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1 Deborah C. Simmons University of Oregon November 12, 2002 Oregon Reading First Elements of Effective Reading Instruction.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Deborah C. Simmons University of Oregon November 12, 2002 Oregon Reading First Elements of Effective Reading Instruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Deborah C. Simmons University of Oregon November 12, 2002 Oregon Reading First Elements of Effective Reading Instruction

2 2 Effective Reading Instruction The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education, Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts Marie Elena Arguelles Isabel Beck Jan Dole Barbara Foorman Alice Furry Dauna Howerton Jean Osborn Timothy Shanahan Deborah Simmons Josefina Tinajero Sharon Vaughn, Team Leader Pam Bell Morris, Author Martha Smith, Author Jeanne Wanzek Shirley Dickson Elana Wakeman, Graphics University of Miami University of Pittsburgh University of Utah The University of Texas Health Science Center Sacramento County Office of Education New Mexico State Department of Education Consultant University of Illinois at Chicago University of Oregon The University of Texas—El Paso Materials Developed by

3 3 Goal All students will read at or above grade level by the end of Grade Three.

4 4 Quality in Education “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction, and skillful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” Willa A. Foster

5 5 Content (Big Ideas) of Effective Reading Instruction Effective Reading Instruction Introduction Features of Effective Reading Instruction Effective Reading Interventions

6 6 We have 34 years of converging scientific research We know how children learn to read, what factors impede reading development, and which instructional approaches provide the most benefit We can increase the odds that no child is left behind if we utilize these research findings to inform practices in our educational systems Reading discrepancies become more entrenched over time What We Know Now

7 7 H-J Word List Fluency Trajectory of Reading Development

8 8 The State of Research: What We Know to Put the Odds in Children’s Favor

9 9 Implement systematic change based on scientific research, not on ideology and philosophy Use scientific research to inform reading instruction Start with solid comprehensive programs and increase intensity based on student performance What We Have To Do

10 10 #1.Phonemic Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sound in words. #2.Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. #3.Automaticity with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. #4.Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. #5. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading

11 11 Fluency Text Comprehension Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness Phonics & Word Study Spelling & Writing Key Terminology Effective Reading Instruction Grouping Maximizing Student Learning Effective Reading Interventions

12 12 Big Idea #1:Phonemic Awareness: Beginning Readers Must Develop an Awareness of the Phonemic Properties of Language. One of the most compelling and well-established findings in the research on beginning reading is the important relation between phonemic awareness and reading acquisition. Kameenui, E. J., Simmons, D. C., Baker, S., Chard, D. J., Dickson, S. V., Gunn, B., Smith, S. B., Sprick, M., & Lin, S-J. (1997). Effective strategies for teaching beginning reading. In E. J. Kameenui, & D. W. Carnine (Eds.), Effective Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse Learners. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

13 13 Phonemic Awareness Provide explicit and systematic instruction focusing on only one or two phonemic awareness skills, such as segmenting and blending Link sounds to letters as soon as possible Use systematic classroom- based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to LearnHow We Teach It That spoken words consist of individual sounds or phonemes How words can be segmented (pulled apart) into sounds, and how these sounds can be blended (put back together) and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted) How to use their phonemic awareness to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds in words to spell them

14 14 1.How many speech sounds are in the following words? 2.What is the third speech sound in each of the following words? (Learning To Read: Schoolings First Mission, 1995) Assessing Your Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness The following assessment was administered to 89 teachers whose average teaching experience was 5 years. Teachers included general education teachers, reading teachers, special education teachers, classroom assistants, and graduate students. Answer the following questions to assess your phonemic awareness skills. oxkingstraightthough boilthankshoutprecious boyfriendeducatebadger squabblestood

15 15 Critical Features of Effective PA Focus on 1 or 2 types of PA Teach in small groups Teach explicitly & systematically Teach to manipulate sounds with letters A critical component but not the complete reading program

16 16 Big Idea #2:Effective Beginning Readers Must Have Insight into the Alphabetic Principle of Reading. Alphabetic Awareness: Knowledge of letters of the alphabet coupled with the understanding that the alphabet represents the sounds of spoken language and the correspondence of spoken sounds to written language. Alphabetic Understanding: Understanding that the left-to-right spellings of printed words represent their phonemes from first to last. Phonological Recoding: Translation of letters to sounds to words to gain lexical access to the word. Definitions:

