Presentation on theme: "Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis."— Presentation transcript:
Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis Christi Whitter – Principal firstname.lastname@example.org@usd231.com or (913)856-0400
Why Use A Tiered Model of Instruction? What’s it like to struggle?
One Minute Activities Write about something you are looking forward to... Write about something that did not go well (do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them) * Write about something in that past that went well (do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them, and use your non- dominant hand to write)
Vision of RtI RtI is a process carried out predominately through general education. It requires that ALL teachers take responsibility for ALL students. RtI is a TOOL FOR EARLY SUPPORT so that students do not have to wait to receive the intensity of instruction needed to progress. RtI is a TOOL FOR SUPPORT so that students do not have to struggle prior to receiving targeted or intervention instruction.
Different Routes To The Same Place Tier 1 – look at a map Tier 2 – MapQuest directions plus map Tier 3 – GPS unit, plus MapQuest, plus map
The Necessity for Differentiated Support A child who completes 2 nd grade without being able to read proficiently has only a 25% chance of reading at grade level (Gettinger & Stoiber, 2007) Majority of 4 th grade students with reading problems will have them in high school and have a higher probability of dropping out of school (Scarborough, 2001) Children who fall behind at an early age (K and grade 1) fall further and further behind over time. Longitudinal studies show that of the children who are diagnosed as reading disabled in third grade, 74% remain disabled in ninth grade (Fletcher, et al., 1994; Shaywitz, Escobar, Shaywitz, Fletcher, & Makuch, 1992; Stanovich, 1986; Stanovich & Siegel, 1994).
Why Provide Differentiated Support? Learners who are struggling readers are more likely to experience continuous failure, be referred and placed in special education, to experience life in the lower track in school, and to enter the world after school as a high school dropout (Tivan & Hemphill, 2005) About 60% of students with learning disabilities become high school dropouts (Frankenberger & Franzaglio, 1991) It is thought that up to 75% of students identified as Special Education students do not have Learning Disabilities, they do instead have a lack of appropriate and needed reading instruction (Haager & Windmueller, 2001)
Differentiated Core Instruction is Critical (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998) Reading trajectories are remarkably stable. Intervention often occurs here Early intervention is more effective, because there is less to “catch up.” Reading Achievement Past practice has been to intervene too late – when the gap is wider.
What schools most need... -- to begin systematically harnessing the power of collective intelligence that already resides in the school to solve problems. Smoker, in DeFour, 2004 -- We can, whenever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far. Ron Edmonds
Among Other Things, When You Implement Tier 2, You Must… 1.Set Clear Direction and Use Data to Guide You 2.Bring together multiple constituencies 3.Never Give Up 4.Monitor Your Progress and Modify as You Go - Be Flexible 5.Deal Effectively with Detractors 6.Juggle Multiple Tasks at Once 7.Be Tolerant of and Celebrate Mistakes
#1 - Set Clear Direction and Use Your Data If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll be sure to get there Folks in RTI systems know what they are looking for “Better outcomes for kids” always guides our decision making And data are our guide…
Important Feature…. Assessments chosen need to be valid, reliable, and based on scientifically based research. PUBLISHED ASSESSMENTS SUFFICIENT TECHNICAL ADEQUACY =
4 Types of Assessments TYPEUSEPURPOSE Outcome (Summative) Evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. “Reaching our goals” Universal Screening (Formative) Identify students who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention. “First Alert” Progress Monitoring (Formative) Determine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction. “Growth Charts” Diagnostic (Formative) Plan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies. “In-depth View”
Comprehensive Assessment System There are four steps in developing a comprehensive assessment system: 1.selecting assessments 2.determining who will conduct assessments, 3.assessment schedule, and 4.establishing a data management system Hall, 2008
Outcome Assessments EXAMPLESUSEPURPOSEQUESTIONS State Assessments Other Group Assessments Evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. “Reaching our goals” Are students meeting standards? Are instructional programs effective? Have we accomplished our goals for a student, a class or a district? What needs changing next year? What things should we continue?
Universal Screening EXAMPLE S USEPURPOS E QUESTIONS DIBELS AIMSWEB identify children who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention. “First Alert” Who is at risk? Who may need additional assistance? Who needs close monitoring?
