: all materials organized and clearly labeled book baskets at each station for early finishers work board with student names and pictures (icons) for management and rotation labeled stations with expectations and rules

9 Writers Workshop Writers workshop is a writing strategy that can build students' fluency in writing through exposure to the process of writing. Writing Workshops should include the following: All materials organized and clearly labeled Clipboards 6 Trait / Writing Process Anchor Charts Spider legs (notebook paper cut into strips) Writer’s notebook (for collecting ideas) Tape Writing portfolio (for storing published work) Stapler Writing folders (for work in progress) Scissors Teacher conference folder (or other documentation system) example: tabbed notebook, index cards, individual notepads Thesauruses Places to display anchor charts from lessons Spelling dictionaries Genre Characteristics Chart (evidence of current study) Map pencils or colored pens (for editing)

10 Mini-lessons Mini-lessons focus on a specific point and are 5-20 minutes long They can be conducted as a whole-group, small-group, or individual Mini-lesson Steps Model- display what you want the children to do Active engagement- can range from hands-on experience to discussing with a partner Sharing- have the students share what they learned

11 How to Create a Classroom Community
During the first two weeks teachers: demonstrate literacy procedures explicitly explain classroom routines explain how to provide feedback to a classmates writing explain how to participate in a grand conversation model ways to interact with classmates discuss classroom rules and expectations The classroom environment is predictable

12 Word Study Phonics Spelling Vocabulary
This website includes many phonics lesson plans for teachers

13 A child’s understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds
Phonemic Awareness A child’s understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds Cueing Systems Phonological System- The sound system in English -44 sounds and over 500 spellings Syntactic System- The structural system in English that governs how words are combined into sentences. Cueing Systems Pragmatic System- The system of English that varies language according to social and cultural uses. Semantic System- The meaning system of English - Focuses on vocabulary "To learn to read is to light a fire; every syllable that is spelled out is a spark." — Victor Hugo, Les Miserables

14 The Building Blocks of Reading Begins with Phonics

15 Phonics Activities Sound Matching- the teacher brings in objects that contain a certain sound and the children identify the common sound Sound Isolation- the teacher says a word and the children identify the beginning, middle, or ending sound Sound Blending- the teacher exaggerates each sound in a word and the children guess the word Sound Addition/Substitution- apples and bananas song Sound Segmentation- children exaggerate the each sound in a word

16 Phonics Strategies Decoding Strategies- using phonic and morphemic analysis to identify challenging words Word-Learning Strategies- analyzing word parts to identify the meaning of words

17 Phonics Assessment Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening System: Rhyme Awareness and Beginning Sound Subtests Test of Phonological Awareness Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation

18 Spelling “Student spelling errors are an invaluable source of information for teachers” Piaget Student’s early spellings are based on what they know about phoneme-grapheme relationships, phonics rules, and spelling patterns Guidelines for teaching spelling- Analyze students errors Connect phonemic awareness, phonics, and spelling during mini-lessons Encourage students to use spelling strategies Teach students high-frequency words before less common words Post words on a word wall Include students in hands on spelling activities Involve students in authentic reading and writing activities Alternative Spelling Program- rather than the teacher telling it is pupil discovery

19 Spelling Activities This website has spelling games for children Word Ladders- a game where students change one word to another word by changing a letter in each step Word Sorts- Teachers choose categories for a list of words, and students examine and categorize each word Making Words-teachers select words from a book that contain certain spelling or phonics patterns for the students to study Spelling Strategies- Limit the number of words to be learned at one time Teach word families Point out syllables Analyze phonemes Provide review See the word, say the word, write the word in the air, see the word in your mind, write the word on paper, and compare the word

20 Spelling Activity Examples
Word Ladder Word Sort Teacher Says: Students write: Begin with the word cat cat Change the vowel to form another word for bed, sometimes the kind of bed you sleep in when you’re camping cot Change one letter to form a word that means “a tiny round mark.” dot Change the final consonant to make a word that goes with the first word, cat dog

