Presentation on theme: "Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, Michigan July 22 Indianapolis."— Presentation transcript:
1 Implementing Tier 2 Adapted from a Keynote presentation by Jeff Grimes and David Tilly at the 2006 Innovations Conference Lansing, MichiganJuly 22 IndianapolisChristi Whitter – Principalor (913)
2 Why Use A Tiered Model of Instruction? What’s it like to struggle?
3 One Minute ActivitiesWrite about something you are looking forward to . . .Write about something that did not go well(do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them)* Write about something in that past that went well (do not use any words that have the letter “n” in them, and use your non-dominant hand to write)Awesome!
4 Vision of RtIRtI is a process carried out predominately through general education. It requires that ALL teachers take responsibility for ALL students.RtI is a TOOL FOR EARLY SUPPORT so that students do not have to wait to receive the intensity of instruction needed to progress.RtI is a TOOL FOR SUPPORT so that students do not have to struggle prior to receiving targeted or intervention instruction.Can we take out “school improvement process” as it is widely viewed as a title 1 initiative here and just say RtI is a process… can we use support instead of intervention (we are trying to stay away from the word “intervention” since we made the shift from intervention to instruction in IN. Third bullet – tool for support instead of prevention
5 Different Routes To The Same Place Tier 1 – look at a mapTier 2 – MapQuest directions plus mapTier 3 – GPS unit, plus MapQuest, plus mapI LOVE this!!!!
6 The Necessity for Differentiated Support A child who completes 2nd grade without being able to read proficiently has only a 25% chance of reading at grade level (Gettinger & Stoiber, 2007)Majority of 4th grade students with reading problems will have them in high school and have a higher probability of dropping out of school (Scarborough, 2001)Children who fall behind at an early age (K and grade 1) fall further and further behind over time. Longitudinal studies show that of the children who are diagnosed as reading disabled in third grade, 74% remain disabled in ninth grade (Fletcher, et al., 1994; Shaywitz, Escobar, Shaywitz, Fletcher, & Makuch, 1992; Stanovich, 1986; Stanovich & Siegel, 1994).Instead of “Why Intervene” can we say The Necessity for Differentiated Support?
7 Why Provide Differentiated Support? Learners who are struggling readers are more likely to experience continuous failure, be referred and placed in special education, to experience life in the lower track in school, and to enter the world after school as a high school dropout (Tivan & Hemphill, 2005)About 60% of students with learning disabilities become high school dropouts (Frankenberger & Franzaglio, 1991)It is thought that up to 75% of students identified as Special Education students do not have Learning Disabilities, they do instead have a lack of appropriate and needed reading instruction (Haager & Windmueller, 2001)Same thing with the title – but I love the research – makes it real and hits home
8 Differentiated Core Instruction is Critical Reading trajectories are remarkably stable.Reading AchievementEarly intervention is more effective, because there is less to “catch up.”Intervention often occurs hereAgain – is there some way to avoid using “intervention” and instead use “Why differentiated instruction at the CORE is critical”Based on a great deal of research we know thatStudents who start out behind just fall farther and farther behindIt’s not a developmental lag – they don’t simply catch upThis chart shows the developmentof the lowest 10% of students in a classfrom 1st through 5th gradeVs. a group of students from the middle – the middle 10%The slope of the trajectory would be the same for the highest readers, as wellNot only do they not close the gap, but the gap between groups widens over timeWhen have schools traditionally offered intervention such as special education to students who fail to read?Too often it has been in 4th grade and beyondThat’s because many schools have limited formal interventions other than special educationStudents often aren’t provided additional support until the gap between their achievement and potential is wide enough for them to qualify – which is often in 3rd grade or beyondDoes this mean that we don’t know how to teach a student to read after 3rd grade? No – but it’s not efficientPast practice has been to intervene too late – when the gap is wider.(Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998)8
9 What schools most need . . .-- to begin systematically harnessing the power of collective intelligence that already resides in the school to solve problems. Smoker, in DeFour, 2004-- We can, whenever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far. Ron EdmondsAWESOME – I love to send the collaboration message
10 Among Other Things, When You Implement Tier 2, You Must… Deal Effectively with DetractorsJuggle Multiple Tasks at OnceBe Tolerant of and Celebrate MistakesSet Clear Direction and Use Data to Guide YouBring together multiple constituenciesNever Give UpMonitor Your Progress and Modify as You Go - Be FlexibleWONDERFUL!
