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UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History of English

2 Table Talk  Turn to table partners and discuss:  How do the findings of reading research discussed in these units match what you were taught about reading in your teacher training program? What are the similarities? Differences?  What are some of the programs for struggling readers currently being used? How is it decided who receives this instruction?  Identify a student you may have taught that had a double deficit. What were some of the characteristics you noticed about that student?

3 Language Structure Is Important Because… “Teaching reading is a job for an expert. Contrary to the popular theory that learning to read is natural and easy, learning to read is a complex linguistic achievement… Moats, 1999, p. 10

4 Understanding Language Structure Enables Teachers To Answer:  What sounds will children confuse with /p/ and how can I help?  Why do common sight words, such as “was,” “what,” and “said,” have irregular spellings?  How many meaningful parts (morphemes) are there in the word contracted?  Why is English spelling perceived as “crazy?”

5 Language Structure Topics Include Syntax Semantics Morphology Phonology Orthography Phonetics ?

6 Build A Language Foundation Speech sounds-how produced PHONETICS How sounds go together in words PHONOLOGY Meaningful word parts: in-flat(e)-ed MORPHOLOGY Meanings of words, phrases, idioms SEMANTICS How words are ordered in sentences SYNTAX PARAGRAPH AND TEXT STRUCTURE Organization of sentences in text

7 Build A Language Foundation WRITTEN LANGUAGE How our writing represents phonology, morphology, and semantics PHONETICS PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SEMANTICS SYNTAX PARAGRAPH AND TEXT STRUCTURE ORAL LANGUAGE ORTHOGRAPHY

8 Build A Language Foundation PHONICS- Teaching the connections between sounds and spelling. PHONETICS PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SEMANTICS SYNTAX PARAGRAPH AND TEXT STRUCTURE ORAL LANGUAGE WRITTEN LANGUAGE ORTHOGRAPHY

9 Phonetics  PHONETICS: The study of linguistic speech sounds and how they are produced and perceived.  Make the sound represented by “f” and make the sound continue for a few seconds.  What parts of your mouth are involved? 1.tongue & roof of mouth 2.lower lip and upper teeth 3.lower teeth and tongue

10 Phonology  PHONOLOGY: The rule system within a language by which phonemes are sequenced and uttered to make words.  Which of these pairs of sounds could be adjacent in a single syllable? 1./g/ /f/ 2./s/ /w/ 3./s/ /j/

11 Phonology: A Related Term  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING: The use of information about speech sounds which can include:  Pronouncing words  Remembering names  Rhyming, identifying syllables  Segmenting and blending sounds  How many syllables in delectable?  What real word rhymes with…  change … table …

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13 Morphology  MORPHOLOGY: The study of meaningful units of language [morphemes] and how they are combined in words.  Determine how many morphemes in each word. teach-er-s re-heat-ing il-legal butter teachers reheating illegal butter

14 Morphology  MORPHOLOGY: The study of meaningful units of language [morphemes] and how they are combined in words.  Determine how many morphemes in each word. teachers reheating illegal butter

15 Morphology In Action Use the morphemes to identify the meaning of the following: 1.Astro/y/opsy/ed ________________________ 2.Hemi/mort ____________________ 3.Bi/chron/er ______________________ 4.Platy/rupt/ed _________________ 5.Nesia/the/s ______________________ 6.Vis/ocul/ocul ____________________ 7.Bene/vive ___________________________ 8.I am an invertebrate but people tell me that I am an echinoderm. I look like an astro. Who am I? 9.My cephalo is attached to my octo pods. Who am I? Starry-eyed Half-dead Two-timer Flat-broke Islands of the gods See eye to eye The good life

16 Morphology In Action Use the morphemes to identify the meaning of the following: 1.Astro/y/opsy/ed ________________________ 2.Hemi/mort ____________________ 3.Bi/chron/er ______________________ 4.Platy/rupt/ed _________________ 5.Nesia/the/s ______________________ 6.Vis/ocul/ocul ____________________ 7.Bene/vive ___________________________ 8.I am an invertebrate but people tell me that I am an echinoderm. I look like an astro. Who am I? 9.My cephalo is attached to my octo pods. Who am I?

