Aims 1.To teach students the basic ideas about reading with phonics. 2.To show students that when they read with phonics, they can read words by saying the sounds that letters make. 3.To teach students how to read sight words. Sight word is a word that does not follow the normal phonic rules. 4.To show students how to use the dictionary to find the pronunciation of words. Phonics
Objectives Lesson 1 : Introduction to phonics 1.To help students learning the sounds made by the alphabets. 2.To teach short and long vowels. 3.To help students learning consonants. Teaching method 1.PowerPoint slide presentation 2.Exercises and quizzes Phonics
Objectives Lesson 2 : Consonant clusters 1.To teach students the consonant clusters. 2.To help students learning double consonants, blends, digraphs. Teaching method 1.PowerPoint slide presentation 2.Exercises and quizzes Phonics
Objectives Teaching method 1.PowerPoint slide presentation 2.Exercises and quizzes Phonics Lesson 3 : Puzzling sounds 1.To teach students homophones. 2.To help students learning sounds of past tense endings, soft ‘c’ and ‘g’. 3.To help students learning ‘r’ as a vowel modifier.
Objectives Teaching method 1.PowerPoint slide presentation 2.Exercises and quizzes Phonics Lesson 4 : Syllables 1.To teach students the syllables of words 2.To help students learning word stresses. 3.To show students how to use the dictionary to find the pronunciation of words.
Objectives Lesson 5 : Intonation 1.To teach students the stresses in phrases or sentences. 2.To help students learning the stress rules. 3.To teach students how to read out sentences with correct stress patterns. Teaching method 1.PowerPoint slide presentation 2.Exercises and quizzes Phonics
LessonOne Lesson One Introduction to Phonics Phonics
Phonics is the process of learning through the relationship between letters and combination of letters and the sounds that go with them.
helps you ‘sounding out’ new words. Phonics approach
English has only 26 letters 5 written vowels: ( 母音 ) 21 written consonants ( 子音 ) a, e, i, o, u 20 different vowel sounds 24 consonant sounds But 44 different sounds
Difficult to read out English words because: 1. Single letter - different sounds apple always about acorn artist Try to read out these words
2. Different letters –same sound bepolice treequay sea people piece complete seize key Difficult to read out English words because:
Vowels Short vowels a, e, i, o, u These letters are called vowels. You can sometimes hear their sounds in the middle of words. Trace the vowel sound in each word: cat nest win rock tub a, e, i, o, u
AEIOU B _ gH _ nP _ nD _ tT _ b R _ gP _ nT _ nF _ gM _ d S _ tT _ nS _ pL _ tF _ n P _ tS _ tCh _ pSt _ pB _ n L _ pL _ tF _ gCh _ pCl _ b Try it yourself… a a a a a e e e e e i i i i i o o o o o u oo u u u Put the short vowel sounds into these words. Say the words.
Long vowels: Sometimes the vowels ‘say their names’ i.e., they have the same sound as letters of the alphabet. When they do this they are called LONG vowels. A : play, cage, way E : see, feet, eat I : pie, kite, try O : rope, old, grow U : tube suit, you
‘Magic e’ When ‘e’ is written at the end of a 3 letter word or a 4 letter word, the short vowel sound changes to a long vowel sound. Short vowel taptap pippip notnot matmat bitbit hophop Long vowel tapetape pipepipe notenote matemate bitebite hopehope A magic !
AEIOU B _ ke_ _ lT _ eSn _ wM _ sic St _ yF _ _ l F _ veG _ oC _ be M _ keTr _ _Sl _ ceG _ esS _ it L _ keCh _ _seP _ eBl _ wR _ le S _ yWh _ _lSl _ deT _ eP _ pil Try it yourself… a a a a a Ee ee i i i i i o o o o o u u u u u long Put the long vowel sounds into these words.Say the words.