21 Spelling Assessment Informal Assessment- Formal Assessment-
Examine misspelled words in writing compositions Classify students spelling errors according to the stages of spelling development Examine misspellings on weekly spelling tests Formal Assessment- Developmental Spelling Analysis Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening System: Spelling Subtest Qualitative Spelling Inventory

22 Vocabulary Vocabulary- the stock of words used by or known to a particular people or group of persons Guidelines for teaching vocabulary- Choose key words from books and thematic units Assign word study activities Teach mini-lessons about the meanings of words, vocabulary concepts, and word-learning strategies Provide independent reading time Teach word learning strategies This website gives students a word and they to make as many words out of the original word as possible

23 Vocabulary Activities
Word Posters- students choose a word, draw a picture that explains the word, and they use the word in a sentence Word Maps- students make a diagram and put a vocabulary word in the middle of the diagram, they draw spokes from the middle word and add information about the word Possible Sentences- students examine the cover, picture, and title of an unfamiliar book and they create sentences that may appear in the book using vocabulary words Dramatizing Words- a student chooses a vocabulary word and tries to get the class to guess the word by acting the word out Word Sorts- students sort words under a certain category Word Chains- students choose a word and think up of 3-4 other related words and they draw and write their words on construction paper Semantic Feature Analysis- teacher makes a grid with vocabulary words on the vertical side and categories on the horizontal top side. Students complete the grid by determining if there is a relationship between each item on the horizontal and vertical sides Example

24 Vocabulary Assessment
Informal Assessment- Observations Conferences Rubrics Cloze Procedure- teachers choose a passage from a book that the student is familiar with and deletes every fifth word in the passage Quickwrite- students write on a given topic or question for 5-10 minutes without stopping or correcting errors Formal Assessment- Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 Informal Reading Inventories

25 The Reading Process Prereading-activate prior knowledge
Reading- read the text while applying reading strategies Responding- write in reading logs and participate in grand conversations Exploring- reread parts of the text, learn vocabulary words, and participate in a mini lesson Applying- read related books, construct projects, and evaluate the reading experience

26 Ways to Activate Prior Knowledge
KWL Charts- children list what they know under the K column, they list what they want to know or need to know under the W column, and they list what they learned under the L column. Preview Texts- look at pictures, headings, and titles. Think-Pair-Share- students write down their predictions or what they already know about the topic and share it with a partner. Each pair then shares with the whole class. Example

27 Three Reading Levels Independent Reading Level- the student can recognize the words in a text with 95% or more accuracy Instructional Level- the student can recognize the words in a text with about 90% accuracy Frustration Level- the student recognizes fewer than 90% of the words in a text Five finger rule- students read the first few pages of a book and put a finger up each time they do not know a word, if 2-3 fingers go up they found the “just right” book, if 5 fingers go up the book is too difficult

28 Types of Reading Modeled Reading-
"Reading aloud with children is known to be the single most important activity for building the knowledge and skills they will eventually require for learning to read." — Marilyn Jager Adams Modeled Reading- The teacher reads aloud with fluency and expression Shared Reading- The teacher reads and rereads a book aloud to the students that they could not read independently. The first time reading is for the students enjoyment, the next few readings the teacher brings the children's attention towards comprehension, interesting sentences, and concepts about print, and during the last reading students decode certain words. Interactive Read-aloud the teacher chooses a book at the students instructional level, they are usually award winning books. Teachers read the book to themselves and decide where it would be appropriate to ask the students questions. The teacher activates students prior knowledge. The teacher then reads the book out loud and engages the students in the book. Students then participate in after-reading activities, such as a discussion on the book or a writing prompt. Independent Reading- students read books that they self-selected. Students and teachers have conferences to monitor the students progress and comprehension

29 Types of Reading Literacy Instruction
Guided Reading Basal Program Literature Circles Literature Focus Units Reading Workshop "Teaching reading IS rocket science." — Louisa Moats