17 treespeakchiefbebabyreceive these Orthography  Orthography: A writing system.  What part of each of these words stands for the sound of long e? treespeakchiefbebabyreceive these cups penniestripped starring baking  Which orthographic rule is used in adding each of the suffixes below? treespeakchiefbebabyreceive these

18 Semantics  SEMANTICS: The study of word and phrase meanings  To what category do these words belong? bicycle bus taxi automobile scooter far bad few sparse elaborate idealist  Give an antonym for each word: skim scan peruse review study

19 Semantics: What Do These Idioms Mean To You? flew the coopempty nest my goose is cooked chicken-hearted bird in the hand hen-pecked swan song feathered his nest

20 Semantics Work with the group at your table. See how many animal idioms your group can come up with in three minutes. Share them.

21 Syntax  SYNTAX: The rule system governing sentence formation; the study of sentence structure.  Arrange these words into a coherent sentence and write it down. little mine red is sports car cute the “the red cute little sports car” “the sports little red cute car”  Would an English speaker say these words in any of these orders?

22 Syntax  How does word order affect the meaning? Jan is the boss of Martin. Martin is the boss of Jan. The boss of Jan is Martin. Is Jan the boss of Martin? Who’s The Boss?

23 Language Topics For Teachers  English isn’t crazy, but it is complex. And so we study… The Structure of Language Phonology Morphology Orthography Semantics Syntax

24 Analyze The Word “Instruction” PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY ORTHOGRAPHY SEMANTICS # of sounds# syllables Base word/rootprefixsuffix(es) Base wordprefixsuffix Examples: Definition/ part of speech/synonym/antonym/ figurative expression 103 struct-in -- tion struct (letters “ct” represent /kt/) Spelling does not change in-, in, into, within struct - to build tion

25 UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History of English

26 What Is A Phoneme?  Definition: the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning (or that changes one word into another word).  Phonemes should not be confused with letters. Phonemes are the sounds of speech. Letters may represent phonemes in written language. /k/ /a/ /t/ /h/ /a/ /t/ /h/ /o/ /t/ /h/ /o/ /p/

27 What Is A Consonant Phoneme?  A consonant phoneme is a speech sound that is formed by fully or partially obstructing flow of the air stream. Consonants are often described as closed sounds.

28 The Consonant Phonemes Phonic Symbol ExamplePhonic SymbolExample /b/ bat /n/nut /d/ dog/p/pan /f/ fun/r/rat /g/ game/s/ snake, city /h/ hat/t/top /j/ jug, gym/v/van /k/ kite, cat/w/wind /l/ leaf/y/yellow /m/ man/z/zebra, dogs /th/ thumb/sh/ship /th/ this/wh/whisper /ch/ chin/ng/king /zh/ measure Confusing Graphemes Grapheme Phonemes (letter) (sound) x /k/+/s/ qu /k/+/w/

29 Consonant Phoneme Classification  Consonants can be classified as stops or continuants (air stream)  Consonants can be classified by where they are made in the mouth (place of articulation)  Teachers need to be aware of both air stream and place of articulation when teaching letter-sound associations and monitoring oral reading.

30 How Do We Make Speech Sounds? Original Image From: refer/fact-head.htm (April 2004) Vocal Cords Nasal Cavity Front of Tongue Floor Of Mouth Lip Teeth Hard Palate Soft Palate Lip Alveolar Ridge Center of Tongue Back of Tongue

31 LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth ThroatTongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n The Phoneme Chart Classifying Sounds: Place Of Articulation  Place the phonemes on the chart: /b/ /t/ /g/ /b//t//g/

32 Classifying Sounds: Place Of Articulation  With a partner, pronounce the phonemes listed and determine the parts of the mouth that are used to make the sound.  Write the phonic symbol in the appropriate box on the “Place of Articulation” table. More than one symbol may be placed in a box. /f/ /th/ /s/