11 #1 - Set Clear Direction and Use Your Data If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll be sure to get thereFolks in RTI systems know what they are looking for“Better outcomes for kids” always guides our decision makingAnd data are our guide…
12 Assessment Is this going to be an activity? Discuss that this portion of the guide will lead the teams through completing the tasks to:Select the assessments that will form the comprehensive assessment planCreate the structure that will be used for teams to conduct data-based decision making at each levelCreate a plan for professional development relating to assessmentsThe assessment section is one of the longest in the structuring guide. There are many decisions to be made, however the guide will walk you through making those decisions one by one as you select the assessments that will form your comprehensive assessment plan, determine the decision rules and structures for data-based decision making that will guide the use of the data to be collected from those assessments, and ensure that appropriate professional development will occur.September 12, 200712
13 = Important Feature…. PUBLISHED ASSESSMENTS SUFFICIENT TECHNICAL ADEQUACY=PUBLISHEDASSESSMENTSAssessments chosen need to bevalid,reliable, andbased on scientifically based research.You speak my language!Just because the assessments are published does not necessarily mean they have sufficient technical adequacy.When developing a comprehensive assessment program ,it is important to review the research and evaluate each assessment. Assessments need to be reliable, valid, and scientifically based.It is also important that there is a clear understanding of the purpose for which the assessment was intended and validated.13
14 4 Types of Assessments TYPE USE PURPOSE Outcome (Summative) Assessment Map4 Types of AssessmentsTYPEUSEPURPOSEOutcome(Summative)Evaluate student performance after instruction is completed.“Reaching our goals”Universal Screening(Formative)Identify students who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention.“First Alert”Progress MonitoringDetermine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction.“Growth Charts”DiagnosticPlan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies.“In-depth View”Discuss the 4 types of assessments, Use, & PurposeWill go into detail for each in this section of the training14
15 Comprehensive Assessment System There are four steps in developing a comprehensive assessment system:selecting assessmentsdetermining who will conduct assessments,assessment schedule, andestablishing a data management system1. Discuss that there are 4 steps to consider when developing a comprehensive assessment system.select specific assessments for screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic, and outcomes,determine who will conduct the specific assessments,develop an assessment schedule, andestablish a data management system2. Discuss that it is the comprehensive assessment data that gathers the information that will be used as a basis for all data-based decision making that will occur in the MTSS.A comprehensive assessment system is one of the most important foundational components of MTSS. The comprehensive assessment system is about more than merely selecting the assessments that will be used. Because it is the mechanism that gathers the information that will be used as a basis for all data-based decision making in the MTSS you are creating, it is critical that the comprehensive assessment system is designed to yield accurate, useful, trustworthy data from the beginning.There are four major steps to develop a comprehensive assessment system.Hall, 2008September 12, 200715
16 Outcome Assessments EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS State Assessments Assessment MapOutcome AssessmentsEXAMPLESUSEPURPOSEQUESTIONSState AssessmentsOther Group AssessmentsEvaluate student performance after instruction is completed.“Reaching our goals”Are students meeting standards?Are instructional programs effective?Have we accomplished our goals for a student, a class or a district?What needs changing next year? What things should we continue?Outcome assessments help evaluate student performance after instruction is completed. In order to use the results of the assessment as a means to improve instruction it is useful to determine the alignment of the outcome assessment with the Kansas curricular standards.Outcome assessments answer the questions:Are students meeting standards?Are instructional programs effective?Have we accomplished our goals for a student, a class, or a district?What needs changing next year?What things should we continue?Now, take a few minutes with a shoulder partner and share what you are currently using as outcome assessments.16
17 Universal Screening EXAMPLES USE PURPOSE QUESTIONS DIBELS AIMSWEB Assessment MapUniversal ScreeningEXAMPLESUSEPURPOSEQUESTIONSDIBELSAIMSWEBidentify children who need more intense assessment to determine the potential for intervention.“First Alert”Who is at risk?Who may need additional assistance?Who needs close monitoring?The Purpose is a First AlertIt answers – the questions listedThe most common universal screening assessment used in the area of academics is curriculum-based measurement (e.g., AIMSweb, DIBELS) (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2005; Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Bolt, 2007).Choosing a screening instrument is the first step in developing a comprehensive assessment system. Screenings are conducted starting at the beginning of the school year with all children to identify children who may need additional support.The screening assessment should be a formative assessment with technical validity. The purpose of the screening assessment is to get a sense of how students are functioning and identify students who may be considered for supplemental or intensive instruction. The screening assessment is the first alert and answers:Who is on track?Who may need additional assistance?Who needs closer monitoring?NOTE TO TRAINER: Have participants take a few minutes with a shoulder partner and discuss what they are currently using as a screening assessment.17