30 Guided Reading Guided reading is instruction given to a small group of students who read on about the same level. Older students read the book silently at their own pace, and emergent readers may mumble the words at their own pace. Based on observation and assessment. 15-25 minutes a day. Each child has the same book that is at their instructional level

31 Basal Reading Program A commercial reading program
Depict different cultures Components of a Basal Reading Program include selections in grade level text books, workbook assignments, independent reading opportunities, and instruction about decoding and comprehension strategies and skills

32 Literature Circles Literature Circles are a small student-led book discussion groups that meet regularly in the classroom Students choose the books and form a temporary group They read and discuss the book Sometimes the teacher meets with the group

33 Management Techniques
Literature Circle Discussion Groups Have students stick post-it notes to mark what they want to remember, while they are reading Assign each student a different story element to discuss Round Robin- students respond to a question, situation, or problem. One person responds with one answer, then each student has the opportunity to add to the others answer Sentence starters- design sentence starters such as I doubt, I feel, I predict, I like, ect. Tracking how many times each person spoke use a ball of yarn have the first speaker tape the end of the yarn onto the table once that person is finished speaking they will roll it to the next speaker they will then tape apart of the yarn onto the table after the session is over, you will know how many times each person spoke

34 Literature Focus Units
Teacher and students read and respond to a book together. The books are chosen for the appropriate grade level and interests of the students If the book is above a students instructional level then the teacher will read it aloud or use shared reading Students create projects afterwards

35 Reading Workshop Students choose books to read independently and respond to them independently Teachers conduct conferences with students about their work Teachers teach mini-lessons on strategies and skills Students can share there readings with the classmates

36 Promoting Successful Independent Schoolwork
Explain behavior expectations and be clear on directions Create a whole-class self-monitoring system Set a timer and have students count how many pages they have read or questions they have answered during that time frame Give students a paper with pictures of children on task, every five minutes (or whatever time interval is appropriate for their grade level) have students check yes if they are displaying this behavior and no if they are not Seat students who may be tempted to goof off together in separate areas of the classroom Use effective praise and implement consequences Teach time management Use engaging materials that have real-world connections

37 Reading Activities Echo reading- a leader reads each line and the groups repeats it Story Boards- teachers make story boards by gluing a picture from the book on one side with the corresponding text on the other side, children then arrange the story in the correct order Sketch to Stretch-students draw pictures about what a book meant to them, focusing on the theme of the story Readers Theatre- students are assigned a character and each character reads and rereads their lines until they are memorized, and they perform the play to their class Hot Seat- students “act” the part of a character in a story or biography and they sit in the “hot seat” while the rest of the class interviews them Open-Mind Portraits- students draw a picture of a character on the first page and write several pages on what the character was thinking during the main parts of the book

38 Striving Readers Should be identified in kindergarten or first grade
Teach the meanings of 8-10 words a week Teach struggling readers to use comprehension strategies Teach students to become strategic readers by thinking aloud during teaching instruction This website is an interactive game where you read a short passage and choose on of two things to happen next. This gives striving children choices and will help motivate them.

39 Reading Strategies Comprehension Strategies- using predicting, drawing inferences, and visualizing, to understand what they are reading Study Strategies- taking notes and asking questions when they are reading text books Word-Learning Strategies- students analyze parts of words to figure out unfamiliar words Decoding Strategies- students using phonics and morphemic analysis to identify unfamiliar words

40 Reading Assessment DRA- Developmental Reading Assessment
an assessment kit for K-3 has 44 small paperback books arranged from K-5th grade reading level IRI- Informal Reading Inventory - the examiner chooses about 100 words from a series of graded reading levels - the student reads the words aloud while the teacher records their errors Running Records teachers observe a student while they read aloud they calculate the percentage of errors and analyze the errors