Screening Measures From The Medical Field
Non- Examples From The Medical Field
Curriculum Based Measurements Given 3 times per year Measures accuracy and fluency on critical skills Brief and easy to administer Includes multiple forms to use for progress monitoring Provides student, class, grade and district level data Universal Screeners
Universal Screening “Simple” tasks predict complex reading skills very well---especially if the measures reflect accuracy and speed.” “What is tested is simpler than what is taught: Both foundational skills and comprehension will need to be taught, even though comprehension may not be tested thoroughly.” (Moats, 2005)
Group 1: Accurate and Fluent Comprehension Focus Group 2: Accurate but Slow Rate Fluency Focus Group 3: Inaccurate and Slow Rate Accuracy Focus ( Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Sight Word Recognition) Group 4: Inaccurate but High Rate Self-Monitoring/ Accuracy Focus Determining Instructional Focus Using Oral Reading Fluency
Four Quadrant Instructional Sort Quadrant 1 Accurate and Fluent Reader Plan of Action: Instruction on monitoring for meaning Instruction on fix-up strategies Instruction on vocabulary strategies Intervention: 6-Way Paragraphs Exit Criteria Quadrant 2 Accurate and Slow Reader (lack of automaticity) Plan of Action: Instruction on automaticity Repeated and assisted reading of passages Instruction on pacing and phrasing Intervention: Six Minute Solution Exit Criteria Quadrant 3 Inaccurate and Slow Reader Plan of Action: Give additional phonics/PA assessments Instruction on missing decoding skills Instruction on missing sight words Work on applying skills to connected text at instructional level Practice reading in connected decodable text Quadrant 4 Inaccurate and Fluent Reader Plan of Action: Give additional phonics/PA assessments Teach student to adjust rate of reading to type of text and purpose for reading Instruction on missing decoding skills Instruction on sight words Practice reading in connected decodable text
Individual Student Plans READING INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTION PLAN STUDENT_____________________________________ TEACHER ____________________________________ DATE WRITTEN________________________________ DATE REVIEWED ______________________________ ComprehensionFluencyPhonemic Awareness PhonicsVocabulary CONCERN: Measurable Data - Teacher Observations – HYPOTHESIS: (I think _________ is having difficulty because....) WHAT IS WORKING.... ?WHAT IS NOT WORKING....? BRAINSTORM POSSIBLE INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS, STAR THOSE SELECTED TO IMPLEMENT: IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TIME INTERVENTION WILL BE PROVIDED & POSSIBLE MANAGEMENT ISSUES MATERIALS NEEDED PERSON PROVIDING THE INTERVENTION(S) HOW WILL SUCCESS BE DETERMINED COMMUNICATION PLAN HOME COMPONENT MEASURABLE GOAL:
On Track Some Support Intense Support Fall Winter Spring Kindergarten GOAL: By Spring, we want ___% of our students to be “on-track” with their literacy skills.
School Building Reading Goals By May 9 th 90% of MDE students will be reading at grade level as measured by Fountas & Pinnell. By May 9 th 90% of MDE students will be at benchmark for fluency, accuracy, and retell as measured by DIBELS. By May 9 th 90% of MDE students will meet grade level reading indicators as measured by quarterly tests. 100% of 3 rd & 4 th grade MDE students will be “proficient” as measured by KS State Assessments.
Progress Monitoring Assessments EXAMPLES USEPURPOSEQUESTIONS DIBELS AIMSWEB Common Formative Assessment use information to determine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction. “Growth Charts” Who needs extra support? How should groups be formed? Which skills need emphasizing?
Nine Characteristics of Progress Monitoring Assessments 1.Assess specific skills embodied in state standards 2.Assess target skills 3.Be sensitive to small growth increments 4.Administered repeatedly 5.Data displays 6.Comparable across students 7.Administered efficiently over short periods 8.Can monitor student progress over time 9.Relevant to development of instruction
Matching Progress Monitoring to Instructional Focus Focus of InstructionProgress Monitor Letter SoundsLetter Sound Fluency Phoneme SegmentationPhoneme Segmentation Fluency Short VowelsNonsense Word Fluency Accuracy (Advanced Phonics) Oral Reading Fluency Passages (Accuracy percent) FluencyOral Reading Fluency Passage (wcpm) ComprehensionMaze Passages
Frequency of Progress Monitoring Supplemental – every two to three weeks Intensive – weekly 20-30 alternate forms per grade level is sufficient
Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring Number of consecutive data points needed to make an accurate instructional decision. Criteria for entering and exiting tiered intervention Instructional decisions are typically made during regular scheduled collaborative meetings and based on data
not consecutively above or below 3 consecutively below 3 consecutively above
Diagnostic Process and Assessment EXAMPLE S USEPURPOSEQUESTIONS QPS PAST GORT IV PALS CTOPP use information to plan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies. “In-depth View” What are the strengths? The weaknesses? Are other students exhibiting similar profiles?
