Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis Christi Whitter – Principal or (913)

2 Why Use A Tiered Model of Instruction?
What’s it like to struggle?

3 One Minute Activities Write about something you are looking forward to . . . Write about something that did not go well (do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them) * Write about something in that past that went well (do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them, and use your non-dominant hand to write) Awesome!

4 Vision of RtI RtI is a process carried out predominately through general education. It requires that ALL teachers take responsibility for ALL students. RtI is a TOOL FOR EARLY SUPPORT so that students do not have to wait to receive the intensity of instruction needed to progress. RtI is a TOOL FOR SUPPORT so that students do not have to struggle prior to receiving targeted or intervention instruction. Can we take out “school improvement process” as it is widely viewed as a title 1 initiative here and just say RtI is a process… can we use support instead of intervention (we are trying to stay away from the word “intervention” since we made the shift from intervention to instruction in IN. Third bullet – tool for support instead of prevention

5 Different Routes To The Same Place
Tier 1 – look at a map Tier 2 – MapQuest directions plus map Tier 3 – GPS unit, plus MapQuest, plus map I LOVE this!!!!

6 The Necessity for Differentiated Support
A child who completes 2nd grade without being able to read proficiently has only a 25% chance of reading at grade level (Gettinger & Stoiber, 2007) Majority of 4th grade students with reading problems will have them in high school and have a higher probability of dropping out of school (Scarborough, 2001) Children who fall behind at an early age (K and grade 1) fall further and further behind over time. Longitudinal studies show that of the children who are diagnosed as reading disabled in third grade, 74% remain disabled in ninth grade (Fletcher, et al., 1994; Shaywitz, Escobar, Shaywitz, Fletcher, & Makuch, 1992; Stanovich, 1986; Stanovich & Siegel, 1994). Instead of “Why Intervene” can we say The Necessity for Differentiated Support?

7 Why Provide Differentiated Support?
Learners who are struggling readers are more likely to experience continuous failure, be referred and placed in special education, to experience life in the lower track in school, and to enter the world after school as a high school dropout (Tivan & Hemphill, 2005) About 60% of students with learning disabilities become high school dropouts (Frankenberger & Franzaglio, 1991) It is thought that up to 75% of students identified as Special Education students do not have Learning Disabilities, they do instead have a lack of appropriate and needed reading instruction (Haager & Windmueller, 2001) Same thing with the title – but I love the research – makes it real and hits home

8 Differentiated Core Instruction is Critical
Reading trajectories are remarkably stable. Reading Achievement Early intervention is more effective, because there is less to “catch up.” Intervention often occurs here Again – is there some way to avoid using “intervention” and instead use “Why differentiated instruction at the CORE is critical” Based on a great deal of research we know that Students who start out behind just fall farther and farther behind It’s not a developmental lag – they don’t simply catch up This chart shows the development of the lowest 10% of students in a class from 1st through 5th grade Vs. a group of students from the middle – the middle 10% The slope of the trajectory would be the same for the highest readers, as well Not only do they not close the gap, but the gap between groups widens over time When have schools traditionally offered intervention such as special education to students who fail to read? Too often it has been in 4th grade and beyond That’s because many schools have limited formal interventions other than special education Students often aren’t provided additional support until the gap between their achievement and potential is wide enough for them to qualify – which is often in 3rd grade or beyond Does this mean that we don’t know how to teach a student to read after 3rd grade? No – but it’s not efficient Past practice has been to intervene too late – when the gap is wider. (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998) 8

9 What schools most need . . . -- to begin systematically harnessing the power of collective intelligence that already resides in the school to solve problems. Smoker, in DeFour, 2004 -- We can, whenever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far. Ron Edmonds AWESOME – I love to send the collaboration message

10 Among Other Things, When You Implement Tier 2, You Must…
Deal Effectively with Detractors Juggle Multiple Tasks at Once Be Tolerant of and Celebrate Mistakes Set Clear Direction and Use Data to Guide You Bring together multiple constituencies Never Give Up Monitor Your Progress and Modify as You Go - Be Flexible WONDERFUL!