Single consonants and short vowels PatternPositionExample Single consonantsInitialb, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, q, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z Short vowelsInitial & middlea : apple bat e : elephant pet i : ink tin o : orange pot u : umbrella jug
Common Patterns ( I ) Consonant – vowel (c-v) Vowel – consonant (v-c) Example: to go be do no Example: an at in it on up us
Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Rhyming words with different initial consonants Example: man can ran pan van fan Common Patterns ( II )
Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Words with different final consonants Example: man mat mad map Common Patterns ( III )
Consonant–vowel–consonant (c-v-c) Words with different mid short vowels Example: pan pen pin Common Patterns ( IV )
Try yourself Colour the vowels If the word has a short vowel sound, colour the word red page tree cup sad tie went so pie leaf cap teddy nose If the word has a long vowel sound, colour the word green page tree cup sad tiewent so pie leaf cap teddy nose
Oral Practice – Tongue Twister Betty Botter bought some butter, But, she said, the butter’s bitter If I put it in my batter It will make my batter bitter But a bit of better butter Will make my batter better. Betty Botter - I
Oral Practice – Tongue Twister So she bought a bit of butter, Better than her bitter butter, And she put it in her batter, And the batter was not bitter. So it was better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. Betty Botter - II
Oral Practice – Rhyme Baa, baa, black sheep, Have you any wool? Yes, sir, yes, sir, Three bags full; One for the master, And one for the dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane. Baa, Baa, Black Sheep
LessonTwo Lesson Two Phonics Consonant Clusters
Double consonants - two identical consonants which sound like a single consonant in the final position LL L
Blends - two consonants ‘blended’ together to form a new sound Consonant Clusters b lbl
Digraphs - two letters joined together to form a new single sound which is quite different from their separate sounds Consonant Clusters c h ch
PatternPositionExampleWords Double consonants Final _bb _dd _gg _ll _ss _ff _zz and _ck Pill pull bell bull Blends Initial bl_ cl_ fl_ gl_ pl_ sl_ br_ cr_ dr_ fr_ gr_ pr_ tr_ sc_ sk_ sl_ sm_ sn_ sp_ st_ sw_ flat drip step shop this Digraphs Initialch, sh, th, ph, wh, qu much must mush
PatternPositionExampleWords Blends &Digraphs Final_sh, _ch, _st, sk, _sp, _st, _th, _tch last list lost ‘n’ and ‘m’ blends Finals_nd, _nch, _ng, _nk, _mp, _nt and band land hand sand stand camp damp lamp stamp
Try it yourself! Select the word that rhymes in each group.
Exercise 1 tell bell sell well shell fell tall till Double consonants
Answer 1 bell sell well shell fell tell Good! Double consonants
Exercise 2 well bill mill pill fill hill will wall Double consonants
Answer 2 will Well Done! bill mill pill fill hill Double consonants
Exercise 3 sheep bead wee d need lead feed sellseed Vowels
Answer 3 seed Excellent! bead wee d need lead feed Vowels
Exercise 4 rod bed head fed wed said rid red Vowels
Answer 4 red Bravo! bed head fed wed said Vowels
Discussion ? sail ? ? ? Good Work! Now discuss with your classmates to find out words that rhyme with ‘sail’.
Which blend? Say out the word. Mark the blend at the beginning of each word.
Which blend? sw st sn pl sm tr sn st sw st plsnsn star plane snake
sl bl sp st gl dr cr sm dr sp gldr Which blend? spoon glassdress
Which blend? gl fr fl cr sm pl fr tr cr cr tr fr crayon trousers frog
Which blend? pl fr tr st br gr sm st tr fr gr sm flower grape smile
More sounds Say out the word. Circle the blend at the finals of each word.
friend plant old went cold paint end find front hold band want ld nt nd More sounds nt ndnt ldnd ld nt
ch and sh Which begins with ch? Which begins with sh?
ch and sh chair ship shop church chicken chain shoes
Finish the words shch All of these words have ‘sh’ or ‘ch’ in them. Read the words. Fill in the spaces.
Finish the words _ _ estwhi _ __ _ arp pit _ _ri _ __ _ in _ _ eckbu_ __ _ ine pat _ _da _ _wi _ _ di _ _su _ __ _ ake c h s h c h s h c h s h
Finish the words (Hints) which rich such chest patch chin chapatti check chatter pitch rush shine dash shell sheet crash bush dish shake sharp wish Read this words: which rich such chest patch chin chapatti check chatter pitch
Sounds like … Find out which object begins with which sound.
Sounds like … Trumpet Truck Tree Train Trousers Triangle Crane Crab Crown Crayon Crack cross Cr Tr Trumpet Truck Tree Train Trousers Triangle
Which ones? Select pictures in each row that begin with the sound.
Which ones? BlouseBlowFlowerFlyFlagCloud Clown ClockPlatePlantPlumSlideSledge
Which ones blend? Find out which object begins with which sound.
Say the sounds Find out which object begins with which sound.