Formal Diagnostic Assessment Designed to provide precise and detailed information of a student’s knowledge and skill Can be deducted any time during the year when a more in-depth knowledge of student’s strengths and weaknesses is needed Diagnostic information from computer – adaptive group assessment can be used to differentiate the core.
Decision Rules for Diagnostic Assessments All buildings should have decision rules to address: How data from the diagnostic process will be used to assign students to homogenous groups When additional formal diagnostic assessments will be given.
Fidelity of Standardized Administration
Professional Development for Assessments Examiners need : –excellent training, –opportunities to practice –periodic ongoing training –experienced examiners to check first-time examiners scores, and –opportunities to shadow score
Ensuring Fidelity Not About PunishmentAbout Providing Support
Where do all these assessments fit?
Using Assessment Data to Drive Instruction Assessment Decision Making Steps Assessment Decision/Questions Assessment Data 1. Identify NeedAre there students who may need support? How many? Which students? Screening data 2. Validate NeedAre we confident that the identified students need support? Diagnostic data and additional information 3. Plan and ImplementWhat level of support for which students? How to group student? Screening and diagnostic data 4. Evaluate and Modify Support Is the support effective for individual students? Progress monitoring data 5. Evaluate OutcomesHow effective is core support, supplemental support, and intensive support Screening data Dynamic Measurement Group
#2 - Bring Together Multiple Key Constituencies RTI is about bringing people together to help students achieve –General Education –Special Education –Title 1 and “at-risk” –Gifted Education –ELL –Classified, Certified, Building and District Administration –Parents / Home –ALL OF EDUCATION
#2 - It May Feel Like This Herding Cats
Nuts and Bolts of Infrastructure Data Builds Buy In! NCLB & IDEA – it’s an every ed issue, focus on breaking down invisible walls Change in how and who provides support Typically General Ed needs the “why” explained and Special Ed needs to adapt to role changes This can get everyone stuck
Scheduling Pick your model (all school, cross grade level, pull-out, in class, intervention team, or other) considering pros and cons for your school See handout for ideas Make the Change – Do It – Re-examine Things to remember: –Most qualified work with the neediest –Grade level or class with more needs gets support
Example: Model of Instruction Walk to Intervention (45 students) Teacher B (Multisyllabic Words) 5 Students Title Teacher (Decoding) 5 Students Teacher A (Enrichment /Grade Level Group) 22 students Special Education Teacher (Phonemic Awareness) 3 students Teacher D (Comprehension) 5 Students Teacher C (Fluency) 5 Students
Tier 2 Guidelines Core –90 minutes of uninterrupted time. Targeted –an additional 30 minutes of targeted instruction should be provided beyond the core with homogeneous groups of 3-5 students Intensive – 60 additional minutes of instruction beyond the core instruction with homogeneous groups of 1-3 students
Group Size and Time Remember that group size and amount of time are estimations Student data will indicate if the group size/time is sufficient. If students are not making progress the group size may need to be smaller Adjust group size before increasing intervention time
Decision Rules for School Schedules Common collaboration time Availability of specialists Maximize student time on task Minimize transitioning Minimum time allocations for core instruction Other decision rules that may affect your schedule
Considerations for Scheduling When will supplemental instruction be scheduled When will intensive instruction be scheduled Any requirements for entitlement classes Itinerant staff schedules Special class schedules (orchestra, etc.) Space considerations
Blocking a Tiered Schedule 1.Block non-negotiables such as beginning and ending times of school day 2.Lunch (rotation could be changed) 3.Itinerant/shared teachers 4.Intervention blocks 5.Core reading 6.Kindergarten(half day)
Data Analysis 1.Check data to see if there are skills that a majority of students did not master. Those should be re-taught to whole group. 2.Make note cards for each student. List areas of need OR use sorting quadrant template. 3.Start grouping based on need. For students who have multiple needs, you will need to decide which skill(s) are a high need.
Stages of Reader Development Reading progresses along stages of development the lack of mastery at any one stage can halt the progress beyond that level. teachers must use assessment to determine a reader’s developmental stage, plan instruction, and teach concepts and strategies needed.