18 Screening Measures From The Medical Field I LOVE THIS Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure which are predictive measures of general health. They are research-based, takes minimal training, fast & easy.Need to have a decision point introduction here. We know that a high temperature triggers concerns. But we also know that we worry more about 103 than 99. We have ranges for blood pressure that trigger other actions, depending on how high the BP is.18
19 Non-Examples From The Medical Field There are measures that are quick and easy that could be collectedBut some are things that are not predictive of health issuesIf they are not meaningful, resources should not be used to collect it.What happens at a doctor’s office is fast & easy and measurable and indicators of health.There are some things they don’t do because it’s not predictive of general health.Eye color is non predictive of any health issue.Head circumference is a measure that medicine uses sometimes when they need this type of information for an infant but is not appropriate for long-term information.19
20 Universal Screeners Curriculum Based Measurements Given 3 times per yearMeasures accuracy and fluency on critical skillsBrief and easy to administerIncludes multiple forms to use for progress monitoringProvides student, class, grade and district level dataWhat is MTSS?Review of critical features on the slideCurriculum based measures provide both accuracy and fluency data, both of which are predictive of later academic success. In order to have the data needed for MTSS implementation, the universal screener for literacy must collect both accuracy and fluency information.20
21 Universal Screening“Simple” tasks predict complex reading skills very well---especially if the measures reflect accuracy and speed.”“What is tested is simpler than what is taught: Both foundational skills and comprehension will need to be taught, even though comprehension may not be tested thoroughly.”(Moats, 2005)Not sure about this one..can you give me a little more background?21
22 Determining Instructional Focus Using Oral Reading Fluency Group 1:Accurate and FluentComprehension FocusGroup 2:Accurate but Slow RateFluency FocusGroup 3:Inaccurate and Slow RateAccuracy Focus( Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Sight Word Recognition)Group 4:Inaccurate but High RateSelf-Monitoring/ Accuracy Focus02/06/08
23 Four Quadrant Instructional Sort Accurate and Fluent ReaderPlan of Action:Instruction on monitoring for meaningInstruction on fix-up strategiesInstruction on vocabulary strategiesIntervention:6-Way ParagraphsExit CriteriaQuadrant 2Accurate and Slow Reader (lack of automaticity)Instruction on automaticityRepeated and assisted reading of passagesInstruction on pacing and phrasingSix Minute SolutionQuadrant 3Inaccurate and Slow ReaderGive additional phonics/PA assessmentsInstruction on missing decoding skillsInstruction on missing sight wordsWork on applying skills to connected text at instructional levelPractice reading in connected decodable textQuadrant 4Inaccurate and Fluent ReaderTeach student to adjust rate of reading to type of text and purpose for readingInstruction on sight wordsThis what teams will use to customize what they are doing. Ask them to examine what materials they already have.In defining the instructional focus for students, teams will need to look at the instructional recommendations to group students that need supplemental or intensive support. Once the student intervention groups are formed and an instructional focus for each group isdetermined, teams will need to select the appropriate intervention for each group. The most successful groupings and progress occur when student skill deficit areas are pinpointed and aligned to the appropriate intervention. This can be done by using the Four Quadrant Instructional Sort (Tool 8). After sorting students into Quadrants, diagnostic assessments for phonological awareness, phonics orerror pattern analysis, should be given to students as needed. Once the assessments have been completed students will be groupedaccording to skill needs. After the grouping process is completed, teams will need to choose appropriate interventions from those documented on the Curriculum Matrix (Tool 10 from Structuring). Schools/ districts can customize the plan of action and intervention sections by adding their own interventions from their curriculum matrix that was completed during structuring. These quadrant groups may be to large so teams will need to refine these groups by finding the instructional focus to form smaller groups within the quadrants.September 12, 200723
24 Individual Student Plans READING INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTION PLANSTUDENT_____________________________________TEACHER ____________________________________DATE WRITTEN________________________________DATE REVIEWED ______________________________Comprehension Fluency Phonemic Awareness Phonics VocabularyCONCERN:Measurable Data -Teacher Observations –HYPOTHESIS: (I think _________ is having difficulty because )WHAT IS WORKING ? WHAT IS NOT WORKING ?BRAINSTORM POSSIBLE INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS, STAR THOSE SELECTED TO IMPLEMENT:IMPLEMENTATION PLANTIME INTERVENTION WILL BE PROVIDED & POSSIBLE MANAGEMENT ISSUESMATERIALS NEEDEDPERSON PROVIDING THE INTERVENTION(S)HOW WILL SUCCESS BE DETERMINEDCOMMUNICATION PLANHOME COMPONENTMEASURABLE GOAL:
25 Not sure what this is but I am sure you will explain A1.4.1aA1.4.1eA3.2.2K1.2.1K1.2.5aK1.2.5bK1.2.5cK1.2.5dK2.3.2Item4394%1272%81%58%53%92%50%78%75%31%89%64%83%67%90.91%63.64%13.64%86.36%77.27%81.82%54.55%Not sure what this is but I am sure you will explain
26 Kindergarten On Track Some Support Intense Support Fall Winter Spring GOAL: By Spring, we want ___% of our students to be“on-track” with their literacy skills.
