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Workshop 4 Supporting Students’ Literacy Development (Reading) Workshop 4 Supporting Student’s Literacy learning Slide 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Workshop 4 Supporting Students’ Literacy Development (Reading) Workshop 4 Supporting Student’s Literacy learning Slide 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop 4 Supporting Students’ Literacy Development (Reading) Workshop 4 Supporting Student’s Literacy learning Slide 1

2 Reflection Reflection on homework tasks from last workshop Workshop 4 Session 1 Slide 2 PLUSMINUSINTERESTING How would you change or adapt what you did?

3 Some understandings about reading In reading, the goal is always comprehension of meaning. Reading is an active process using our: –knowledge of the world (non-visual information) –knowledge of language (visual information) to construct meaning. The key to reading is prediction We use our knowledge of the world and of language to predict what will come next. We test our predictions by reading some of the text and then checking if what we are reading makes sense. If it makes sense we continue reading, if not we go back and revise our predictions Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 3

4 Some understandings about reading cont. We read different things in different ways. The reading strategies we use depend on what we are reading and our purpose for reading it. The more knowledge and experience we have on which to base our predictions, the less we need to rely on print. If this is our understanding of the reading process then developing reading skills is a continuing process that needs to be developed in context. Taken from: S Hood and N Solomon, Focus on Reading: A handbook for teachers National Curriculum Resource Centre, Adelaide, 1985 In ESL in The Mainstream Teacher Development Course, 1993 Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 4

5 Assisting ESL Students with the Reading-Cueing Systems ‘Lambra Goots’ Fran Murray 1996 Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 5

6 Introduction This activity highlights the semantic and syntactic knowledge which we bring to reading that enables us to make sense of the printed word. For EAL/D learners critical factors in the reading process are: the extent to which the experience of the reader and writer match i.e. knowledge of the world, topic, text and life experiences (Semantics) the knowledge of the word order and language patterns that determine how words fit together to convey meaning (Syntax) Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 6

7 The 3 cueing systems. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 7 SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge of topic (field), cultural understandings & links to life experiences GRAPHO-PHONIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge that sounds are represented by letters & clusters of letters SYNTACTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge about the system of language e.g. word order, nouns, pronouns, tense, Meaning making occurs when all three cueing systems work together Meaning Making

8 What are the three cueing systems? Grapho-phonic Syntactic Semantic Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 8

9 Graphophonic cues Knowledge of the -conventions of print - way words look -relationship between sounds and letters Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 9 Scrap scrub scream Ho – hot, house, hook, hoist, honey Cat/car Bar/bare, there, their, they’re Minute/minute

10 Syntactic cues Knowledge about the system of language. How words fit together to convey meaning Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 10 Nouns A big black fierce dog Verbs and verb tense Pronouns I, she, you, he, it,my, her, their, Subject, verb object Word endings ing,-ed, -s Connectives – although, on the other hand... Conjunctions and, because Prepositions by, with, on, under, between...

11 Semantic knowledge Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 11 Knowledge of topic/field, cultural understandings & life experiences to make out what makes sense Report Persuasive Genre Vocabulary In summer it is hot, in winter it is.... The aboriginal flag is red, white and......

12 The 3 cueing systems. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 12 SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge of topic (field), cultural understandings & links to life experiences GRAPHO-PHONIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge that sounds are represented by letters & clusters of letters SYNTACTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge about the system of language e.g. word order, nouns, pronouns, tense, Meaning making occurs when all three cueing systems work together

13 The 3 cueing systems. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 13 SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge of topic (field), cultural understandings & links to life experiences GRAPHO-PHONIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge that sounds are represented by letters & clusters of letters SYNTACTIC KNOWLEDGE Knowledge about the system of language e.g. word order, nouns, pronouns, tense, Meaning making occurs when all three cueing systems work together Meaning Making

14 Read the following Lambra goots fal trup rew fal hepper. Ota namdo bup quock sa terip wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 14

15 Reflection 1 Lambra goots fal trup rew fal hepper. Ota namdo bup quock sa terip wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. Were you able to read the text? What do you think the text is about? What specific strategies did you use to read? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 15

16 Comments: Slides 1 Lambra goots fal trup rew fal hepper. Ota namdo bup quock sa terip wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. Not possible to predict Possible to recognise the letters and sounds for the words read ( Knowledge of sound system) No meaning Graphophonic Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 16

17 Lambra Goots -2 Lambra goots fal dog rew fal hepper. Oto namdo bup quock sa car wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 17

18 Reflection 2 Lambra goots fal dog rew fal hepper. Oto namdo bup quock sa car wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. What do you think the text is about now? What helped you predict? What strategies did you use? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 18