11 #1 - Set Clear Direction and Use Your Data
If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll be sure to get there Folks in RTI systems know what they are looking for “Better outcomes for kids” always guides our decision making And data are our guide…

12 Assessment Is this going to be an activity?
Discuss that this portion of the guide will lead the teams through completing the tasks to: Select the assessments that will form the comprehensive assessment plan Create the structure that will be used for teams to conduct data-based decision making at each level Create a plan for professional development relating to assessments The assessment section is one of the longest in the structuring guide. There are many decisions to be made, however the guide will walk you through making those decisions one by one as you select the assessments that will form your comprehensive assessment plan, determine the decision rules and structures for data-based decision making that will guide the use of the data to be collected from those assessments, and ensure that appropriate professional development will occur. September 12, 2007 12

ADEQUACY = PUBLISHED ASSESSMENTS Assessments chosen need to be valid, reliable, and based on scientifically based research. You speak my language! Just because the assessments are published does not necessarily mean they have sufficient technical adequacy. When developing a comprehensive assessment program ,it is important to review the research and evaluate each assessment. Assessments need to be reliable, valid, and scientifically based. It is also important that there is a clear understanding of the purpose for which the assessment was intended and validated. 13

14 4 Types of Assessments TYPE USE PURPOSE Outcome (Summative)
Assessment Map 4 Types of Assessments TYPE USE PURPOSE Outcome (Summative) Evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. “Reaching our goals” Universal Screening (Formative) Identify students who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention. “First Alert” Progress Monitoring Determine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction. “Growth Charts” Diagnostic Plan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies. “In-depth View” Discuss the 4 types of assessments, Use, & Purpose Will go into detail for each in this section of the training 14

15 Comprehensive Assessment System
There are four steps in developing a comprehensive assessment system: selecting assessments determining who will conduct assessments, assessment schedule, and establishing a data management system 1. Discuss that there are 4 steps to consider when developing a comprehensive assessment system. select specific assessments for screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic, and outcomes, determine who will conduct the specific assessments, develop an assessment schedule, and establish a data management system 2. Discuss that it is the comprehensive assessment data that gathers the information that will be used as a basis for all data-based decision making that will occur in the MTSS. A comprehensive assessment system is one of the most important foundational components of MTSS. The comprehensive assessment system is about more than merely selecting the assessments that will be used. Because it is the mechanism that gathers the information that will be used as a basis for all data-based decision making in the MTSS you are creating, it is critical that the comprehensive assessment system is designed to yield accurate, useful, trustworthy data from the beginning. There are four major steps to develop a comprehensive assessment system. Hall, 2008 September 12, 2007 15

16 Outcome Assessments EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS State Assessments
Assessment Map Outcome Assessments EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS State Assessments Other Group Assessments Evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. “Reaching our goals” Are students meeting standards? Are instructional programs effective? Have we accomplished our goals for a student, a class or a district? What needs changing next year? What things should we continue? Outcome assessments help evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. In order to use the results of the assessment as a means to improve instruction it is useful to determine the alignment of the outcome assessment with the Kansas curricular standards. Outcome assessments answer the questions: Are students meeting standards? Are instructional programs effective? Have we accomplished our goals for a student, a class, or a district? What needs changing next year? What things should we continue? Now, take a few minutes with a shoulder partner and share what you are currently using as outcome assessments. 16

Assessment Map Universal Screening EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS DIBELS AIMSWEB identify children who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention. “First Alert” Who is at risk? Who may need additional assistance? Who needs close monitoring? The Purpose is a First Alert It answers – the questions listed The most common universal screening assessment used in the area of academics is curriculum-based measurement (e.g., AIMSweb, DIBELS) (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2005; Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Bolt, 2007). Choosing a screening instrument is the first step in developing a comprehensive assessment system. Screenings are conducted starting at the beginning of the school year with all children to identify children who may need additional support. The screening assessment should be a formative assessment with technical validity. The purpose of the screening assessment is to get a sense of how students are functioning and identify students who may be considered for supplemental or intensive instruction. The screening assessment is the first alert and answers: Who is on track? Who may need additional assistance? Who needs closer monitoring? NOTE TO TRAINER: Have participants take a few minutes with a shoulder partner and discuss what they are currently using as a screening assessment. 17

18 Screening Measures From The Medical Field
I LOVE THIS  Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure which are predictive measures of general health. They are research-based, takes minimal training, fast & easy. Need to have a decision point introduction here. We know that a high temperature triggers concerns. But we also know that we worry more about 103 than 99. We have ranges for blood pressure that trigger other actions, depending on how high the BP is. 18

19 Non-Examples From The Medical Field
There are measures that are quick and easy that could be collected But some are things that are not predictive of health issues If they are not meaningful, resources should not be used to collect it. What happens at a doctor’s office is fast & easy and measurable and indicators of health. There are some things they don’t do because it’s not predictive of general health. Eye color is non predictive of any health issue. Head circumference is a measure that medicine uses sometimes when they need this type of information for an infant but is not appropriate for long-term information. 19