27 School Building Reading Goals By May 9th 90% of MDE students will be reading at grade level as measured by Fountas & Pinnell.By May 9th 90% of MDE students will be at benchmark for fluency, accuracy, and retell as measured by DIBELS.By May 9th 90% of MDE students will meet grade level reading indicators as measured by quarterly tests.100% of 3rd & 4th grade MDE students will be “proficient” as measured by KS State Assessments.I would just use School or Building – “school-wide” in IN is synonymous with Title I
29 Progress Monitoring Assessments Assessment MapProgress Monitoring AssessmentsEXAMPLESUSEPURPOSEQUESTIONSDIBELSAIMSWEBCommon Formative Assessmentuse information to determine student progress and to plan differentiated instruction.“Growth Charts”Who needs extra support?How should groups be formed?Which skills need emphasizing?Go over slideFor students receiving supplemental (Tier 2) and intensive (Tier 3) instruction, progress monitoring data is collected much more frequently and is used to chart the growth of individual students.Progress monitoring for students receiving supplemental or intensive instruction answers two questions:Is the instructional intervention working?Does the effectiveness of the intervention warrant continued, increased, or decreased support?29
30 Nine Characteristics of Progress Monitoring Assessments Assess specific skills embodied in state standardsAssess target skillsBe sensitive to small growth incrementsAdministered repeatedlyData displaysComparable across studentsAdministered efficiently over short periodsCan monitor student progress over timeRelevant to development of instructionNumber 1 looks like it is overlapping with number 6 – may just be on my screen?The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (2005) identified nine essential characteristics for progress monitoring to be useful in an MTSS framework. Progress monitoring should:30
31 Matching Progress Monitoring to Instructional Focus Focus of InstructionProgress MonitorLetter SoundsLetter Sound FluencyPhoneme SegmentationPhoneme Segmentation FluencyShort VowelsNonsense Word FluencyAccuracy (Advanced Phonics)Oral Reading Fluency Passages (Accuracy percent)FluencyOral Reading Fluency Passage (wcpm)ComprehensionMaze PassagesThis table lists the appropriate match between progress monitoring and the focus of instruction.Progress monitoring for students receiving supplemental and intense instruction is critical so that teachers know if the intervention is working and how to adjust instruction.The assessment instrument chosen for progress monitoring must be able to measure the literacy skills that are being taught in the intervention.31
32 Frequency of Progress Monitoring Supplemental – every two to three weeksIntensive – weekly20-30 alternate forms per grade level is sufficientJust make sure they understand they have to follow the fidelity of the program to ensure accurate data Review information on the slide.32
33 Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring Number of consecutive data points needed to make an accurate instructional decision.Criteria for entering and exiting tiered interventionInstructional decisions are typically made during regular scheduled collaborative meetings and based on dataThe leadership team must determine how many data points will be collected and analyzed to determine whether the current instruction is succeeding or whether an adjustment in instruction is needed.Some researchers recommend that instruction be adjusted after three consecutive data points fall below the aim line (Shinn, 1989), while other researchers (Stecker & Fuchs, 2000) recommend four consecutive data points fall below the aim line.The leadership team must 1) determine how many consecutive progress monitoring data points must fall at or above benchmark before a student will be moved to a tier of instruction requiring less support 2) a process for determining when a student should be moved up to a more intensive level of support. Determine decision rules to be used with Progress MonitoringIn general, students that achieve three to four data points at or above benchmark level are ready to move to an instructional tier that requires less support and may therefore be appropriate to use as the “tier exit rule”. Students who achieve exit criterion and who are removed from specific intervention groups and placed back into the core curriculum increase their motivation (Hall, 2007). It may be necessary to continue to monitor the progress of these students for a short period to make sure they can maintain their current skill level without the support previously provided33
34 not consecutively above or below 3 consecutively below3 consecutively aboveIf using the 3 point decision rule teachers would need to examine the last 3 consecutive scores to determine instructional success.If all 3 scores fall below the aimline, an adjustment in instruction is recommended. (May need to do further diagnostic assessment)If all 3 scores fall above the aim line and at or above benchmark decrease intervention intensity.If neither applies, keep collecting data until the 3-point rule can be applied.not consecutively above or belowSeptember 12, 200734