19 Comments: Slide 2 Lambra goots fal dog rew fal hepper. Ota namdo bup quock sa car wuta gup sa flubbed jepo. Recognise two words: dog and car. Can predict something has happened using knowledge of life experiences. (Semantics for L1 Learners) Knowledge of syntax may predict that flubbed ( with use of ed ending) is a past tense verb Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 19

20 Lambra Goots - 3 Lambra goots fal dog rew fal vet. Oto namdo bup quock sa car wuta gup sa flubbed leg. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 20

21 Reflection 3 Lambra goots fal dog rew fal vet. Ota namdo bup quock sa car wuta gup sa flubbed leg. What do you think the text is about now? What helped you predict? What strategies did you use? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 21

22 Comments: SLIDE 3 Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 22

23 Lambra took -4 Lambra took fal dog rew fal vet. Oto namdo hit quock sa car wuta had sa flubbed leg. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 23

24 Reflection 4: Lambra took fal dog rew fal vet. Ota namdo hit quock sa car wuta had sa flubbed leg. What do you think the text is about now? What helped you predict? What strategies did you use? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 24

25 Comments :Slide 4 Lambra took fal dog rew fal vet. Ota namdo hit quock sa car wuta had sa flubbed leg. Prediction: Lambra is the name of someone who took the dog to the vet. The dog hit a car and hurt its leg. ‘Ota’ could be he or she or the name of the dog Syntax: Knowledge of verbs and word order in relation to them, i.e We know the subject of a sentence comes first in English and is followed by verb and object. Syntax: Knowledge of pronouns as reference items. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 25

26 Lambra took -5 Peter took fal dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock sa car wuta had sa flubbed leg. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 26

27 Reflection 5: Peter took fal dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock sa car wuta had sa broken leg. What do you think the text is about now? What helped you predict? What strategies did you use? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 27

28 Comment Slide 5 Peter took fal dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock sa car wuta had sa broken leg. Predictions The dog was hit by a car. Peter owns the dog. The dog has a broken leg. Syntax: Knowledge of past tense was hit Knowledge of prepositions predict that quock is by. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 28

29 Lambra took - 5 Peter took the dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock a car wuta had a broken leg. Please give others thinking time. If you have guessed, write your prediction in your workbook. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 29

30 Reflection 6: Peter took the dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock a car wuta had a broken leg. What do you think the text is about now? What helped you predict? What strategies did you use? Why? What cueing system/s did you use Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 30

31 Comment slide 6 Peter took the dog rew fal vet. He was hit quock a car wuta had a broken leg. Possible response: Peter took the dog to the vet. He was hit by a car which resulted in a broken leg Semantic and Syntactic knowledge: Note: At this point first language learners of English will have the semantic understanding of the text, even if they haven’t guessed every word. However, for EAL/D learners this may well not be the case. What helped L1 to predict? Knowledge of a variety of prepositions and how they work in English Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 31

32 At Last Peter took the dog to the vet. He was hit by a car and had a broken leg. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 32

33 The challenge for EAL/D learners : Peter took the dog to the vet. He was hit by a car and had a broken leg. Even with the whole text, as an EAL/D learner the idea of reference may still cause confusion i.e. -‘he’ may refer to the dog, the vet or Peter. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 33

34 Point to remember Independent reading and writing will only occur when all three cueing systems are being used together. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 34

35 The Cueing Systems – definitions Grapho-phonic cues Knowledge of the conventions of print, of the way words look, and the relationship between sounds and letters. Syntactic cues Knowledge of the conventions that determine how words fit together to convey meaning. Semantic cues The meaning itself. Using knowledge of the topic and shared cultural knowledge to work out what makes sense. The meaning embodied in the vocabulary of the text. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 35

36 Analysing texts Framework for analysing texts What assumptions has the author made about the reader’s prior knowledge? Title: What is the book about? What ideas in the book might be unfamiliar to the students? What is the purpose of the book? Tick one. To entertain?  To tell how to make or do something?  To provide information?  What vocabulary in the book might be unfamiliar to the students? Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 36

37 Rate the text How would you rate this text? Easy. Children will need little or no help to understand it. Children will need some help to understand it. Difficult. Children will need a lot of help to understand it. This very much depends on the students you are thinking of. Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 37

38 Reflection What did you learn from this session? What skills/help/understandings did you need to be able to participate in the activities? How did you feel while doing and / after completing the session? Have you ever used or seen similar frameworks being used in the classroom? If so what do you think made the use of such a framework effective or not effective? Could you use/adapt the analysis framework activity for choosing texts for the students you work with? Workshop 4 Session 2 Slide 38