20 Universal Screeners Curriculum Based Measurements
Given 3 times per year Measures accuracy and fluency on critical skills Brief and easy to administer Includes multiple forms to use for progress monitoring Provides student, class, grade and district level data What is MTSS? Review of critical features on the slide Curriculum based measures provide both accuracy and fluency data, both of which are predictive of later academic success. In order to have the data needed for MTSS implementation, the universal screener for literacy must collect both accuracy and fluency information. 20

21 Universal Screening “Simple” tasks predict complex reading skills very well---especially if the measures reflect accuracy and speed.” “What is tested is simpler than what is taught: Both foundational skills and comprehension will need to be taught, even though comprehension may not be tested thoroughly.” (Moats, 2005) Not sure about this one..can you give me a little more background? 21

22 Determining Instructional Focus Using Oral Reading Fluency
Group 1: Accurate and Fluent Comprehension Focus Group 2: Accurate but Slow Rate Fluency Focus Group 3: Inaccurate and Slow Rate Accuracy Focus ( Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Sight Word Recognition) Group 4: Inaccurate but High Rate Self-Monitoring/ Accuracy Focus 02/06/08

23 Four Quadrant Instructional Sort
Accurate and Fluent Reader Plan of Action: Instruction on monitoring for meaning Instruction on fix-up strategies Instruction on vocabulary strategies Intervention: 6-Way Paragraphs Exit Criteria Quadrant 2 Accurate and Slow Reader (lack of automaticity) Instruction on automaticity Repeated and assisted reading of passages Instruction on pacing and phrasing Six Minute Solution Quadrant 3 Inaccurate and Slow Reader Give additional phonics/PA assessments Instruction on missing decoding skills Instruction on missing sight words Work on applying skills to connected text at instructional level Practice reading in connected decodable text Quadrant 4 Inaccurate and Fluent Reader Teach student to adjust rate of reading to type of text and purpose for reading Instruction on sight words This what teams will use to customize what they are doing. Ask them to examine what materials they already have. In defining the instructional focus for students, teams will need to look at the instructional recommendations to group students that need supplemental or intensive support. Once the student intervention groups are formed and an instructional focus for each group is determined, teams will need to select the appropriate intervention for each group. The most successful groupings and progress occur when student skill deficit areas are pinpointed and aligned to the appropriate intervention. This can be done by using the Four Quadrant Instructional Sort (Tool 8). After sorting students into Quadrants, diagnostic assessments for phonological awareness, phonics or error pattern analysis, should be given to students as needed. Once the assessments have been completed students will be grouped according to skill needs. After the grouping process is completed, teams will need to choose appropriate interventions from those documented on the Curriculum Matrix (Tool 10 from Structuring). Schools/ districts can customize the plan of action and intervention sections by adding their own interventions from their curriculum matrix that was completed during structuring. These quadrant groups may be to large so teams will need to refine these groups by finding the instructional focus to form smaller groups within the quadrants. September 12, 2007 23

24 Individual Student Plans

25 Not sure what this is but I am sure you will explain
A1.4.1a A1.4.1e A3.2.2 K1.2.1 K1.2.5a K1.2.5b K1.2.5c K1.2.5d K2.3.2 Item 4 3 94% 1 2 72% 81% 58% 53% 92% 50% 78% 75% 31% 89% 64% 83% 67% 90.91% 63.64% 13.64% 86.36% 77.27% 81.82% 54.55% Not sure what this is but I am sure you will explain

26 Kindergarten On Track Some Support Intense Support Fall Winter Spring
GOAL: By Spring, we want ___% of our students to be “on-track” with their literacy skills.

27 School Building Reading Goals
By May 9th 90% of MDE students will be reading at grade level as measured by Fountas & Pinnell. By May 9th 90% of MDE students will be at benchmark for fluency, accuracy, and retell as measured by DIBELS. By May 9th 90% of MDE students will meet grade level reading indicators as measured by quarterly tests. 100% of 3rd & 4th grade MDE students will be “proficient” as measured by KS State Assessments. I would just use School or Building – “school-wide” in IN is synonymous with Title I

28 Assessment Wall

29 Progress Monitoring Assessments
Assessment Map Progress Monitoring Assessments EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS DIBELS AIMSWEB Common Formative Assessment use information to determine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction. “Growth Charts” Who needs extra support? How should groups be formed? Which skills need emphasizing? Go over slide For students receiving supplemental (Tier 2) and intensive (Tier 3) instruction, progress monitoring data is collected much more frequently and is used to chart the growth of individual students. Progress monitoring for students receiving supplemental or intensive instruction answers two questions: Is the instructional intervention working? Does the effectiveness of the intervention warrant continued, increased, or decreased support? 29