35 Diagnostic Process and Assessment Assessment MapDiagnostic Process and AssessmentEXAMPLESUSEPURPOSEQUESTIONSQPSPASTGORT IVPALSCTOPPuse information to plan instruction, including intensive intervention strategies.“In-depth View”What are the strengths?The weaknesses?Are other students exhibiting similar profiles?Use of diagnostic assessmentsPurpose of diagnostic assessmentsThere are many diagnostic assessments that are quick and useful that any staff member in the building can learn to use.Diagnostic assessments are used when students show a lack of improvement or progress on the progress monitoring assessment (for elementary students), or , for secondary students, when students fail mazes on screening.Just like choosing a screening assessment when choosing a diagnostic instrument you need to be able to answer these four questions.What is the amount of time it takes to give the assessment?Diagnostic assessments usually take more time to administer than screening assessments.Is this assessment effective and accurate in diagnosing student instructional needs?What criteria will be used to signal when a student may be in need of more intense assistance?Who will be trained to administer the diagnostic assessment and interpret the results?QPS (Quick Phonics Screener) is a quick test of phonics skills.PAST (Phonological Awareness S Test) is a relatively brief measure of phonological and phonemic awareness skills.GORT IV (Gray Oral Reading Test) is a measure of reading comprehension.PALS (Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening) is a multi-skill measure of all the 5 Big Ideas of ReadingCTOPP is a lengthy measure of phonological processing skills.35
36 Formal Diagnostic Assessment Designed to provide precise and detailed information of a student’s knowledge and skillCan be deducted any time during the year when a more in-depth knowledge of student’s strengths and weaknesses is neededDiagnostic information from computer –adaptive group assessment can be used to differentiate the core.Go over slide36
37 Decision Rules for Diagnostic Assessments All buildings should have decision rules to address:How data from the diagnostic process will be used to assign students to homogenous groupsWhen additional formal diagnostic assessments will be given.Diagnostic assessments require a lot of building resources and should not be given as a matter of course to all students.Decision rules will assure that students who need diagnostic assessment will receive it in a way that is efficient and effective. All buildings should have decision rules to address:Document decision rules on Comprehensive Assessment PlanHow data from the diagnostic process will be used to assign students to homogenous groups When additional formal diagnostic assessments will be given._________________________________________________37
38 Fidelity of Standardized Administration Fidelity means using the assessment in the way it was designedStandardized means following the protocol and instructions of administrationFidelity of Standardized Administration38
39 Don’t want to have surgery if diet and exercise are enough. Don’t want to take a pill if really need surgery.Need data you can have confidence in so that know that our interventions are built on trustworthy data.39
40 Professional Development for Assessments Examiners need:excellent training,opportunities to practiceperiodic ongoing trainingexperienced examiners to check first-time examiners scores, andopportunities to shadow scoreWOW – AWESOME POINTS!40
41 About Providing Support Ensuring FidelityNot About PunishmentAbout Providing SupportHAHAHAHA – this made me laughNot about punishment, it’s about providing needed support.May be better to start with a small group doing all the assessment if can’t get training to everyone. However, would prefer that everyone help with assessment to enable larger pool of people resources and so that everyone understands the assessments in greater depth.41
42 Where do all these assessments fit? This looks like my house -Discuss the idea of continuing, discontinuing, and adding new assessments.Districts may feel as if their assessment dresser is stuffed and needs cleaned out…or maybe messy and needs rearranging. Occasionally there’s a drawer that may be only half-full and we need to shop for a new assessment that will provide information that we are lacking. No matter what our dresser looks like the conversations we have will and the assessment decisions we make will allow us to feel our dresser is in order and that we’ll know exactly what is in each drawer.42
43 Using Assessment Data to Drive Instruction Assessment Decision Making StepsAssessment Decision/QuestionsAssessment Data1. Identify NeedAre there students who may need support? How many? Which students?Screening data2. Validate NeedAre we confident that the identified students need support?Diagnostic data and additional information3. Plan and ImplementWhat level of support for which students? How to group student?Screening and diagnostic data4. Evaluate and Modify SupportIs the support effective for individual students?Progress monitoring data5. Evaluate OutcomesHow effective is core support, supplemental support, and intensive supportScreening dataDynamic Measurement GroupHow do we use data to drive instruction? Screening data will help us identify our needs. More notes needed here.Curriculum –Based Measurements such as DIBELS, AIMSweb, etc. are linked to a decision making model and provide a way to accurately identify a student’s need for support early.Curriculum Based Measurements (e.g., DIBEL, AIMSweb) is useful in making and confirming these MTSS decisions because they:are time efficient, accurate, and provide reliable and valid information.provide information relevant to the four purposes of assessment.link to intervention goals for students with direct service needs.link to frequent progress monitoring for students with direct service needs.43
44 #2 - Bring Together Multiple Key Constituencies RTI is about bringing people together to help students achieveGeneral EducationSpecial EducationTitle 1 and “at-risk”Gifted EducationELLClassified, Certified, Building and District AdministrationParents / HomeALL OF EDUCATION
45 #2 - It May Feel Like ThisHerding CatsIs this a video?
46 Nuts and Bolts of Infrastructure Data Builds Buy In!NCLB & IDEA – it’s an every ed issue, focus on breaking down invisible wallsChange in how and who provides supportTypically General Ed needs the “why” explained and Special Ed needs to adapt to role changesThis can get everyone stuckAGREED!
