Presentation on theme: "Phonics Objectives Lesson 1: Introduction to phonics"— Presentation transcript:
1Phonics Objectives Lesson 1: Introduction to phonics Lesson 2 : Consonant clustersLesson 3 : Puzzling soundsLesson 4 : Syllables and word stressLesson 5 : Intonation
2PhonicsAimsTo teach students the basic ideas about reading with phonics.To show students that when they read with phonics, they can read words by saying the sounds that letters make.To teach students how to read sight words. Sight word is a word that does not follow the normal phonic rules.To show students how to use the dictionary to find the pronunciation of words.
3Phonics Objectives Lesson 1 : Introduction to phonics To help students learning the sounds made by the alphabets.To teach short and long vowels.To help students learning consonants.Teaching methodPowerPoint slide presentationExercises and quizzes
4Phonics Objectives Lesson 2 : Consonant clusters To teach students the consonant clusters.To help students learning double consonants, blends, digraphs.Teaching methodPowerPoint slide presentationExercises and quizzes
5Phonics Objectives Lesson 3 : Puzzling sounds To teach students homophones.To help students learning sounds of past tense endings, soft ‘c’ and ‘g’.To help students learning ‘r’ as a vowel modifier.Teaching methodPowerPoint slide presentationExercises and quizzes
6Phonics Objectives Lesson 4 : Syllables To teach students the syllables of wordsTo help students learning word stresses.To show students how to use the dictionary to find the pronunciation of words.Teaching methodPowerPoint slide presentationExercises and quizzes
7Phonics Objectives Lesson 5 : Intonation To teach students the stresses in phrases or sentences.To help students learning the stress rules.To teach students how to read out sentences with correct stress patterns.Teaching methodPowerPoint slide presentationExercises and quizzes
8Introduction to Phonics Lesson OneIntroduction to PhonicsHello!
9PhonicsPhonics is the process of learning through the relationship between letters and combination of letters and the sounds that go with them.
10Phonics approachhelps you ‘sounding out’ new words.
1120 different vowel sounds English has only 26 lettersBut44 different sounds5 written vowels: (母音)a, e, i, o, u20 different vowel sounds21 written consonants (子音)24 consonant sounds
12Try to read out these words Difficult to read out English words because:1. Single letter - different soundsapplealwaysTry to read out these wordsaboutacornartist
13Difficult to read out English words because: 2. Different letters –same soundbe policetree quaysea peoplepiece completeseize key
14Vowels Short vowels a, e, i, o, u These letters are called vowels. You can sometimes hear their sounds in the middle of words.Trace the vowel sound in each word:cat nest winrock tub
15Put the short vowel sounds into these words. Say the words. Try it yourself…AEIOUB _ gH _ nP _ nD _ tT _ bR _ gT _ nF _ gM _ dS _ tS _ pL _ tF _ nP _ tCh _ pSt _ pB _ nL _ pCl _ bPut the short vowel sounds into these words. Say the words.aeiouoo
16Long vowels: A : play, cage, way E : see, feet, eat I : pie, kite, try Sometimes the vowels ‘say their names’ i.e., they have the same sound as letters of the alphabet.When they do this they are called LONG vowels.A : play, cage, wayE : see, feet, eatI : pie, kite, tryO : rope, old, growU : tube suit, you
17‘Magic e’ Short vowel tap pip not mat bit hop Long vowel tape pipe When ‘e’ is written at the end of a 3 letter word or a 4 letter word, the short vowel sound changes to a long vowel sound.Short voweltappipnotmatbithopLong voweltapepipenotematebitehopeA magic !
18Put the long vowel sounds into these words.Say the words. Try it yourself…AEIOUB _ ke_ _ lT _ eSn _ wM _ sicSt _ yF _ _ lF _ veG _ oC _ beM _ keTr _ _Sl _ ceG _ esS _ itL _ keCh _ _seP _ eBl _ wR _ leS _ yWh _ _lSl _ deP _ pilaEeeeiouPut the long vowel sounds into these words.Say the words.
19Single consonants and short vowels PatternPositionExampleSingle consonantsInitialb, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, q, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, zShort vowelsInitial & middlea : apple bate : elephant peti : ink tino : orange potu : umbrella jug
20Consonant – vowel (c-v) Common Patterns ( I )Consonant – vowel (c-v)Example:to go be do noVowel – consonant (v-c)Example:an at in it on up us
21Common Patterns ( II ) Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Example: Rhyming words with different initial consonantsExample:man can ran pan van fan
22Common Patterns ( III ) Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Words with different final consonantsExample:man mat mad map
23Common Patterns ( IV ) Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Words with different mid short vowelsExample: pan pen pin
24Try yourself Colour the vowels page page sad sad went went tie tie cup If the word has a short vowel sound, colour the word redIf the word has a long vowel sound, colour the word greenpagepagesadsadwentwenttietiecupcupsosotreetreecapcapleafleafteddyteddynosenosepiepie
25Oral Practice – Tongue Twister Betty Botter - IBetty Botter bought some butter,But, she said, the butter’s bitterIf I put it in my batterIt will make my batter bitterBut a bit of better butterWill make my batter better.