30 Nine Characteristics of Progress Monitoring Assessments
Assess specific skills embodied in state standards Assess target skills Be sensitive to small growth increments Administered repeatedly Data displays Comparable across students Administered efficiently over short periods Can monitor student progress over time Relevant to development of instruction Number 1 looks like it is overlapping with number 6 – may just be on my screen? The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (2005) identified nine essential characteristics for progress monitoring to be useful in an MTSS framework. Progress monitoring should: 30

31 Matching Progress Monitoring to Instructional Focus
Focus of Instruction Progress Monitor Letter Sounds Letter Sound Fluency Phoneme Segmentation Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Short Vowels Nonsense Word Fluency Accuracy (Advanced Phonics) Oral Reading Fluency Passages (Accuracy percent) Fluency Oral Reading Fluency Passage (wcpm) Comprehension Maze Passages This table lists the appropriate match between progress monitoring and the focus of instruction. Progress monitoring for students receiving supplemental and intense instruction is critical so that teachers know if the intervention is working and how to adjust instruction. The assessment instrument chosen for progress monitoring must be able to measure the literacy skills that are being taught in the intervention. 31

32 Frequency of Progress Monitoring
Supplemental – every two to three weeks Intensive – weekly 20-30 alternate forms per grade level is sufficient Just make sure they understand they have to follow the fidelity of the program to ensure accurate data  Review information on the slide. 32

33 Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring
Number of consecutive data points needed to make an accurate instructional decision. Criteria for entering and exiting tiered intervention Instructional decisions are typically made during regular scheduled collaborative meetings and based on data The leadership team must determine how many data points will be collected and analyzed to determine whether the current instruction is succeeding or whether an adjustment in instruction is needed. Some researchers recommend that instruction be adjusted after three consecutive data points fall below the aim line (Shinn, 1989), while other researchers (Stecker & Fuchs, 2000) recommend four consecutive data points fall below the aim line. The leadership team must 1) determine how many consecutive progress monitoring data points must fall at or above benchmark before a student will be moved to a tier of instruction requiring less support 2) a process for determining when a student should be moved up to a more intensive level of support.   Determine decision rules to be used with Progress Monitoring In general, students that achieve three to four data points at or above benchmark level are ready to move to an instructional tier that requires less support and may therefore be appropriate to use as the “tier exit rule”. Students who achieve exit criterion and who are removed from specific intervention groups and placed back into the core curriculum increase their motivation (Hall, 2007). It may be necessary to continue to monitor the progress of these students for a short period to make sure they can maintain their current skill level without the support previously provided 33

34 not consecutively above or below
3 consecutively below 3 consecutively above If using the 3 point decision rule teachers would need to examine the last 3 consecutive scores to determine instructional success. If all 3 scores fall below the aimline, an adjustment in instruction is recommended. (May need to do further diagnostic assessment) If all 3 scores fall above the aim line and at or above benchmark decrease intervention intensity. If neither applies, keep collecting data until the 3-point rule can be applied. not consecutively above or below September 12, 2007 34

35 Diagnostic Process and Assessment
Assessment Map Diagnostic Process and Assessment EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS QPS PAST GORT IV PALS CTOPP use information to plan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies. “In-depth View” What are the strengths? The weaknesses? Are other students exhibiting similar profiles? Use of diagnostic assessments Purpose of diagnostic assessments There are many diagnostic assessments that are quick and useful that any staff member in the building can learn to use. Diagnostic assessments are used when students show a lack of improvement or progress on the progress monitoring assessment (for elementary students), or , for secondary students, when students fail mazes on screening. Just like choosing a screening assessment when choosing a diagnostic instrument you need to be able to answer these four questions. What is the amount of time it takes to give the assessment? Diagnostic assessments usually take more time to administer than screening assessments. Is this assessment effective and accurate in diagnosing student instructional needs? What criteria will be used to signal when a student may be in need of more intense assistance? Who will be trained to administer the diagnostic assessment and interpret the results? QPS (Quick Phonics Screener) is a quick test of phonics skills. PAST (Phonological Awareness S Test) is a relatively brief measure of phonological and phonemic awareness skills. GORT IV (Gray Oral Reading Test) is a measure of reading comprehension. PALS (Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening) is a multi-skill measure of all the 5 Big Ideas of Reading CTOPP is a lengthy measure of phonological processing skills. 35

36 Formal Diagnostic Assessment
Designed to provide precise and detailed information of a student’s knowledge and skill Can be deducted any time during the year when a more in-depth knowledge of student’s strengths and weaknesses is needed Diagnostic information from computer –adaptive group assessment can be used to differentiate the core. Go over slide 36