47 Scheduling See handout for ideas Pick your model (all school, cross grade level, pull-out, in class, intervention team, or other) considering pros and cons for your schoolSee handout for ideasMake the Change – Do It – Re-examineThings to remember:Most qualified work with the neediestGrade level or class with more needs gets support
48 Example: Model of Instruction Walk to Intervention (45 students) Teacher A(Enrichment /Grade Level Group)22 studentsSpecial Education Teacher(Phonemic Awareness)3 studentsTeacher D(Comprehension)5 StudentsTeacher C(Fluency)5 StudentsTeacher B(Multisyllabic Words)5 StudentsTitle Teacher(Decoding)5 StudentsLove!This is an example of the walk to intervention model that is popular with many schools. Advantages of this model is that it provides intervention for all students including enrichment. This model can be used within a building, grade level or across grade levels.Interventions in this model can be provided by various staff members such as classroom teachers, specialists, instructional aides, etc. Being able to provide intervention for advanced learners is one advantage of this model.48
49 Tier 2 Guidelines Core Targeted Intensive 90 minutes of uninterrupted time.Targetedan additional 30 minutes of targeted instruction should be provided beyond the core with homogeneous groups of 3-5 studentsIntensive60 additional minutes of instruction beyond the core instruction with homogeneous groupsof 1-3 studentsOur Tier I is Core instruction; Tier 2 is Targeted Instruction and Tier 3 is Intensive Instruction – PLEASE LET THEM KNOW THAT THESE TIMES CAN COME FROM ALL CONTENT ARE A INSTRUCTION – THEY ARE CONTINUALLY ASKING WHERE THEY GET THE EXTRA TIMEIntensiveThese 60 minutes can be provided in time blocks best for the student (e.g., – two 30 minute blocks). If schools are using a walk to intervention model, one of the 30 minute blocks can be provided during walk to intervention time as long as the student’s intervention group has no more than three students. The ideal group size for intensive instruction should be no larger than 3 students.49
50 Group Size and TimeRemember that group size and amount of time are estimationsStudent data will indicate if the group size/time is sufficient.If students are not making progress the group size may need to be smallerAdjust group size before increasing intervention timeGroup sizes and amount of time are estimationsStudent data will indicate if the group size/time is sufficient.If students are not making progress the group size may need to be smaller or intervention time increasedBut, before adding time it is critical to determine what is happenin50
51 Decision Rules for School Schedules Common collaboration timeAvailability of specialistsMaximize student time on taskMinimize transitioningMinimum time allocations for core instructionOther decision rules that may affect your scheduleReview these issues regarding decision rules for school schedules that were contained in the reading they just did.While these issues may seem like common sense, making changes in the schedule often gets into “sacred ground”Some teams find it helpful to review the core beliefs when tensions about the schedule run high. Bottom line, the schedule has to emphasize what is best for students, not necessarily what is convenient for the adults!Answer questions and clarify information, if needed51
52 Considerations for Scheduling When will supplemental instruction be scheduledWhen will intensive instruction be scheduledAny requirements for entitlement classesItinerant staff schedulesSpecial class schedules (orchestra, etc.)Space considerations(1) Review these issues regarding considerations for school schedules that were contained in the reading they just did.(2) Again, these may seem like common sense, but when it comes to creating the schedule, these are the things that can make it very complex.(3) Answer questions and clarify information, if needed52
53 Blocking a Tiered Schedule Block non-negotiables such as beginning and ending times of school dayLunch (rotation could be changed)Itinerant/shared teachersIntervention blocksCore readingKindergarten(half day)Teams need to block non=negotiables first and then move on to lunch. The order listed helps teams tier their schedules.53
54 Blocking a Walk to Intervention Schedule K-6 Kdg1st2nd3rd4th5th6th8:00-8:30InterventionReading8:30-99:9:309:30-1010-10:3010:30-1111-11:3011:30-1212-12:3012:30-11-1:301:30-22-2:302:30-33-3:30The blue is intervention time. (add 0s to 9:00)It is generally necessary to schedule intervention blocks for the whole school schedule prior to scheduling the 90-minute literacy blocks.Staggering intervention blocks allows the school to use all staff more efficiently over the course of the day.Creating the schedule in a spreadsheet format and color-coding the boxes to reflect the different blocks makes it easier for the team to manipulate the school day.Half day kindergarten programs may have unique challenges for scheduling so therefore it may be easier to schedule this group last (Jones, Burns, & Pirri, 2010).54
57 Data AnalysisCheck data to see if there are skills that a majority of students did not master. Those should be re-taught to whole group.Make note cards for each student. List areas of need OR use sorting quadrant template.Start grouping based on need. For students who have multiple needs, you will need to decide which skill(s) are a high need.