33 LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth ThroatTongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n The Phoneme Chart Classifying Sounds: Place Of Articulation  Check your work with a partner. /b//t//g//f/ /th/ /s/

34 Classifying Sounds By Air Stream (Manner of Articulation): Stops And Continuants  Consonants can also be classified based on air stream  Continuants are sounds such as /f/ and /z/ that can be stretched out or pronounced in a sustained manner  /ffffffffffffff/ /zzzzzzzzzz/  Stops cannot be sustained in this way as they are interruptions of the air stream.  /b/ /k/  Continuants can be fricatives, nasals, liquids or glides.

35 Classifying Sounds By Airstreams: Using Stops And Continuants  Continuant consonants should be used in the initial position when first teaching students to blend sounds into words.  The initial sound /m/ “mmmmaaaap” is easier to blend then the initial sound /t/ “taaaap”

36 /b/ Classifying Sounds: Organize Consonants By Air Stream LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth Throat Tongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate /j/ /s/ The Phoneme Chart /b/ a consonant phoneme that stops the stream of air a consonant phoneme made with a continuing hiss or friction of air between two parts of the mouth a consonant phoneme made with a stop followed by a fricative

37 Place these phonemes on the chart: /t/ /g/ /th/ /f/ /sh/ Classifying Sounds Activity Stops, Continuants, Combinations LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth Throat Tongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate /f/ /t/ /sh//th/ /g/ /j/ /s/ /b/ The Phoneme Chart

38 Classifying Sounds: Voiced And Unvoiced Sounds  Make the sound /z/ and hold it /zzzzzzzzz/.  Touch your Adam’s apple while make the sound. Do you feel vibrations?  Now hold the /fffffffff/ sound and check your Adam’s apple. What is the difference?  With /z/, the vocal chords are sounding hence the vibration. /z/ is a voiced or noisy phoneme.  With /f/ the vocal cords are still. /f/ is an unvoiced or quiet phoneme.

39 Classifying Sounds: Voiced And Unvoiced Sounds  Now make the /b/ sound several times while cupping your hands over your ears.  Do the same with the /t/ sound. Which one is louder?  /b/ is much louder because it is voiced (noisy) and /t/ is unvoiced (quiet).

40 Video: Teaching Voicing and Motor Movements of Sounds  Please click the video below to play.

41 Classifying Sounds: “Discovering The Sisters” Activity NoisySisterQuietSister

42 Classifying Sounds: Discovering The Sisters Activity Place the phonemes on the chart: /p/ /k/ /v/ /th/ /d/ /z/ /ch/ LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth Throat Tongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate /k/ /j/ /d/ /s/ /th//v/ /p/ /f/ /t/ /sh//th/ /g//b/ /z/ /ch/ The Phoneme Chart /zh/

43 Discovering The Sisters: /t/ and /d/

44 Voiced And Unvoiced Sounds: Why Do You Need To Know?  The voiced and unvoiced pairs, such as /b/ and /p/, are frequently confused in reading.  Students are likely to confuse voiced and unvoiced sounds in spelling.  When teaching phonemes or letter-sounds to students, the voiced stops (/b/, /d/, /g/) are the hardest to pronounce without putting an “uh” sound after the consonant sound.  Knowing how sounds are articulated also helps in showing students how to leave the “uh” off of other phonemes as well.