37 Decision Rules for Diagnostic Assessments
All buildings should have decision rules to address: How data from the diagnostic process will be used to assign students to homogenous groups When additional formal diagnostic assessments will be given. Diagnostic assessments require a lot of building resources and should not be given as a matter of course to all students. Decision rules will assure that students who need diagnostic assessment will receive it in a way that is efficient and effective.  All buildings should have decision rules to address: Document decision rules on Comprehensive Assessment Plan How data from the diagnostic process will be used to assign students to homogenous groups When additional formal diagnostic assessments will be given. _________________________________________________ 37

38 Fidelity of Standardized Administration
Fidelity means using the assessment in the way it was designed Standardized means following the protocol and instructions of administration Fidelity of Standardized Administration 38

39 Don’t want to have surgery if diet and exercise are enough.
Don’t want to take a pill if really need surgery. Need data you can have confidence in so that know that our interventions are built on trustworthy data. 39

40 Professional Development for Assessments
Examiners need: excellent training, opportunities to practice periodic ongoing training experienced examiners to check first-time examiners scores, and opportunities to shadow score WOW – AWESOME POINTS! 40

41 About Providing Support
Ensuring Fidelity Not About Punishment About Providing Support HAHAHAHA – this made me laugh Not about punishment, it’s about providing needed support. May be better to start with a small group doing all the assessment if can’t get training to everyone. However, would prefer that everyone help with assessment to enable larger pool of people resources and so that everyone understands the assessments in greater depth. 41

42 Where do all these assessments fit?
This looks like my house - Discuss the idea of continuing, discontinuing, and adding new assessments. Districts may feel as if their assessment dresser is stuffed and needs cleaned out…or maybe messy and needs rearranging. Occasionally there’s a drawer that may be only half-full and we need to shop for a new assessment that will provide information that we are lacking. No matter what our dresser looks like the conversations we have will and the assessment decisions we make will allow us to feel our dresser is in order and that we’ll know exactly what is in each drawer. 42

43 Using Assessment Data to Drive Instruction
Assessment Decision Making Steps Assessment Decision/Questions Assessment Data 1. Identify Need Are there students who may need support? How many? Which students? Screening data 2. Validate Need Are we confident that the identified students need support? Diagnostic data and additional information 3. Plan and Implement What level of support for which students? How to group student? Screening and diagnostic data 4. Evaluate and Modify Support Is the support effective for individual students? Progress monitoring data 5. Evaluate Outcomes How effective is core support, supplemental support, and intensive support Screening data Dynamic Measurement Group How do we use data to drive instruction? Screening data will help us identify our needs. More notes needed here. Curriculum –Based Measurements such as DIBELS, AIMSweb, etc. are linked to a decision making model and provide a way to accurately identify a student’s need for support early. Curriculum Based Measurements (e.g., DIBEL, AIMSweb) is useful in making and confirming these MTSS decisions because they: are time efficient, accurate, and provide reliable and valid information. provide information relevant to the four purposes of assessment. link to intervention goals for students with direct service needs. link to frequent progress monitoring for students with direct service needs. 43

44 #2 - Bring Together Multiple Key Constituencies
RTI is about bringing people together to help students achieve General Education Special Education Title 1 and “at-risk” Gifted Education ELL Classified, Certified, Building and District Administration Parents / Home ALL OF EDUCATION

45 #2 - It May Feel Like This Herding Cats Is this a video?

46 Nuts and Bolts of Infrastructure
Data Builds Buy In! NCLB & IDEA – it’s an every ed issue, focus on breaking down invisible walls Change in how and who provides support Typically General Ed needs the “why” explained and Special Ed needs to adapt to role changes This can get everyone stuck AGREED!

47 Scheduling See handout for ideas
Pick your model (all school, cross grade level, pull-out, in class, intervention team, or other) considering pros and cons for your school See handout for ideas Make the Change – Do It – Re-examine Things to remember: Most qualified work with the neediest Grade level or class with more needs gets support

48 Example: Model of Instruction Walk to Intervention (45 students)
Teacher A (Enrichment /Grade Level Group) 22 students Special Education Teacher (Phonemic Awareness) 3 students Teacher D (Comprehension) 5 Students Teacher C (Fluency) 5 Students Teacher B (Multisyllabic Words) 5 Students Title Teacher (Decoding) 5 Students Love! This is an example of the walk to intervention model that is popular with many schools. Advantages of this model is that it provides intervention for all students including enrichment. This model can be used within a building, grade level or across grade levels. Interventions in this model can be provided by various staff members such as classroom teachers, specialists, instructional aides, etc. Being able to provide intervention for advanced learners is one advantage of this model. 48