Considerations for Supplemental and Intensive Curriculum Materials must provide focused skill-based instruction Skill-based instruction refers to the five essential areas of reading; phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Resources (Human and Curriculum) Think creatively, not what’s always been done!
Error Analysis 2 students with same ORF score Student “A” Read all sight words correctly Had accuracy rate of 99% Self-corrected words, specifically tried short vowel in all words then would go back and used long vowel Read slowly and would often reread Student “B” Misread 8 of 21 sight words Dropped the endings off of words (i.e. ing, ed) Misread words typically had blends Accuracy rate of 72% Never self-corrected Read very quickly without acknowledging punctuation
Sample Intervention Programs Reading K Pals Pals Reading Mastery 6 Minute Solution Read Well Naturally Sound Partners SRA Decoding Strategies SRA Early Reading Tutor Quick Reads Word Sorts (or list Words Their Way as a resource) Bookshop Phonics (Mondo) Readers’ Theater Check out Florida Reading Website at www.fcrr.orgwww.fcrr.org
What Training Is Needed For Staff? Assessments (on-line & “coach”) Data & Error Analysis (LC, Mentor, practice) Overview of RtI (all staff) Core Curriculum (Mentor, Walk-Through) Intervention Programs (LC, “coach”) Delivery (all staff) Big 5 Of Reading (on-going book studies, videos, coaching)
Program Warning All programs are not created equally Reteaching, modeling, and more guided practice is often needed Train Staff On Good Instruction Using Learning Communities & Data Possible Resource: “I’ve DIBELed Now What?” By Susan Hall Fidelity Issues Examples
Sample Tier 2 Interventions First Grade – Mrs. Simmons Tier 2 Sight Words
#3 – Never Give Up Does it ever feel like the work is never done? As soon as you push the rock up the hill, it seems to roll back down… It seems like the odds are stacked against you… This happens to winners all the time…
Differentiation of Teacher-Directed Instruction: is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as sequence of instruction flexible grouping materials & resources Teachers can differentiate instruction by: processproductcontent use of data teachers & reading coaches collaborating in planning according to Student Interests Time & Group Size Student Readiness (Data) (Adapted from: Tomlinson & Allan 2000) learning environment
Examples of Differentiating Content Varying reading levels Putting text materials on tape Using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness levels of students Presenting ideas through both auditory and visual means Using reading buddies Meeting with small groups-reteach or extend (Tomlinson, 2001)
Examples of Differentiating Process Tiered activities-all learners work with same important information and skills but proceed with different levels of support, challenge or complexities Provide interest centers that encourage students to explore subsets of class topic Develop personal agendas Provide manipulatives or other hands on supports Vary length of time a student may take to complete task (Tomlinson, 2001)
Examples of Differentiating Product Options of how to express information learned Using rubrics that match and extend varied skill levels Allow students to work alone or in small groups for products Encourage students to create their own product assignments (Tomlinson, 2001 )
Examples of Differentiating Learning Environment Provide places to work around the room that are quiet or invite collaboration Provide materials that are culturally sensitive Set clear guidelines for independent work/matches student needs Develop routines that allow students to get help when teacher is not available (working in small groups) Helping students understand that some learners need to move around while others sit quietly (Tomlinson, 2001)
#4 - Monitor Your Progress Collect data on your implementation –Process –Result Be flexible enough to make changes quickly and efficiently. Communication!
# 4 – Be Flexible There are many paths to the same destination In RTI, the principles underlying the system are the same in each implementation
The Running of the…
It is not the strongest who survive, but the most adaptable… Charles Darwin
#5 – Deal Effectively With Detractors Every implementation has people who –Have never tried what is being proposed –Can tell you 100 reasons why it won’t work Indeed, some of them seem to project the following concepts into your implementation…
#6 – Juggling Multiple Tasks at Once Implementing RTI in systems already implementing the old system is a challenge Must run a dual system for at least a while It is like building an airplane in flight
In Flight ClipFlight
“ The greatest difficulty lies not in persuading people to accept new ideas, but in persuading them to abandon old ones.” John Maynard Keynes
#7 - Celebrating Mistakes We all make them It is not whether they are made It is about our attitude toward them And how we react to them that makes the difference
Lesson From Oz It takes courage It takes heart It takes knowledge You have all that is required to support a system of success for all children. It’s our work, our passion our purpose.
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead Margaret Mead US anthropologist (1901 - 1978)