41 Content-Area Textbooks
Guidelines for Using Content-Area Textbooks Teach students about the conventions of text books Have students make up questions before reading each section of a chapter and then read to find the answers Introduce key terms before reading Remind students to focus and take notes on the main idea Have students complete graphic organizers and other visuals Include small-group activities Encourage students to monitor their reading Create text sets Use listen-read-discuss format when textbooks are to challenging

42 Content-Area Children’s Literature

43 Writing “Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing.” - Benjamin Franklin This website is an interactive tool that develops childrens writing skills by identifying the parts and processes of different types of writing

44 Prewriting Choose a topic Find a purpose for writing
Identify the genre that the writing will take place Gather ideas through brain storming, internet research, drawing pictures, ect. Prewriting Strategies-Thinking up ideas and organize thoughts in a graphic organizer

45 Drafting Students write down their ideas and write a rough draft during this stage. Students skip every other line to allow space for revisions. Drafting Strategies- Narrowing down the topic and explaining examples.

46 Revising “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.” -Mark Twain Rereading the rough draft, sharing their writing in groups, and revising based on the feedback they received from others. They may have a conference with the teacher. Students meet in writing groups when they share their writing. Students in writing groups offer the writer compliments and suggestions on word choice, sentence structure, sequence, organization, ideas, ect.. Revising Strategies- rereading, looking for problems, combining sentences, choosing more accurate words, and expanding on ideas.

47 Editing Students proofread and correct grammar and spelling.
The editing process turns out better if a student waits several days after they have made their revisions. Students may have a conference with the teacher. Editing Strategies-proofreading

48 Publishing Students write final copies.
Students share their writing with others. Publishing motivates students to continue writing and improves their writing skills. Publishing Strategies- designing the layout and reading with expression

49 Types of Writing Literacy Instruction
Modeled Writing Shared Writing Interactive Writing Guided Writing Independent Writing

50 Writing Literacy Instruction
Modeled Writing-Teacher writes in front of the students Shared Writing-Teacher and students create the text together; the teacher does the actual writing, but the students may assist the teacher Interactive Writing-Teacher and students create the text and write the text together Guided Writing-The teacher creates a lesson on a writing technique and students do activities; teachers monitor the students during the activities Independent Writing-Students use the writing process to create their own stories or other types of writing; teachers monitor students progress.

51 Writing Activities Writing Groups-students meet in groups during the revising stage of the writing process to share their rough drafts and get feedback from their peers Quickwriting- students explore a topic or respond to a question by writing non-stop for 5-10 minutes and do not worry about errors Language Experience Approach- the teacher models how written language works by the student telling the teacher about an experience and the teacher writes what the student is saying This website gives mini-lessons with characters from the Magic Tree House books. It teaches children about writing skills through reading, writing, and organizing fiction.

52 Striving Writers Use interactive writing to review the writing process
Help struggling writers design a sense of audience to encourage revision and editing Allow 45 minutes of authentic writing each day

53 Writing Assessment Rubrics- scoring guides that have levels ranging from high to low with assessment criteria described at each level. Example

54 Reading and Writing Combined
Research has found that better reading leads to better writing and better writing leads to better reading Students may use the same thinking processes for both reading and writing Involve students in daily reading and writing experiences Introduce the reading and writing processes in kindergarten Plan instruction that reflects the developmental nature of reading and writing Make the reading-writing connection explicit to students Emphasize the processes and the products of reading and writing Set purposes for reading and writing Teach reading and writing through authentic literacy experiences

55 Stages of Reading and Writing Development

56 Fluency Strategies to improve fluency-
Repeated reading- the student reads the same writings three or four times Predictable books- books that repeat phrases Neurological Impress Method- a rapid reading system: the teacher and the student read together out of one book

57 Children’s Literature
Emergent Readers Beginning Readers Fluent Readers This website describes books written by famous authors