39 Reading activities Two major functions: They should help readers understand the text they are reading They should help readers develop good reading strategies for reading other texts Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 39

40 Divide your planning 1.What you will do with the students before the reading 2.What you and the students will do while (during) the reading is going on 3.What you will do after the book has been read (Wallace in Gibbons, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning, 2002, p84) Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 40

41 Developing Reading Activities What is the reading task you have been asked to do with the children? What is the purpose of the task? Read the book or text yourself. Think about it. What are some things that the children may have difficulty with? (topic, content, language, the way the text/book is set out etc) What skills could this text/book help the children to develop? Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 41

42 Before reading activities The purpose of before reading activities is to activate prior knowledge and to prepare the students for any unfamiliar/difficult content, language use or concepts that are in the text. Before reading activities should always aim to develop knowledge related to the overall meaning of the text. They are not meant to deal with every potential difficulty. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 42

43 Before reading activities In your groups: select activities you think are appropriate to the text add two or three of them to the ‘before reading’ section of Question 5 in the framework. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 43

44 During reading activites The purpose of during reading activities is to model good reading strategies and to examine how the text achieves its purpose. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 44

45 During reading activities In your groups: select activities you think are appropriate to the text add two or three of them to the ‘during reading’ section of Question 5 in the framework. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 45

46 After reading activites Before attempting after reading activities students need to be familiar with the text. In these activities students will be required to apply new knowledge. The three main purposes of these activities are: –To use the now-familiar text as a basis for language study –To allow students to respond creatively to the text (through art, drama and/or writing activities) –To focus more deeply on information in the text by representing the information in a different form (e.g. time line, diagram etc) Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 46

47 After reading activities In your groups: select activities you think are appropriate to the text add two or three of them to the ‘after reading’ section of Question 5 in the framework. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 47

48 Reflection Have you ever used or seen similar frameworks being used for planning activities? If so what do you think made the use of such a framework effective or not effective? What did you learn from this session? What skills/help/understandings did you need to be able to participate in the activities? How did you feel while doing and after completing the session? Will using such a framework be helpful to you in your work? Why/why not? Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 48

49 Homework task 1 Take a small group of students for a reading activity. Plan the before, during and after activities you will do with the group using the framework. Make a resource to go with one or more of your activities. Evaluate what you did. Use the framework we have just used, –or a lesson plan we have used in previous workshops, –or one of your own choosing –or, if you are working towards a certificate, one provided by your registered training organisation. Workshop 4 Session 3 Slide 49

50 Reading assessment Think about and brainstorm: The types of reading assessment activities that are used in your schools The assessment activities that you are involved in or responsible for What do you think is the purpose of assessment? Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 50

51 Running Records Analysing the results of a running record enables teachers to: –gain insights into what children are doing when they read –provide children with reading books that are at their appropriate developmental level –decide what reading skills and strategies to teach children Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 51

52 Did you see the teacher... Introducing the book; Giving the student time to look at it/read it and to attempt a retelling; Deciding whether the text is appropriate and changing if necessary; Completing a running record as the student reads; Checking the student’s understanding of what he/she has read; Calculating accuracy level, self-correction rate and reading level of the student; Analysing the student’s reading behaviours; and Making recommendations for further work with the student? Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 52

53 Common Notations Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 53 BehaviourConvention Accurate √ Omission ─── long dash Insertion Λ caret Repetition R (R2; R3) Self- correction Word/SC Word told T

54 Independent practice Work with a student from the school and: introduce the book to the student allow the student to read or look through the book then ask her/him to retell it decide if the book is at an appropriate level. If not select another one. complete a running record check student’s understanding of what he/she has read calculate accuracy level, self-correction rate and reading level of the student analyse the running record make recommendations for future action Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 54

55 Reflection Have you ever used running records before? What did you learn from this session? What skills/help/understandings did you need to be able to participate in the activity? How did you feel while doing and / after completing the session? What do you think makes the use of running records an effective or not effective assessment strategy? Could you use/adapt the running records assessment activity to use with the students you work with? Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 55

56 Homework task 2 Complete a running record assessment activity with one or more students. Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 56

57 Glossary Words on the poster? Any words you want to note to find out more about (Google, ask a colleague) Add to the Glossary page at the end of your workbook Workshop 4 Session 4 Slide 57

58 Conclusion Supporting students reading development The Strong Literacy and Numeracy in Communities Pilot was funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations as part of the Education Revolution – Improving Our Schools – National Action Plan for Literacy and Numeracy


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