Tier III Using supplemental materials to strengthen phonological awareness and phoneme segmentation/sequencing skills
Phonological Awareness n “Phonemic/phonological awareness, which is what these (materials) specifically develop, is the best single predictor of success in learning to read.” LIPS
Reading Comprehension Auditory Phonetic Processing Visual Sight Words Language Oral vocabulary Use of Context Reading 1 st Correlation Auditory: Phonological Awareness Visual: Fluency, Phonics Language: Vocabulary These Combined = Comprehension
Producing Sounds Consonant Sounds and Other Consonant Groups
Consonant Pairs LabelQuietNoisy Lip Poppers /p//b/ Tongue Tappers /t//d/ Tongue Scrapers /k//g/ Lip Coolers /f//v/ Tongue Coolers /th/ /th/ Skinny Air /s//z/ Fat Air /sh//zh/ Fat-pushed Air /ch//j/
Lip Poppers n The lips are tensed to dam up air coming from the lungs, and then opened suddenly as the air is allowed to pop them open.
Tongue (Tip) Tappers n The tip of the tongue makes hard contact with the upper gum ridge, air is impounded between the tongue and the palate, and then a tapping sound is produced as the tip of the tongue is suddenly released.
Tongue Scrapers n The back of the tongue is elevated and makes hard contact with the soft palate, the air is suddenly released.
Lip Coolers n The upper front teeth are placed lightly on the lower lip, and a smooth release of air is allowed to stream across the lip.
Tongue Coolers n The tip of the tongue is placed in light contact with the edges of the upper teeth, and a stream of air is released smoothly across the tip of the tongue.
Skinny Air n The tongue forms a midline groove, and a smooth, narrow stream of air is released from behind lightly closed teeth.
Fat Air n The tongue flattens, and a smooth, wide stream of air is released from behind lightly closed teeth.
Fat-pushed Air n The tongue flattens, impounds air between itself and the palate, and then releases it explosively in a wide stream.
Other Consonant Groups Label Consonant Group Nose sounds /m/ /n/ /ng/ Wind sounds /w/ /h/ /wh/ Lifters /l/ /r/ Borrowers ‘c’ ‘x’ ‘qu’ ‘y’
Nose Sounds n /m/ the lips close and the voice is allowed to resonate in the nasal passages. The lips remain closed during the entire time the sound is being produced. n /n/ the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper gum ridge, and the voice is allowed to resonate in the nasal passages. The tongue remains in contact with the gum ridge during the entire time the sound is being produced. n /ng/ the back of the tongue makes contact with the soft palate, and the voice is allowed to resonate in the nasal passages. The tongue remains in contact with the palate during the entire time the sound is being produced.
Wind Sounds n /w/ the voice is gliding from one vowel soiund to another- from /o^o/ to /u/. n /h/ produced by an unvoiced airstream as the mouth is opened, the tongue lowered, the vocal cords held open, and air released forcefully from the lungs. n /wh/ produced by rounding the lips as for the sound /w/, but without voicing. Air is blown out with considerable force.
Lifters n /l/ the tip of the tongue is lifted to make contact with the gum ridge or hard palate, and a voiced airstream is released over the sides of the tongue. n /r/ the tongue is retracted slightly and the back of the tongue is humped toward the soft palate as a voiced airstream is released
Borrowers symbol Sound Borrowed When borrowed c/k/ Most of the time /s/ Before vowels ‘e’ ‘I’ or ‘y’ x/z/ In the initial position (xylophone) /ks/ In all other positions (tax, text) /gz/ Occasionally, when followed by a vowel (exist, exact)
Borrowers qu/kw/ In the initial and medial positions (quick, request) /k/ In the final syllable (opaque, unique) y/ee/ In the initial position (yam, yes) /ee/ or /ie/ In the final position in multisyllable words (baby, family) /ie/ In the final position in one-syllable words (by, my, cry) /i/ or /ie/ In medial position (gym, gyroscope)
Using Blocks for Phoneme Segmentation and Sequencing –Block sequence is as follows: RedWhiteBlue Yellow Black Green Reading 1 st Correlation: This activity supports TPRI Intervention activities 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 5.15, 5.28, 5.14, just to name a few
Things to Remember when using phoneme blocks n Similar phonemes are the same color (e.g. tot would be ) n Blocks are used with one syllable words only n Sequence for students is: –Say old and new –Touch and Say –Make Sound
Using Felts for Syllable Segmentation and Sequencing n Use felts to represent the syllables in a word n Learn to listen for the accented syllable chamber Reading 1 st Correlation: This activity supports the TPRI intervention activities 4.12, 4.14, 5.31, 5.32 just to name a few.
Using Felts for Syllable Segmentation and Sequencing n Later, use blocks to segment the phonemes in the accented syllable n The accented syllable is placed higher arithmetic
Grapho-Phonemic Knowledge Application n Use spelling dictation to apply the skills learned in previously learned lessons. n Practice spelling real and pseudo words n Spell words using the picture cards only n As students learn more consonant pairs and vowel patterns, couple them with TPRI tasks to focus on specific spelling patterns. n Have students match their pencil with their mouth. n Students should reread their word by blending n Have students underline and say the vowel aloud.
Sequencing Lessons- First Three Weeks n First 5 days: Introduce noisy/quiet sounds, lip poppers, tongue tappers, tongue scrapers, vowel circle sounds i/o/oo. n Remaining: Track one syllable words with colored blocks, spell vc, cv, and cvc words using tiles and on paper, read words in isolation, and write letters using correct formation as needed. -Amy Gilley (some parts changed to meet Jackson’s individual needs)
Sequencing Lessons- Second Three Weeks n First 5-7 days: Introduce lip coolers, tongue coolers, skinny air, fat air, fat-pushed air, smiles, opens, and rounds. n Week two: Continue tracking one syllable words with colored blocks, practice spelling dictation, reading words in isolation, and letter formation. n Week three: Introduce and practice two- syllable segmentation and sequencing, stressing the accented syllable, but not the phonemes within. - Amy Gilley
Lesson Sequencing- Third Three Weeks n First 3-5 days: Introduce nose sounds, wind sounds, lifters, sliders, and crazy R’s. n Remaining: Continue tracking one- syllable words with colored blocks, spelling dictation, reading words in isolation, letter formation as needed, and syllable segmentation practice. - Amy Gilley
Lesson Sequencing- Fourth Three Weeks n Throughout stage four introduce and practice: –Expectancy of ‘e’ to the end –Expectancy of two vowels go walking –Expectancy of ‘c’ and ‘g’ –Expectancy of borrower ‘x’ –Expectancy of initial scraper ‘c/k’ –Expectancy of final ‘j’ –Expectancy of dge vs. ch and tch vs.ch –Expectancy of doublers f, s, z, and l - Amy Gilley
Lesson Sequencing- Twelve Week Cycle n Leave time at the end for reading OC Intervention decodables at least 2-3 times per week after initial introduction week. n Assist with transfer by taking some words that fit the pattern/phonemes from reading in context materials to segment. n Spend 3-5 minutes at the beginning of the lesson to review previous learning.