58 Stages of Reader Development Reading progresses along stages of developmentthe lack of mastery at any one stage can halt the progress beyond that level.teachers must use assessment to determine a reader’s developmental stage,plan instruction, andteach concepts and strategies needed.Reading progresses along stages of development.Although the stages of development may be labeled differently depending on the researcher, the concepts are similar.Since each stage builds on skills that are mastered in earlier stages, the lack of mastery at any one stage can halt the progress beyond that level. This reading development develops over time and continues to grow through explicit and systematic instruction, ample practice opportunities, scaffolding techniques, and differentiated instruction.Not about chronological age– it is about where they are developmentally.Students strengths and needs determine the instructional emphasis at each of the reading stages. Teachers must use assessment to determine a reader’s developmental stage, plan instruction that meets the needs of the reader at that developmental stage, and teach concepts and strategies needed. Stages of reader development from Fountas and Pinnell (1996) can be found in the Resource Section.58
59 Considerations for Supplemental and Intensive Curriculum Materials must provide focused skill-based instructionSkill-based instruction refers to the five essential areas of reading; phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.For intensive supports, curricular materials may be different than those used for supplemental because students are typically missing many skills or concepts which requires a more comprehensive intervention.From this foundation, the problem-solving aspect of the MTSS hybrid model is used to further intensify and customize supports for students, especially at the intensive level. The first step of creating the intervention supports the building will offer is to choose curriculum materials that will support supplemental and intense interventions around all five essential skills.59
60 Resources (Human and Curriculum) Think creatively, not what’s always been done!
61 Error Analysis 2 students with same ORF score Student “A”Read all sight words correctlyHad accuracy rate of 99%Self-corrected words, specifically tried short vowel in all words then would go back and used long vowelRead slowly and would often rereadStudent “B”Misread 8 of 21 sight wordsDropped the endings off of words (i.e. ing, ed)Misread words typically had blendsAccuracy rate of 72%Never self-correctedRead very quickly without acknowledging punctuation
62 Sample Intervention Programs Reading K PalsPalsReading Mastery6 Minute SolutionRead Well NaturallySound PartnersSRA Decoding StrategiesSRA Early Reading TutorQuick ReadsWord Sorts (or list Words Their Way as a resource)Bookshop Phonics (Mondo)Readers’ TheaterPlease note that the state does not endorse any programs yet all of these are evaluated through FCRR and found to be effective Check out Florida Reading Website at
63 What Training Is Needed For Staff? Assessments (on-line & “coach”)Data & Error Analysis (LC, Mentor, practice)Overview of RtI (all staff)Core Curriculum (Mentor, Walk-Through)Intervention Programs (LC, “coach”)Delivery (all staff)Big 5 Of Reading (on-going book studies, videos, coaching)The state of IN is actually releasing a reading framework in the fall so it will fir with this perfectly!
64 Program Warning All programs are not created equally Reteaching, modeling, and more guided practice isoften neededTrain Staff On Good InstructionUsing Learning Communities & DataPossible Resource: “I’ve DIBELed Now What?”By Susan HallFidelity IssuesExamples
65 Sample Tier 2 Interventions First Grade – Mrs. Simmons Tier 2 Sight Words
71 #3 – Never Give Up Does it ever feel like the work is never done? As soon as you push the rock up the hill, it seems to roll back down…It seems like the odds are stacked against you…This happens to winners all the time…
72 Instructional Practices Explicit InstructionSystematic InstructionScaffolded InstructionDifferentiated InstructionPacingInstruction is about “how we teach”We look to the research base to find those practices that most impact student achievementCritical features of well-designed instructional programs include differentiated, explicit, systematic, scaffolded instruction.These 4 bullets reflect the knowledge that the research base provides regarding the critical features of well-designed instructional programs. Differentiated instruction is a term used by many educators, but do we all agree on what that means? For the purposes of this guide, we will use Carol Tomlinson’s definition:a way of teaching in which teachers modify curriculum, teaching methods, resources, learning activities, and student products to address the needs of individual students and/or small groups of students in order to maximize the learning opportunity for each student in the classroom (Tomlinson, et. al.).Let’s look more closely now at each of the other instructional practices from this list.May want to get participant definitions/ideas before going on to next slides.September 12, 200772
73 Explicit Instruction Instruction and practice are direct: Explicit: Provides clarity - does not leave anything to chance/involves careful preplanning of materials and instruction.Instruction and practice are direct:Declarative – The teacher tells the students what concept or strategy they need to learn.Procedural – The teacher explains and models how to use the concept or strategy.Conditional – The teacher explains when the student will use the concept or strategy.Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice.73