Say the sounds Skate Skip Skirt Smoke SmileSmall Snail Snowman Snake Spider SpoonSpadeStar Stairs Swimming Swing Swan
You use me every day. You see me on your feet. I begin with the same sound in the words ‘show’, ‘short’ and ‘shone’. Riddle 1 Shoes
Riddle 2 You see me in the circus. I have a red round nose. I wear big, colourful clothes. I make children laugh. I begin with the same sound in the words ‘cloud’, ‘clean’ and ‘class’. clown
Riddle 3 I am round. You use me when you eat. I begin with the same sound in the words ‘play’, ‘please’ and ‘place’. Plate
Riddle 4 I have four legs. You sit on me every day. I begin with the same sound in the words ‘church’, ‘cherry’ and ‘chop’. Chair
LessonThree Lesson Three Phonics Puzzling sounds
Homophones Words that sound exactly the same, but have different meanings and different spellings. Hello! Bonjour!
whole, hole You could dig the biggest hole in the whole world. Homophones
bear, bare A bear might attack you when you walk through the forest with bare feet. Homophones
paws, pause The wet dog should pause at the door to have his paws wiped. Homophones
Solve these homophone clues: 1. You breathe it _ _ _ Something is left to him in a will _ _ _ _ 2. Read _ _ _ _ _ They let you do something, you’re _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3.You did it at dinner yesterday _ _ _ It’s a number _ _ _ _ _ 4.You stop your bike with it _ _ _ _ _ If you drop an egg, it will _ _ _ _ _ 5. You pick it in the garden _ _ _ _ _ _ You make a cake with it _ _ _ _ _ 1. You breathe it _ _ _ Something is left to him in a will _ _ _ _ 2. Read _ _ _ _ _ They let you do something, you’re _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3.You did it at dinner yesterday _ _ _ It’s a number _ _ _ _ _ 4.You stop your bike with it _ _ _ _ _ If you drop an egg, it will _ _ _ _ _ 5. You pick it in the garden _ _ _ _ _ _ You make a cake with it _ _ _ _ _ air heir aloud allowed ate eight brake break flower flour
Past tense endings There are 3 ways to pronounce past tense ending ‘-ed’. Ending s, sh, k, p + ed others + ed t, d + ed Sound /t/ /d/ /id/ Example wished, asked, hoped played, rained hated, ended
Past tense endings /t/ sound e.g. danced 1 syllable /id/ sound e.g. mended 2 syllables /d/ sound e.g. played 1 syllable
Some special sounds ‘soft’ c (sounds like /s/) cent city pencil ice city
Some special sounds ‘soft’ g (sounds like /j/) gentle ginger cage giant change
Try it yourself! ‘g’ makes two different sounds. One is ‘g’ as in goose or game. We call this ‘hard g’. goose game goat
Try it yourself! One is ‘g’ as in giant or gem. We call this ‘soft g’. It sounds ‘j’. gem giraffe giant
‘r’ as a vowel modifier when an ‘r’ comes after a vowel, the ‘r’ makes the vowel sound different
PatternPositionExample R modifies short vowels All ar: car, arm, part, shark er: after, sister ir: bird ur: burn R modifies vowel blends Finaleer: deer ear: near, tear(long) ear: wear, pear (short) air: hair, pair, fair are: care, dare, scare Modification by w Initialor sounds like: worm world ar sounds like: warm
Try it yourself! a i a i o o car bird star girl corn port Each of the following words has an ‘r’ after a vowel. Find the words.
LessonFour Lesson Four Phonics Syllables and Word stress
English words break into sound units, or beats, which are called ‘syllables’. Syllables Every syllable contains at least one vowel.
Syllables We need to say words aloud to find out how many syllables they have. We have to think about how they sound, not how they look.
Syllables Breaking words into syllables will help us to work out how to spell them. dic-ta-tion d-i-c-t-a-t-i-o-n
Example When nine thousand aliens landed in the school playground, our headteacher went wild. When nine thou-sand a-li-ens lan-ded in the school play-ground, our head-teach-er went wild
Try it yourself! Count the number of syllables in each word.
Try it yourself! Spelling isn’t hard, Once you know some of the tricks, Divide the word into syllables, That makes it easy Good Work!
reliable Word stress dictation compositio n potato absolutely Listen to your teacher reading these words How many syllables do these words have? Which syllable is more loudly read by your teacher?
Try it yourself! lettercollege compareschool happilydiscovery Where are the stressed syllables?