49 Tier 2 Guidelines Core Targeted Intensive
90 minutes of uninterrupted time. Targeted an additional 30 minutes of targeted instruction should be provided beyond the core with homogeneous groups of 3-5 students Intensive 60 additional minutes of instruction beyond the core instruction with homogeneous groups of 1-3 students Our Tier I is Core instruction; Tier 2 is Targeted Instruction and Tier 3 is Intensive Instruction – PLEASE LET THEM KNOW THAT THESE TIMES CAN COME FROM ALL CONTENT ARE A INSTRUCTION – THEY ARE CONTINUALLY ASKING WHERE THEY GET THE EXTRA TIME Intensive These 60 minutes can be provided in time blocks best for the student (e.g., – two 30 minute blocks). If schools are using a walk to intervention model, one of the 30 minute blocks can be provided during walk to intervention time as long as the student’s intervention group has no more than three students. The ideal group size for intensive instruction should be no larger than 3 students. 49

50 Group Size and Time Remember that group size and amount of time are estimations Student data will indicate if the group size/time is sufficient. If students are not making progress the group size may need to be smaller Adjust group size before increasing intervention time Group sizes and amount of time are estimations Student data will indicate if the group size/time is sufficient. If students are not making progress the group size may need to be smaller or intervention time increased But, before adding time it is critical to determine what is happenin 50

51 Decision Rules for School Schedules
Common collaboration time Availability of specialists Maximize student time on task Minimize transitioning Minimum time allocations for core instruction Other decision rules that may affect your schedule Review these issues regarding decision rules for school schedules that were contained in the reading they just did. While these issues may seem like common sense, making changes in the schedule often gets into “sacred ground” Some teams find it helpful to review the core beliefs when tensions about the schedule run high. Bottom line, the schedule has to emphasize what is best for students, not necessarily what is convenient for the adults! Answer questions and clarify information, if needed 51

52 Considerations for Scheduling
When will supplemental instruction be scheduled When will intensive instruction be scheduled Any requirements for entitlement classes Itinerant staff schedules Special class schedules (orchestra, etc.) Space considerations (1) Review these issues regarding considerations for school schedules that were contained in the reading they just did. (2) Again, these may seem like common sense, but when it comes to creating the schedule, these are the things that can make it very complex. (3) Answer questions and clarify information, if needed 52

53 Blocking a Tiered Schedule
Block non-negotiables such as beginning and ending times of school day Lunch (rotation could be changed) Itinerant/shared teachers Intervention blocks Core reading Kindergarten(half day) Teams need to block non=negotiables first and then move on to lunch. The order listed helps teams tier their schedules. 53

54 Blocking a Walk to Intervention Schedule K-6
Kdg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 8:00-8:30 Intervention Reading 8:30-9 9:9:30 9:30-10 10-10:30 10:30-11 11-11:30 11:30-12 12-12:30 12:30-1 1-1:30 1:30-2 2-2:30 2:30-3 3-3:30 The blue is intervention time. (add 0s to 9:00) It is generally necessary to schedule intervention blocks for the whole school schedule prior to scheduling the 90-minute literacy blocks. Staggering intervention blocks allows the school to use all staff more efficiently over the course of the day. Creating the schedule in a spreadsheet format and color-coding the boxes to reflect the different blocks makes it easier for the team to manipulate the school day. Half day kindergarten programs may have unique challenges for scheduling so therefore it may be easier to schedule this group last (Jones, Burns, & Pirri, 2010). 54

55 Sample Elementary Schedule
First Grade Second Grade Third Grade Fourth Grade 8:15 8:30 Reading Content Tier 2 Math 9:00 Math 9:30 10:00 Recess Specials 10:30 Tier 2 Reading 11:00 Lunch 11:30 12:00 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 LC = W LC = Th LC = T LC = M

56 Forming Groups

57 Data Analysis Check data to see if there are skills that a majority of students did not master. Those should be re-taught to whole group. Make note cards for each student. List areas of need OR use sorting quadrant template. Start grouping based on need. For students who have multiple needs, you will need to decide which skill(s) are a high need.