74 Systematic Instruction Systematic: Planned sequence for providing instruction in critical skills using research validated materialsThe game of Candy Land is a visual of systematic instruction. The planned instructional sequence is the path through the Peppermint Forest, etc.Good teaching is not just following the path. There are places where students get stuck like Lord Licorice and we have to re-teach. There are those places like the Rainbow Bridge where some will need less instruction and take a shortcut. Occasionally we have to return to previous concepts for reinforcing pre-learned skills just like we would by drawing the Peppermint Forest card when we were up at Princess Frosting!!Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice.74
75 Scaffolded Instruction I DoScaffolded InstructionWe DoTeacher models and explains the concept or strategy being taughtTeacher provides guided practice providing feedback and prompts as students begin to apply the new learningTeacher provides opportunity for independent practiceThis routine is critical to enable students to internalize knowledge and skills – when one of the steps (i.e. I Do, We Do, or You Do) is skipped we are keeping some students from ever internalizing what we are working so hard to teach!Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice.You Do75
76 Ample Opportunities For Practice 4/12/2017Ample Opportunities For Practice1) Multiple opportunities for practice need to be provided to students with corrective feedback2) Students are provided supported opportunities to apply what they have been taught in order to accomplish specific reading tasks and are provided with opportunities to independently apply previously learned information once skills are internalized.Do some sharing at your tables about why this is an important instructional practice.76
77 Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction is an organized way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet kids where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.It involves using multiple approaches to content, process, product, and learning environment.Teachers can differentiate instruction by content (what students learn), process (how students learn), product (how students demonstrate what they learn), and learning environment (the “climate” of the classroom) according to student readiness based on data, student interests, and time and group size.Differentiation of teacher-directed instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principals of differentiation, such as use of data, sequence of instruction, flexible grouping, materials and resources, and teachers and reading coaches collaborating in planning.77
78 Differentiation of Teacher-Directed Instruction: is a teacher’s response to learners’ needsguided by general principles of differentiation, such asteachers & reading coaches collaborating in planninguse of datasequence of instructionmaterials & resourcesflexiblegroupingTeachers can differentiate instruction by:Four elements of differentiationContent: what student needs to learn or how student will get access to the infoProcess: activities in which student engages in order to make sense of or master the contentProduct: culminating projects that ask student to rehearse, apply or extend learningLearning environment: way the classroom works and feelslearningenvironmentcontentprocessproductaccording to(Adapted from: Tomlinson & Allan 2000)StudentReadiness(Data)StudentInterestsTime & Group Size78
79 Examples of Differentiating Content Varying reading levelsPutting text materials on tapeUsing spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness levels of studentsPresenting ideas through both auditory and visual meansUsing reading buddiesMeeting with small groups-reteach or extend(Tomlinson, 2001)79
80 Examples of Differentiating Process Tiered activities-all learners work with same important information and skills but proceed with different levels of support, challenge or complexitiesProvide interest centers that encourage students to explore subsets of class topicDevelop personal agendasProvide manipulatives or other hands on supportsVary length of time a student may take to complete task(Tomlinson, 2001)80
81 Examples of Differentiating Product Options of how to express information learnedUsing rubrics that match and extend varied skill levelsAllow students to work alone or in small groups for productsEncourage students to create their own product assignments(Tomlinson, 2001)81
82 Examples of Differentiating Learning Environment Provide places to work around the room that are quiet or invite collaborationProvide materials that are culturally sensitiveSet clear guidelines for independent work/matches student needsDevelop routines that allow students to get help when teacher is not available (working in small groups)Helping students understand that some learners need to move around while others sit quietly(Tomlinson, 2001)82
83 #4 - Monitor Your Progress Collect data on your implementationProcessResultBe flexible enough to make changes quickly and efficiently.Communication!
84 # 4 – Be Flexible There are many paths to the same destination In RTI, the principles underlying the system are the same in each implementation
86 It is not the strongest who survive, but the most adaptable… Charles Darwin
87 #5 – Deal Effectively With Detractors Every implementation has people whoHave never tried what is being proposedCan tell you 100 reasons why it won’t workIndeed, some of them seem to project the following concepts into your implementation…
95 #6 – Juggling Multiple Tasks at Once Implementing RTI in systems already implementing the old system is a challengeMust run a dual system for at least a whileIt is like building an airplane in flight
96 In Flight ClipCouldn’t get anything to pull up here
97 “The greatest difficulty lies not in persuading people to accept new ideas, but in persuading them to abandon old ones.”AWESOME!John Maynard Keynes
98 #7 - Celebrating Mistakes We all make themIt is not whether they are madeIt is about our attitude toward themAnd how we react to them that makes the difference
99 Lesson From Oz It takes courage It takes heart It takes knowledge You have all that is required to support a system of success for all children. It’s our work, our passion our purpose.
100 Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.Margaret Mead US anthropologist ( )