17 17 Phonics and Word Study Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word) Phonics elements (e.g., letter- sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables, and meaningful word parts) How to apply phonics elements as they read and write Provide explicit, systematic phonics instruction that teaches a set of letter-sound relations Provide explicit instruction in blending sounds to read words Include practice in reading texts that are written for students to use their phonics knowledge to decode and read words Give substantial practice for children to apply phonics as they spell words Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It

18 18 Critical Features of Effective Phonics Instruction (NRP = 38 studies) Systematic, synthetic programs most effective. (Low ach. & low SES) Not all children need all...learn to differentiate Begin in kindergarten! Need to blend sounds together (decode) and take spoken words apart (PA). Keep the end in mind.. learn to apply letter sounds to daily reading.

19 19 Sequence of Letter-Sound Correspondence Introduction in 4 Commercial Kindergarten (1990’s) Reading Programs (First 10) Publisher #1mpdsfbltzk #2hprbsfmtgc #3mcpldhmbkt #4bjhpaxeyce

20 20 Spelling and Writing How to remember and reproduce exact letter patterns (e.g., letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables, and meaningful word parts) How to segment sounds in words to spell them How to notice reliable spelling patterns and generalizations Rapid, accurate letter formation How to write for different purposes and audiences in various forms Provide explicit and systematic spelling instruction to reinforce and extend students’ growing knowledge about reading Provide opportunities for manipulating, categorizing, and examining the similarities and differences in words Provide daily opportunities to increase writing accuracy and speed Model various types of writing and help children to apply spelling and reading knowledge in purposeful writing Integrate writing across the curriculum Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It

21 21 Spelling words as they sound enhances phonemic awareness and letter knowledge and accelerates the acquisition of conventional spelling (National Research Council, 1998) Research Evidence Complementing regular opportunities for writing with systematic spelling instruction enhances and extends to both reading and writing growth (Adams, 2001)

22 22 Definition:, The ability to translate letters-to-sounds-to-words fluently, effortlessly. LaBerge and Samuels (1974) described the fluent reader as “one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention” (e.g., Juel, 1991, p. 760). Such capacity then enables readers to allocate their attention to the comprehension and meaning of text., Big Idea #3: Automaticity with the Code: Beginning Readers Should be Able to Relate Sounds & Symbols of the Alphabetic Code Automatically

23 23 Fluency How to decode words (in isolation and in connected text) How to automatically recognize words (accurately and quickly with little attention or effort) How to increase speed (or rate) of reading while maintaining accuracy Provide opportunities for guided oral repeated reading that includes support and feedback from teachers, peers, and/or parents Match reading texts and instruction to individual students Apply systematic classroom- based instructional assessment to monitor student progress in both rate and accuracy What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It

24 24 Critical Features of Effective Fluency Instruction Corrective Feedback Not all children need all...learn to differentiate Relatively brief sessions (15-30 minutes) Repeated Readings Keep the end in mind.. Fluency is only part of the picture!

25 25 Automaticity: What is it? Automaticity is reading words with no noticeable effort. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point of overlearning. Fundamental skills are so “automatic” that they do not require conscious attention. Examples shifting gears on a car playing a musical instrument playing a sport (serving a tennis ball)

26 26 Big Idea #4: Comprehension of Text Definition:, The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.

27 27 Text Comprehension How to read both narrative and expository texts How to understand and remember what they read How to relate their own knowledge or experiences to text How to use comprehension strategies to improve their comprehension How to communicate with others about what they read Explicitly explain, model, and teach comprehension strategies, such as previewing and summarizing text Provide comprehension instruction before, during, and after reading narrative and expository texts Promote thinking and extended discourse by asking questions and encouraging student questions and discussions Provide extended opportunities for English language learners to participate Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to LearnHow We Teach It

28 28 Critical Features of Effective Comprehension Instruction (203 studies reviewed). Active involvement of students Seven categories of strategies provide evidence of efficacy. Multiple opposed to a single strategy Teaching rather than mentioning or assessing Teaching students to become strategic takes time

29 29 Instruction of comprehension strategies improves reading comprehension of children with a wide range of abilities (National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Many children require explicit word recognition instruction integrated with rapid processing of words, spelling skills, and strategies to improve comprehension (Fletcher & Lyon, 1998)