58 Stages of Reader Development
Reading progresses along stages of development the lack of mastery at any one stage can halt the progress beyond that level. teachers must use assessment to determine a reader’s developmental stage, plan instruction, and teach concepts and strategies needed. Reading progresses along stages of development. Although the stages of development may be labeled differently depending on the researcher, the concepts are similar. Since each stage builds on skills that are mastered in earlier stages, the lack of mastery at any one stage can halt the progress beyond that level. This reading development develops over time and continues to grow through explicit and systematic instruction, ample practice opportunities, scaffolding techniques, and differentiated instruction. Not about chronological age– it is about where they are developmentally. Students strengths and needs determine the instructional emphasis at each of the reading stages. Teachers must use assessment to determine a reader’s developmental stage, plan instruction that meets the needs of the reader at that developmental stage, and teach concepts and strategies needed. Stages of reader development from Fountas and Pinnell (1996) can be found in the Resource Section. 58

59 Considerations for Supplemental and Intensive Curriculum
Materials must provide focused skill-based instruction Skill-based instruction refers to the five essential areas of reading; phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. For intensive supports, curricular materials may be different than those used for supplemental because students are typically missing many skills or concepts which requires a more comprehensive intervention. From this foundation, the problem-solving aspect of the MTSS hybrid model is used to further intensify and customize supports for students, especially at the intensive level. The first step of creating the intervention supports the building will offer is to choose curriculum materials that will support supplemental and intense interventions around all five essential skills. 59

60 Resources (Human and Curriculum)
Think creatively, not what’s always been done!

61 Error Analysis 2 students with same ORF score
Student “A” Read all sight words correctly Had accuracy rate of 99% Self-corrected words, specifically tried short vowel in all words then would go back and used long vowel Read slowly and would often reread Student “B” Misread 8 of 21 sight words Dropped the endings off of words (i.e. ing, ed) Misread words typically had blends Accuracy rate of 72% Never self-corrected Read very quickly without acknowledging punctuation

62 Sample Intervention Programs Reading
K Pals Pals Reading Mastery 6 Minute Solution Read Well Naturally Sound Partners SRA Decoding Strategies SRA Early Reading Tutor Quick Reads Word Sorts (or list Words Their Way as a resource) Bookshop Phonics (Mondo) Readers’ Theater Please note that the state does not endorse any programs yet all of these are evaluated through FCRR and found to be effective  Check out Florida Reading Website at

63 What Training Is Needed For Staff?
Assessments (on-line & “coach”) Data & Error Analysis (LC, Mentor, practice) Overview of RtI (all staff) Core Curriculum (Mentor, Walk-Through) Intervention Programs (LC, “coach”) Delivery (all staff) Big 5 Of Reading (on-going book studies, videos, coaching) The state of IN is actually releasing a reading framework in the fall so it will fir with this perfectly!

64 Program Warning All programs are not created equally
Reteaching, modeling, and more guided practice is often needed Train Staff On Good Instruction Using Learning Communities & Data Possible Resource: “I’ve DIBELed Now What?” By Susan Hall Fidelity Issues Examples

65 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
First Grade – Mrs. Simmons Tier 2 Sight Words

66 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
2nd Grade Mrs. McIntire Tier 2 Sight Words

67 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
3rd Grade Mrs. Watchous Tier 2 Phonics

68 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
3rd Grade Mrs. Watchous Applying phonics lessons and practicing fluency

69 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
3rd Grade Miss Miller Tier 2 Fluency Lesson

70 Sample Tier 2 Interventions
2nd Grade Mrs. McIntire Fluency Practice

71 #3 – Never Give Up Does it ever feel like the work is never done?
As soon as you push the rock up the hill, it seems to roll back down… It seems like the odds are stacked against you… This happens to winners all the time…

72 Instructional Practices
Explicit Instruction Systematic Instruction Scaffolded Instruction Differentiated Instruction Pacing Instruction is about “how we teach” We look to the research base to find those practices that most impact student achievement Critical features of well-designed instructional programs include differentiated, explicit, systematic, scaffolded instruction. These 4 bullets reflect the knowledge that the research base provides regarding the critical features of well-designed instructional programs. Differentiated instruction is a term used by many educators, but do we all agree on what that means? For the purposes of this guide, we will use Carol Tomlinson’s definition: a way of teaching in which teachers modify curriculum, teaching methods, resources, learning activities, and student products to address the needs of individual students and/or small groups of students in order to maximize the learning opportunity for each student in the classroom (Tomlinson, et. al.). Let’s look more closely now at each of the other instructional practices from this list. May want to get participant definitions/ideas before going on to next slides. September 12, 2007 72

73 Explicit Instruction Instruction and practice are direct:
Explicit: Provides clarity - does not leave anything to chance/involves careful preplanning of materials and instruction. Instruction and practice are direct: Declarative – The teacher tells the students what concept or strategy they need to learn. Procedural – The teacher explains and models how to use the concept or strategy. Conditional – The teacher explains when the student will use the concept or strategy. Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice. 73