Word with 2 syllables The stress is on the first syllable if the word ends in: -ic(s)music, physics, phonics -iaAsia, Sonia -(i)onnation, poison, season -iorjunior, senior -ivepassive, active -ousfamous, conscious -urepicture, capture
Word with 2 syllables -som(e)handsome, seldom -lelittle, uncle, bible -almedal, total -e/antmoment, servant -engarden, driven, kitten -agepassage, courage -rystory, history Continue… The stress is on the first syllable if the word ends in:
Word with 2 syllables The stress is on the last syllable if the word ends in: -aimproclaim -curoccur -ducereduce -eemesteem -irmconfirm -oseoppose
Word with 2 syllables -umeresume -ide, -itedivide, decide, recite -selfhimself -otepromote -ertinsert -ect/actreact Continue… The stress is on the last syllable if the word ends in:
Word with 2 syllables The stress is on different syllables when the word is in different forms: Noun (Stress on the first Syllable) Verb (Stress on the last syllable) subject record conduct object produce contract transfer
Word with 2 syllables Continue… Adjective (Stress on the first syllable) Verb (Stress on the last syllable) present The stress is on different syllables when the word is in different forms:
Word with 2 or more syllables Usually the third syllable from the end of the word is stressed. possibilit y innocen t popula r origin particle representation originality publicity
Prefixes and stress Prefixes will not change the word stress: Word form rich prison cover interpret New word reform enrich imprison discover misinterpret Prefix re- en- im- dis- mis-
Suffixes and stress Suffixes will not change the word stress: Suffix -ly -ful -dom -less -ness -ment -ism -e/or -ship New word happily beautiful kingdom, freedom homeless selfishness appointment heroism visitor, uglier scholarship Word happy beauty king, free home selfish appoint hero visit, ugly scholar
Say together 1. guaranTEE, overSEE, Can’t you SEE 2. howEVer, forEVer, Pull the LEver 3. underSTAND, comMAND, Play the BAND 4. ceLEbrity, comMUNity, Come PLAY with me. Say the words and pay attention to the stressed syllable.
LessonFive Lesson Five Phonics Intonation
Some words are stressed in a phrase or sentence because they give a rhythm or more important information. Stressed
Intonation Some words are stressed ‘ Some words are stressed in a phrase or sentence because they give a rhythm or more important information. Example:
Sentence stress e.g. Nouns, adjectives, action verb (walk, sit…), adverbs, number, question words and demonstratives (this, that…) The witch is flying across the sky. Rule 1 The STRESSED words The CONTENT words Example
The UNSTRESSED words are usually the FUNCTION words. usually the FUNCTION words. The witch is flying across the sky. articles (a, an, the) Pronouns (I, me, my) Prepositions (at, by, for) conjunction (and, so, but) auxiliary verbs (have, had, has) modals (may, can, might) ‘to be’ verbs (am, is, are) Sentence stress Rule 2
Stressed words are: Longer, louder and slightly higher in pitch than unstressed words. Sentence stress Rule 3
2. run together with other unstressed words ‘a lot of’ ‘alota’ ‘want to’ ‘wanna’ ‘have to’ ‘hafta’ ‘going to’ ‘gonna’ Sentence stress Rule 4 Say unstressed words quickly enough: 1. reduced or made shorter with contractions she’ll, he’ll
Stress (or do not reduce) the final word of a sentence if it is a function word (of, to, with, for, me…) Come PLAY with ME. WHO is he GOing to SCHOOL WITH? Sentence stress Rule 5
Only stress on the same syllable as the word stress. I’m going to the movie. I’m GO-ING to the MOVIE. I’m GOing to the movie. going Sentence stress Rule 6
Try it yourself! 1. ANN and JIM were GOing to the Movies. 2. The PENcil is on the TAble. 3. She Always LIKES to WORK on her desk. 4. It’s a VERY Interesting STOry. 5. WHAT are you DOing? Practise the sentence stress rules
Try it yourself! 6. What TIME did he GET to the STAtion? 7. Has the TRAIN already LEFT? 8. It’s NOT an EASY THING to remember. 9. WHAT do you THINK he is WAITing FOR? 10. WHO will you be GOing WITH?
Try it yourself! 1. Do you like to go camping? 2. Students need to study before a test. 3. My children are growing very quickly. 4. How long will it take to paint your house? 5. Who will you be going with? Find out the content words stressed in the sentence.
Try it yourself! I’m glad to meet you, Carol. Welcome to XYZ Company. I’m glad you were hired for this position. We’ve been waiting for someone to fill this position for almost a month. You’ll be working with me in the Finance Department. I’m in charge of the daily records, so you’ll need to turn in your reports to me daily. If you have any questions, be sure to ask me. I’d be glad to answer them. Do you know who else you’ll be working with? Practise saying the conversation.