58 Ways To Differentiate Instruction
Grouping for Instruction- teachers vary from whole group, small group, to individuals according to the purpose of the activity, the difficulty, and students’ specific learning needs Text Sets of Reading Materials- teachers design text sets of books and other reading materials at different reading levels for students to read during a thematic unit or literature focus unit Tiered Activities- teachers create several related activities that vary in difficulty Literacy Centers- contain meaningful literacy activities that relate to concepts, strategies, and skills that the teacher taught, or it relates to a specific book Differentiated Projects- students can choose one of several projects such as readers theatre, murals, or charts, they may work independently or with partners

59 To Help their Children Become Better Readers and Writers
Tips For Parents To Help their Children Become Better Readers and Writers Read aloud to your child for at least 30 minutes every day Choose books that interest your child Keep reading a happy time do not force your child to sit and read Have conversations with your child Children’s experience with oral language prepares them for the same words in print Visit the library Model that reading is important Keep newspapers, magazines, and books in your house and let your children see you read and write Set up a reading area in your house Nurture your child’s interest in writing Set up a writing area for your child that includes pens, pencils, chalk, markers, crayons, notepads. Only help your child if they ask, and do not spend too much time correcting your child’s spelling This website offers tips for parents and educational games for parents and their children

60 Comprehension Comprehension- reader’s process of using prior knowledge and the author’s text to construct meaning that’s useful to that reader for a specific purpose Guidelines for teaching comprehension Teach students about reader and text factors Teach comprehension strategies using explanations, activities, and think-alouds Demonstrate how to use comprehension strategies during read-alouds Have students reflect on their use of strategies Hang charts on the walls about the usage of strategies

61 Comprehension Problems

62 Comprehension Strategies
Activating prior knowledge Predicting Connecting Questioning Determining importance Repairing Drawing inferences Setting a purpose Evaluating Summarizing Monitoring Visualizing

63 Comprehension Assessment
Cloze Procedure- teachers choose a passage from a book that the student is familiar with and deletes every fifth word in the passage Story retelling- a student retells a story to a teacher while the teacher uses a scoring sheet to tally the type of information that the student includes in their synopsis Running Record- teachers observe a student while they read aloud and calculate the percentage of errors and analyze the errors Think-Alouds – students learn to think about their thinking by asking questions, making connections, identifying ideas, responding to the text, solving problems, and thinking about the strategies that they are using

64 Helping ESL/ELL Students
ESL- English Second Language ELL- English Language Learners Encourage home-school communication Encourage collaboration between the regular education teacher and the special education teacher Be educated on cultural diversity This website has worksheets designed for the needs of ESL/ELL children

65 Helping ESL/ELL Students in Reading and Writing
Creating fluency- have students reread familiar books that are written in English Keep a running record- the student reads out of a book and the teacher marks the students errors Writing- Chop the written story into sentences and have the student reassemble the sentences in the correct order Have students write a summary about what they have read

66 Literature for ESL/ELL Students
Vocabulary Help Ages 5-7 Ages 7-9 Ages 9-12

67 How to Encourage Children to Embrace Diversity
Include authentic multicultural themed books, music, and games Use gender-free terminology Instead of saying fireman, say firefighter Hang posters with diverse people on them Discuss famous people from diverse backgrounds Recognize diverse holidays in your classroom

68 Motivation Motivation- the curiosity that makes children want to learn
Ways to increase intrinsic motivation Allow enough time to complete tasks, to encourage persistence Respond to children's needs, but still let them be independent Role model motivation by interacting with children Give appropriate challenges Let children evaluate their own accomplishments Don’t give out to many rewards

69 Assessing Students Motivation
Teacher observation Elementary Reading Attitude Survey Motivation to Read Profile Reader Self-Perception Scale Writing Attitude Survey Writer Self-Perception Scale

70 Websites Other References
Other References Crago, Nancy. "Helping Children Become Readers and Writers." Toddler Topics Plus... 1 (12 Jan. 2006): 1-2. Print. Rock, Marica L. "Promote Student Success During Independent Seatwork." Intervention 44.3 (2009): Print. Tompkins, Gail E. Literacy For The 21st Century. 5th ed. Fresno: Allyn & Bacon, Print.


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