26Oral Practice – Tongue Twister Betty Botter - IISo she bought a bit of butter,Better than her bitter butter,And she put it in her batter,And the batter was not bitter.So it was better Betty Botterbought a bit of better butter.
27Oral Practice – Rhyme Baa, Baa, Black Sheep Baa, baa, black sheep, Have you any wool?Yes, sir, yes, sir,Three bags full;One for the master,And one for the dame,And one for the little boyWho lives down the lane.
71HomophonesWords that sound exactly the same, but have different meanings and different spellings.Hello!Bonjour!
72Homophones You could dig the biggest hole in the whole world. whole, hole
73Homophones A bear might attack you when you walk through bear, bare the forest with bare feet.
74Homophones paws, pause The wet dog should pause at the door to have his pawswiped.paws, pause
75Solve these homophone clues: 1. You breathe it _ _ _Something is left to him in a will _ _ _ _2. Read _ _ _ _ _They let you do something , you’re_ _ _ _ _ _ _You did it at dinner yesterday _ _ _It’s a number _ _ _ _ _You stop your bike with it _ _ _ _ _If you drop an egg, it will _ _ _ _ _5. You pick it in the garden _ _ _ _ _ _You make a cake with it _ _ _ _ _airheiraloudallowedateeightbrakebreakflowerflour
76Past tense endingsThere are 3 ways to pronounce past tense ending ‘-ed’.Sound/t//d//id/Endings, sh, k, p + edothers + edt, d + edExamplewished, asked, hopedplayed, rainedhated, ended
77Past tense endings /id/ sound e.g. mended 2 syllables /t/ sound e.g. danced1 syllable/d/ sounde.g. played1 syllable
78Some special sounds‘soft’ c (sounds like /s/)centcitypencilice
79Some special sounds ‘soft’ g (sounds like /j/) gentle giant cage gingercagegiantchange
80One is ‘g’ as in goose or game. ‘g’ makes two different sounds. Try it yourself!One is ‘g’ as in goose or game.We call this ‘hard g’.‘g’ makes two different sounds.goosegamegoat
81One is ‘g’ as in giant or gem. We call this ‘soft g’. It sounds ‘j’. Try it yourself!One is ‘g’ as in giant or gem.We call this ‘soft g’. It sounds ‘j’.gemgiraffegiant
82‘r’ as a vowel modifier when an ‘r’ comes after a vowel, the ‘r’ makes the vowel sound different
83R modifies short vowels R modifies vowel blends PatternPositionExampleR modifies short vowelsAllar: car, arm, part, sharker: after, sisterir: birdur: burnR modifies vowel blendsFinaleer: deerear: near, tear(long)ear: wear, pear (short)air: hair, pair, fairare: care, dare, scareModification by wInitialor sounds like: worm worldar sounds like: warm
84Each of the following words has an ‘r’ after a vowel. Try it yourself!Each of the following words has an ‘r’ after a vowel.Find the words.caraiobirdstargirlcornport
86SyllablesEnglish words break into sound units, or beats, which are called ‘syllables’.Every syllablecontains at leastone vowel.
87SyllablesWe need to say words aloud to find out how many syllables they have.We have to think about how they sound, not how they look.
88SyllablesBreaking words into syllables will help us to work out how to spell them.d-i-c-t-a-t-i-o-ndic-ta-tion
891-syllable 2-syllable 3-syllable 4-syllable 5-syllable 6-syllable I agodictationcompositioncommunicationresponsibilitydofatherpotatotelevisionsupernaturalMediterraneanmuchletterunderstandcomparisonphotosynthesisEncyclopaediasmallpictureanimalspringpotentiality
90ExampleWhen nine thousand aliens landed in the school playground, our headteacher went wild.When nine thou-sand a-li-ens lan-ded in theschool play-ground, our head-teach-er wentwild.123
91Count the number of syllables in each word. Try it yourself!Count the number of syllables in each word.
92Try it yourself! Spelling isn’t hard, Once you know some of the tricks,Divide the word into syllables,That makes it easy.21Good Work!1223112
93Word stress Listen to your teacher reading these words potatodictationcompositionreliableabsolutelyListen to your teacher reading these wordsHow many syllables do these words have?Which syllable is more loudly read by your teacher?
94Where are the stressed syllables? Try it yourself!lettercollegecompareschoolhappilydiscoveryWhere are the stressed syllables?
95Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on the first syllable if the word ends in:-ic(s)music, physics, phonics-iaAsia, Sonia-(i)onnation, poison, season-iorjunior, senior-ivepassive, active-ousfamous, conscious-urepicture, capture
96Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on the first syllable if the word ends in:Continue…-som(e)handsome, seldom-lelittle, uncle, bible-almedal, total-e/antmoment, servant-engarden, driven, kitten-agepassage, courage-rystory, history
97Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on the last syllable if the word ends in:-aimproclaim-curoccur-ducereduce-eemesteem-irmconfirm-oseoppose
98Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on the last syllable if the word ends in:Continue…-umeresume-ide, -itedivide, decide, recite-selfhimself-otepromote-ertinsert-ect/actreact
99(Stress on the last syllable) Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on different syllables when the word is in different forms:Noun(Stress on the first Syllable)Verb(Stress on the last syllable)subjectrecordconductobjectproducecontracttransfer
100(Stress on the first syllable) (Stress on the last syllable) Word with 2 syllablesThe stress is on different syllables when the word is in different forms:Continue…Adjective(Stress on the first syllable)Verb(Stress on the last syllable)present
101Word with 2 or more syllables Usually the third syllable from the end of the word is stressed.possibilityinnocentpopularoriginparticlerepresentationoriginalitypublicity
102Prefixes and stress Prefixes will not change the word stress: Word formrichprisoncoverinterpretPrefixre-en-im-dis-mis-New wordreformenrichimprisondiscovermisinterpret
103Suffixes and stress Suffixes will not change the word stress: Word happybeautyking, freehomeselfishappointherovisit, uglyscholarSuffix-ly-ful-dom-less-ness-ment-ism-e/or-shipNew wordhappilybeautifulkingdom, freedomhomelessselfishnessappointmentheroismvisitor, uglierscholarship
104pay attention to the stressed syllable. Say together1. guaranTEE, overSEE, Can’t you SEE2. howEVer, forEVer, Pull the LEver3. underSTAND, comMAND, Play the BAND4. ceLEbrity, comMUNity, Come PLAY with me.Say the words andpay attention to the stressed syllable.
106IntonationSome words are stressed in a phrase or sentence because they give a rhythm or more important information.Stressed
107Some words are stressed IntonationSome words are stressed in a phrase or sentence because they give a rhythm or more important information.Example:‘Some words are stressed
108Sentence stress Rule 1 The STRESSED words The CONTENT words e.g. Nouns, adjectives, action verb (walk, sit…), adverbs, number, question words and demonstratives (this, that…)ExampleThe witch is flying across the sky.
109The witch is flying across the sky. Sentence stressRule 2The UNSTRESSED words areusually the FUNCTION words.articles (a, an, the)Pronouns (I, me, my)Prepositions (at, by, for)conjunction (and, so, but)auxiliary verbs (have, had, has)modals (may, can, might)‘to be’ verbs (am, is, are)The witch is flying across the sky.
110and slightly higher in pitch than unstressed words. Sentence stressRule 3Stressed words are:Longer,louderand slightly higher in pitch than unstressed words.
111Say unstressed words quickly enough: Sentence stressRule 4Say unstressed words quickly enough:1. reduced or made shorter with contractionsshe’ll, he’ll2. run together with other unstressed words‘a lot of’ ‘alota’‘want to’ ‘wanna’‘have to’ ‘hafta’‘going to’ ‘gonna’
112Sentence stressRule 5Stress (or do not reduce) the final word of a sentence if it is a function word (of, to, with, for, me…)Come PLAY with ME.WHO is he GOing toSCHOOL WITH?
113Sentence stressRule 6Only stress on the same syllable as the word stress.I’m going to the movie.goingI’m GO-ING to the MOVIE.I’m GOing to the movie.
114Practise the sentence stress rules Try it yourself!Practise the sentence stress rules1. ANN and JIM were GOing to the Movies.2. The PENcil is on the TAble.3. She Always LIKES to WORK on her desk.4. It’s a VERY Interesting STOry.5. WHAT are you DOing?
115Try it yourself! 6. What TIME did he GET to the STAtion? 7. Has the TRAIN already LEFT?8. It’s NOT an EASY THING to remember.9. WHAT do you THINK he is WAITing FOR?10. WHO will you be GOing WITH?
116Find out the content words stressed in the sentence. Try it yourself!Find out the content words stressed in the sentence.1. Do you like to go camping?2. Students need to study before a test.3. My children are growing very quickly.4. How long will it take to paint your house?5. Who will you be going with?
117Practise saying the conversation. Try it yourself!I’m glad to meet you, Carol. Welcome to XYZ Company. I’m glad you were hired for this position. We’ve been waiting for someone to fill this position for almost a month. You’ll be working with me in the Finance Department. I’m in charge of the daily records, so you’ll need to turn in your reports to me daily. If you have any questions, be sure to ask me. I’d be glad to answer them. Do you know who else you’ll be working with?I’m glad to meet you, Carol. Welcome to XYZ Company. I’m glad you were hired for this position. We’ve been waiting for someone to fill this position for almost a month. You’ll be working with me in the Finance Department. I’m in charge of the daily records, so you’ll need to turn in your reports to me daily. If you have any questions, be sure to ask me. I’d be glad to answer them. Do you know who else you’ll be working with?Practise saying the conversation.