74 Systematic Instruction
Systematic: Planned sequence for providing instruction in critical skills using research validated materials The game of Candy Land is a visual of systematic instruction. The planned instructional sequence is the path through the Peppermint Forest, etc. Good teaching is not just following the path. There are places where students get stuck like Lord Licorice and we have to re-teach. There are those places like the Rainbow Bridge where some will need less instruction and take a shortcut. Occasionally we have to return to previous concepts for reinforcing pre-learned skills just like we would by drawing the Peppermint Forest card when we were up at Princess Frosting!! Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice. 74

75 Scaffolded Instruction
I Do Scaffolded Instruction We Do Teacher models and explains the concept or strategy being taught Teacher provides guided practice providing feedback and prompts as students begin to apply the new learning Teacher provides opportunity for independent practice This routine is critical to enable students to internalize knowledge and skills – when one of the steps (i.e. I Do, We Do, or You Do) is skipped we are keeping some students from ever internalizing what we are working so hard to teach! Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice. You Do 75

76 Ample Opportunities For Practice
4/12/2017 Ample Opportunities For Practice 1) Multiple opportunities for practice need to be provided to students with corrective feedback 2) Students are provided supported opportunities to apply what they have been taught in order to accomplish specific reading tasks and are provided with opportunities to independently apply previously learned information once skills are internalized. Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice. 76

77 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction is an organized way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet kids where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners. It involves using multiple approaches to content, process, product, and learning environment. Teachers can differentiate instruction by content (what students learn), process (how students learn), product (how students demonstrate what they learn), and learning environment (the “climate” of the classroom) according to student readiness based on data, student interests, and time and group size. Differentiation of teacher-directed instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principals of differentiation, such as use of data, sequence of instruction, flexible grouping, materials and resources, and teachers and reading coaches collaborating in planning. 77

78 Differentiation of Teacher-Directed Instruction:
is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as teachers & reading coaches collaborating in planning use of data sequence of instruction materials & resources flexible grouping Teachers can differentiate instruction by: Four elements of differentiation Content: what student needs to learn or how student will get access to the info Process: activities in which student engages in order to make sense of or master the content Product: culminating projects that ask student to rehearse, apply or extend learning Learning environment: way the classroom works and feels learning environment content process product according to (Adapted from: Tomlinson & Allan 2000) Student Readiness (Data) Student Interests Time & Group Size 78

79 Examples of Differentiating Content
Varying reading levels Putting text materials on tape Using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness levels of students Presenting ideas through both auditory and visual means Using reading buddies Meeting with small groups-reteach or extend (Tomlinson, 2001) 79

80 Examples of Differentiating Process
Tiered activities-all learners work with same important information and skills but proceed with different levels of support, challenge or complexities Provide interest centers that encourage students to explore subsets of class topic Develop personal agendas Provide manipulatives or other hands on supports Vary length of time a student may take to complete task (Tomlinson, 2001) 80

81 Examples of Differentiating Product
Options of how to express information learned Using rubrics that match and extend varied skill levels Allow students to work alone or in small groups for products Encourage students to create their own product assignments (Tomlinson, 2001) 81

82 Examples of Differentiating Learning Environment
Provide places to work around the room that are quiet or invite collaboration Provide materials that are culturally sensitive Set clear guidelines for independent work/matches student needs Develop routines that allow students to get help when teacher is not available (working in small groups) Helping students understand that some learners need to move around while others sit quietly (Tomlinson, 2001) 82

83 #4 - Monitor Your Progress
Collect data on your implementation Process Result Be flexible enough to make changes quickly and efficiently. Communication!

84 # 4 – Be Flexible There are many paths to the same destination
In RTI, the principles underlying the system are the same in each implementation

85 The Running of the…

86 It is not the strongest who survive, but the most adaptable…
Charles Darwin

87 #5 – Deal Effectively With Detractors
Every implementation has people who Have never tried what is being proposed Can tell you 100 reasons why it won’t work Indeed, some of them seem to project the following concepts into your implementation…








95 #6 – Juggling Multiple Tasks at Once
Implementing RTI in systems already implementing the old system is a challenge Must run a dual system for at least a while It is like building an airplane in flight

96 In Flight Clip Couldn’t get anything to pull up here

97 “The greatest difficulty lies not in persuading people to accept new ideas, but in persuading them to abandon old ones.” AWESOME! John Maynard Keynes

98 #7 - Celebrating Mistakes
We all make them It is not whether they are made It is about our attitude toward them And how we react to them that makes the difference

99 Lesson From Oz It takes courage It takes heart It takes knowledge
You have all that is required to support a system of success for all children. It’s our work, our passion our purpose.

100 Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead US anthropologist ( )

Download ppt "Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google