45 Discovering The Nasals  Make the /m/ sound and hold it /mmmmm/ while you pinch your nose closed. What happens?  What parts of your mouth are touching? Place /m/ on the phoneme chart. LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth ThroatTongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Nasal /m/ consonant sound with the air stream directed through the nose

46 Discovering The Nasals  Try the nose pinch method to determine which of these sounds is nasal: /w/ /n/  Place the nasal on the chart. LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth ThroatTongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Nasal /n//m/

47 Discovering The Nasals  The sound at the end of king and other words ending in “ng” is not a blend of /n/ and /g/.  /ng/ is a unique nasal sound. It is made at the back of the mouth. Place /ng/ on the chart. LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth ThroatTongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Nasal /m/ /n//ng/

48 The Glides And Liquids LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth Throat Tongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate The Phoneme Chart Nasal Glide Liquid a consonant sound that glides immediately into a vowel a consonant sound that obstructs the air stream but does not cause friction /p/ /b//t/ /d//k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ /th/ /s/ /z//sh/ /zh/ /ch/ /j/ /m//n//ng/

49 The Glides And Liquids LipsLips/ Teeth Tongue Between Teeth Roof Of Mouth Back Of Mouth Throat Tongue Just Behind Teeth P l a c e o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate The Phoneme Chart Nasal Glide Liquid /p/ /b//t/ /d//k/ /g/ /f/ /v//th/ /s/ /z//sh/ /zh/ /ch/ /j/ /m//n//ng/ /y/ /wh/ /w/ /h/ /l//r/

50 Same Sound Or Different? which witch

51 What Is A Vowel?  A vowel is an open, or unobstructed, speech sound.  Vowel phonemes should not be confused with vowel letters (a, e, i, o, u).  Vowel phonemes include 15 sounds in English that are variously represented by letters.

52 What Is A Vowel?  One vowel phoneme can be represented by different letters.  rain, rein, reign  Different vowel phonemes can be represented by the same letters.  seat, deaf, great  Vowels are sometimes called the glue that holds the syllable together.

53 Introducing Vowels Phonemes LAX VOWELS (Short Vowels) TENSE VOWELS (Long Vowels) DIPHTHONGS /a/apple /e/Ed /oi/coin /ou/out /i/itch /o/octopus /u/up R-CONTROLLED /oo/book ape eat ice oak cube moon /er/mother /aw/bought /ar/art /or/or  The r-controlled vowels are a subject of disagreement among linguists, but most instructional programs treat the vowel + r as one sound. /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /oo/

54  Say the vowel sounds /e/ and /oo/.  Observe your partner and feel your own mouth as you say these vowels.  Decide which one should be called a “front, smile” and which one a “back, rounded vowel”. front, smile low, open back, rounded Vowels Phonemes: Smiles, Opens And Rounds eoo

55 Vowels Phonemes: Smiles, Opens, And Rounds Activity 1  Make each of these sounds with your partner, observe your partner’s mouth and feel your own. /oo/ / i / /u/ /a / /o/

56 e i u oo Vowels Phonemes: Smiles, Opens, And Rounds Activity 2  Write each phonic symbol in the column it seems to belong in. front, smile low, open oo a u o back, rounded ei a o oo

57 Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle front, smile eeateEd ? ? back, round low, open eeat eEd

58 Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle front, smile back, round low, open eeat eEd ? ? aat iit aat iit

59 Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle front, smile back, round low, open eeat eEd aat iit aate iice

60 Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle front, smile back, round iice low, open eeat eEd aat iit aate u up odd aw law o

61 Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle front, smile back, round iice low, open eeat eEd oomoon o oak oo look aat iit aate u up odd aw law o

62 SCHWA low, open back, round Vowels Phonemes:The Vowel Circle And Schwa front, smile Texas e iice eeat eEd iit oomoon o oak oo look aat u up odd aw law o aate

63 DIPHTHONG Vowels Phonemes:The Vowel Circle And Diphthongs /ou/How, trout /oy/Boy, coin low, open back, round front, smile SCHWA Texas e iice u up odd aw law o eeat eEd iit aate oomoon o oak oo look aat

64 R-CONTROLLED Vowels Phonemes: The Vowel Circle And R-Controlled low, open back, round front, smile /er/ urge her sir /ar/ art /or/ or DIPHTHONG /ou/How, trout /oy/Boy, coin SCHWA Texas e iice u up odd aw law o eeat eEd iit aate oomoon o oak oo look aat