30 30 Big Idea #5:Vocabulary Knowledge and Development Definition:, As a learner begins to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto the oral vocabulary the learner brings to the task. (NRP, 4-15).,

31 31 Vocabulary The meanings for most of the words in a text so they can understand what they read How to apply a variety of strategies to learn word meanings How to make connections between words and concepts How to accurately use “new” words in oral and written language Provide opportunities for students to receive direct, explicit instruction in the meanings of words and in word learning strategies Provide many opportunities for students to read in and out of school Engage children in daily interactions that promote using new vocabulary in both oral and written language Enrich and expand the vocabulary knowledge of English language learners Actively involve students in making connections between concepts and words What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It

32 32 Critical Features of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Preinstruction can have significant effects on learning Assessment should match instruction Promise of computer technology Multiple Methods Direct & Indirect Repetition & Multiple Exposures to Words In Varied Contexts

33 33 Knowledge of word meanings (vocabulary) is critical to reading comprehension (Learning First Alliance, 2000; National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Words are typically learned from repeated encounters, rather than from a single context or encounter (Beck & McKeown, 1991)

34 34 Most children do NOT learn to read or spell “naturally,” rather they learn from instruction Good word identification instruction does NOT primarily rely on guessing words from context or picture cues Instructional time spent on independent, silent reading with minimal guidance or feedback has NOT been confirmed by research to improve reading fluency and overall reading achievement Cautions

35 35 Guided oral reading is NOT the same instructional practice known as “Guided Reading” A little structure, a little rationale, and a little instruction is NOT effective comprehension instruction Explicit spelling instruction is NOT random and does NOT consist of informal memorization of word lists or repetitious copying of words Cautions

36 36 Maximizing Student Learning Features of Effective Reading Instruction Grouping

37 37 Grouping  Alternate grouping formats (e.g., one-on-one, pairs, small group, whole group) for different instructional purposes and to meet students’ needs  Use small, same-ability groups, continually monitor student progress, and regroup to reflect students’ knowledge and skills  When students experience difficulties, reteach the knowledge and skills that have the highest impact on learning to read

38 38 Maximizing Student Learning Every minute counts! Actively engage children: Vary presentation, format, and ways students can participate in instruction Use an appropriate level of instructional materials Adapt the pacing, content, and emphasis of instruction for individuals and groups of children, including English language learners and those having difficulty learning to read

39 39 Students with reading difficulties who are taught in small groups learn more than students who are instructed as a whole class (National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Students benefit from working in a variety of grouping formats that change to reflect their knowledge, skills, interests, and progress (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, Moody, & Schumm, 2000; Lou et al., 1996) Students in 1:1 instruction did not make significantly higher gains than students in groups of 1:3 (Vaughn, Thompson, Kouzekanani, Bryant, & Dickson, 2001)

40 40 Effective Reading Interventions Even with research-based core reading instruction, some students have difficulty learning to read and make inadequate progress Struggling readers need more time and additional, intensive instructional interventions

41 41 Effective Reading Interventions Knowledge and skills that have the highest impact on learning to read Group students into groups of 3-5 according to their instructional needs Provide targeted instruction 3 to 5 times per week Assure additional instruction aligns with core reading instruction Provide ongoing and systematic corrective feedback to students Provide extended practice in the critical elements of reading instruction based on students’ needs Increase time for word study and build fluency to improve automatic word recognition and rate of reading Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to document student growth and inform instruction What Struggling Readers Need to Learn How We Teach Struggling Readers 41

42 42 Explicit, intensive instruction is an essential feature of effective interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities (National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Well-designed intervention programs implemented by highly qualified teachers can make a difference in helping children learn to read (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, Moody, & Schumm, 2000; Fletcher & Lyon, 1998)

43 43 Effective reading instruction is NOT adding one new program after another to programs already in your school without determining each one’s effectiveness and efficacy based on research Contrary to the claims made by some of the “latest” and “best” reading practices, a “balanced” approach to reading is NOT 50% whole language and 50% phonics Cautions

44 44 Good reading instruction is NOT writing your own curriculum Systematic and explicit reading instruction does NOT inhibit creativity NOT every component of reading receives equal emphasis at every stage of reading development Cautions

45 45 540

46 46 Making a Difference “No time is as important or as fleeting as a child’s early years of schooling.” Neuman, 2001, p. 474


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