65 ___ be ___ bet___ back___ heat ___ thick ___ ice ___ sigh ___ day___ choose ___ quake___ backed ___ blasted ___ rode___ rowed ___ kin___ king Counting Phonemes /b//e//b//e//t/ /b//a//k//h//t//e/ bebet backheat

66 Manipulating Phonemes  Reverse the sequence of speech sounds in each of these words, or say them backwards.  Think of the sounds, not the letters, and write the word with the conventional spelling e.g. note backwards is tone; maid backwards is dame. a.teach _______e. lip _________i. enough _______ b.sigh ________f. easy ________j. cash _________ c.cuts ________g. judge _______ k. snitch _______ d.pitch _______ h. speak _______ l. face _________ cheat ice stuck chip pill easy judge keeps funny shack chintz safe

67 UNIT 3 THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE  Why Is The Structure of Language Important?  The Phonemes of English  Learning Language Structure Through the History of English

68 History Of English Language  Helps teachers understand the origins of our phonology, morphology, orthography and semantics.  Helps teachers understand and explain our spelling system.  Provides an appreciation for the variety and expressive precision of English vocabulary.  Enhances vocabulary teaching.  Explains the historical origin of some common errors seen in invented spelling.

69 Historical Layers Of English ENGLISH: A rich and complex recipe with the flavors of many cultures… C.E Present

70 Oldest Layer  Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, comprises only 1% of all the words in our dictionary.  Anglo-Saxon comprises 100% of Dolch words, i.e.  was, what, there, them, and  Verbs and nouns with irregular inflections are from this period, i.e.  bring-brought, give-gave, take-took, tooth-teeth, child-children, leaf-leaves C.E.

71 Anglo-Saxon Words  Consider these short words used for basic concepts in our everyday speech:  family: mother, father, brother, sister, house  farming: plow, herd, horse, ox  body parts: foot, arm, head C.E.

72 1000 Year Old Words  You can use this information in the class to engage students.  Tell students that those sight words are difficult to read and spell because they are over 1000 years old.  Tell students that most silent letters used to be pronounced:  name was “nahm-uh’”  night was “neect” C.E.

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74 Lord’s Prayer in Old English Faeder ure, pu pe eart on heofunum, si pin name gehalgod. Tobecume pin rice. Gewur  e pin willa on eor  an swa swa on hoefunum. Urne gedae ghwamlican hlaf syle us to daeg. And forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfa  urnum gyltendum. And ne gelaed pu us on constnunge, ac alys us of yfele. So  lice

75 The Middle Layer  In 1066, William The Conqueror leads an invasion from France into England. This act leads to major changes to English language.  French becomes the language of the ruling class, while Anglo-Saxon becomes the language of commoners C.E C.E.

76 Latin To French To English  The French language includes many Latin words. As French words became incorporated into the English language, so did Latin words.  Hence over 50% of our English words originate from Latin C.E.

77 Latin To French To English  French words that came from the Middle English ( ):  government: country, duke, parliament  military: arms, peace, war, captain  legal: court, judge, attorney, defendant, felony  leisure: art, costume, pleasure, trump, ace, duce C.E.

78 “Hog Chop” For Dinner?  English still includes French words for the foods we commonly eat, i.e. pork, beef, mutton, venison  But, for the animals that provide the food, we use the Anglo-Saxon words: hog, cow, sheep, deer C.E.

79 The Lord's Prayer (Pater Noster) in Middle English Oure fadir that art in heuene halowid be thi name, thi kyngdom come to, be thi wile don in erthe as in heuene, yeue to us this day oure breed ouir other substance, & foryeue to us oure dettis, as we for yeuen to oure dettouris & lede us not in to temptacion: buy delyuer us from yuel. Amen

80 Vocabulary Building C.E.  Latin words from this period are often composed of prefixes, roots and suffixes.  Students can learn many vocabulary words at once by learning about these Latin roots and affixes.

81 Vocabulary Building The root tract means pull or draw. Explain: traction detract intractable contract – pull with extract – pull out distract – pull apart

82 Using Root Words From Latin Morphology Teaching about combining roots, prefixes and suffixes helps children learn about...?? Semantics Syntax Orthography Phonology Phonetics Morphology

83 Prefixes And Suffixes: Using This Information in the Classroom  Most of today’s suffixes date from the Middle English period of history.  Inflectional Suffixes (learned early):  -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, -est  Derivational Suffixes (usually change part of speech):  -able, - ness, -ful, -ment, -ity  The suffixes may change pronunciation of base words:  define  definition  compete  competition

84 The Top Layer  The final layer in our English cake is characterized by 2 phenomena:  The Renaissance  The Great Vowel Shift AKA: Old English Present

85 Not Enough Words  The Renaissance, a time of new ideas, science and trade, demanded a growing stock of words:  Latin (added in modern era): allusion, appropriate, external, benefit, exist  Greek (useful for new inventions, ideas): atmosphere, atom, telephone, nylon Present

86 Not Enough Words Renaissance scholars needed new words for new meanings. This is a problem of...?? Morphology Semantics Syntax Orthography Phonology Phonetics Semantics

87 Modern English: Changes in Vowels  While the Renaissance contributed much to the semantics of English, the other major influence on Modern English affected mainly quite a different area of the language… Present The Great Vowel Shift

88 Changing Vowel Sounds  Since Modern English began, the pronunciations of many words have changed. PHONEMEMODERN ENGLISH MIDDLE ENGLISH Long “a” Long “e” Long “i” “nahm-uh” “clain” “feef” name clean five Present

89 Changing Vowel Sounds When vowel sounds change in a language, it is a matter of...?? Morphology Semantics Syntax Orthography Phonology Phonetics Phonology

90 The Great Vowel Shift  During the Renaissance, the pronunciation of words changed particularly for the vowel sounds.  The spelling system was already established and did not change to accommodate the changing sound Present

91 Changing Vowel Sounds The written form of the language did not change. This is an example of...?? Morphology Semantics Syntax Orthography Phonology Phonetics Orthography

92 From Layer To Layer GreekOld EnglishLatin geographicearthterrain pyrefireignite hydrogenwateraquatic abstractconcrete 7 th – 12 th Primary 4 th – 7 th

93 Identify Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon WordOriginClue thirty precept gymnast analyze prospect rabbit wash biosphere atrocious psalm

94 Identify Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon WordOriginClue thirtyAS number/th preceptL pt/soft “c” gymnastGr medial “y” analyzeGr medial “y” prospectL “ct” rabbitAS animal/double “b” washAS every day biosphereGr “ph” atrociousL “ci” = /sh/ psalmGr silent “p”

95 A Multicultural Language English Words from Around the World African banjo jazz gumbo tote American Indian moose opossum wigwam raccoon Arabic alcohol algebra coffee zero German dollar kindergarten quartz yacht Hindi bungalow dungarees pajama tote Italian balcony opera umbrella piano Malay amok bamboo Russian mammoth Yiddish bagel kibbutz

96 What Else Does Our Cake Need? The words of many lands and people…the icing on the cake.

97 The State Of English Today...  English has the largest vocabulary of any language:  English:650,000 words  French:100,000  German:184,000  Russian:100,000  “English is well on the way to becoming a universal language.” From English Isn’t Crazy, Diana Hanbury King, p. xi

98 You Now Know…  What sounds will children confuse with /p/ and how can I help?  Why do common sight words such as “was,” “what,” and “said,” have irregular spellings?  How many meaningful parts (morphemes) are there in the word contracted?  Why is English spelling perceived as “crazy?”

99 Congratulations! You have completed Unit 3: The Structure Of Language

100 SOURCES  Henderson, Edmund H Learning to read and spell: The child’s knowledge of words. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press.  Henderson, Edmund H Teaching spelling, 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  King, Diana Hanbury English isn’t crazy: The elements of our language and how to teach them. Baltimore: York.  Moats, Louisa Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.  Henry, Marcia K Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding and spelling instruction. Baltimore, Maryland.


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