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Intervention Strategies for Struggling Readers Nicole Pearson.

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1 Intervention Strategies for Struggling Readers Nicole Pearson

2 Main Thrust The purpose of this presentation is to provide educators a comprehensive source of research based intervention strategies that help struggling readers reach their full potential.

3 Defining Struggling Readers For the purpose of this presentation, we will define “struggling readers” as students who are lacking skills in one of the five essential areas of literacy. This deficit negatively affects their academic performance, and they would benefit from remediated instruction or extra practice in an identified area of weakness.

4 Why do they struggle? There are many different theories of why certain student struggle to learn to read. The following are four common causes for underachievement in reading according to Linda Campbell Ph.D. and Crystal Kelly MA.Ed., authors of Helping Struggling Readers:  Reading role models and life experiences.  Acquisition of reading skills, specifically phonics and comprehension  Visual processing  Learning disabilities

5 What are the essential skills for reading success? Phonological Awareness Phonics Fluency Comprehension Vocabulary

6 How do we “fix” the problems of struggling readers? Many districts are implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) programs, where a team of professionals work to improve the essential skill for reading success, so that each child can reach their fullest potential. Now, let’s examine specific strategies to improve identified areas of weakness in the primary grades.

7 Phonological Awareness Phonological awareness is one’s sensitivity to, or awareness of the phonological structure of words. This is considered an “umbrella” term which encompasses many aspects of sound identification and manipulation of language. Intervention strategies can be applied at any stage of the skill process.

8 Phonological Awareness In Kindergarten and first grade, phonological awareness can be examined by looking at six critical skills: rhyme, alliteration, sentence segmentation, syllables, onset and rimes, and phonemes. In second and third grade, phonological awareness is separated into phoneme matching, phoneme isolating, phoneme blending, phoneme segmenting, and phoneme manipulating.

9 Phonological Awareness Intervention Strategies Kindergarten and First Grade

10 What are the necessary skills for kindergarten and first grade? Rhyme is words that are similar in sound, especially with respect to the last syllable; "hat and cat rhyme“. Alliteration is repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (as wild and woolly). Sentence segmentation is breaking down sentences into individual words. Syllables are units of spoken language. Onset is the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable and rime is the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. Phonemes are the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.

11 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Rhyme Rhyme-Oh!  Students practice working with rhymes by matching rhyming picture cards to pictures on a game board until they fill the card. FREE Rhyme-Oh!

12 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Alliteration Tongue Twisters  At a listening center, students listen to taped tongue twisters.  After listening to one sentence, the student pauses the tape and repeats the sentence to a partner, who then repeats it back to them.  Students continue to practice saying sentences that use alliteration.

13 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Sentence Segmentation Crinkle Creepers  In this activity, students are segmenting sentences into individual words. First, students count the number of words in a sentence that is printed on a sentence strip.  After counting, students fold the paper in half and put it into a cup with the corresponding number of words labeled on front. The boy ran home. Mom and Dad ate pizza.

14 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Syllables Syllable Hopscotch  Create a hopscotch board on the floor.  Students select a picture card, says the word pictured, segments the word, and then counts the number of syllables by tapping their fingers.  Students then hop the corresponding number of syllables on the hopscotch board. Di-no-saur Hop 3! https://www.tstshop.co.uk/images/hop-scotch.jpg

15 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Onset and Rime Onset and Rime Picture Puzzles  In this activity, students are practicing saying the onset and rime of a word.  Students will match picture parts and say the pictured word by blending the onset and rime to say the whole word. Ex. /sn/ /ake/ snake! Ex. /d/ /og/ dog!

16 K-1 Phonological Awareness- Phonemes Hoop it!  This activity can be used to practice any targeted sound. Choose a targeted, or troublesome sound and go from there.  Students will select “basketballs” with a picture card on the front.  If the card contains the targeted sound, they put it in the basket with a picture of that sound. If it does not contain the target sound, they put it in the “no” basket.

17 Phonological Awareness Intervention Strategies Second and Third Grade

18 What are the necessary skills for second and third grade? Phonemes are the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. Therefore… Phoneme matching is matching the sound. Phoneme isolating is finding a particular sound in a word. Phoneme blending is combining multiple sounds. Phoneme segmenting is breaking down words into individual sounds. Phoneme manipulating is changing particular sounds within a word.

19 2-3 Phoneme Matching Initial Phoneme Picture Match  Students will sort cards and place in the column under the appropriate initial sound. pbt

20 2-3 Phoneme Isolation Photo Scavenger Hunt  Students will follow a list of directions to mark pictures that end with a targeted final sound.  This activity can be used as remediation for students that have not mastered a crucial phoneme or need additional practice with a particular phoneme. Ex. Circle all the pictures that end in /ch/. Touch! Branch!

21 2-3 Phoneme Blending What’s My Word?  Students will listen to a tape or reader saying a segmented word. They then blend the word together and mark the matching picture. Ex. Put a 1 by /c/ /a/ /t/. Put a 2 by the /d/ /a/ /r/ /t/.

22 2-3 Phoneme Segmenting Phoneme Sort  Students will sort picture cards by saying the word, segmenting the word into phonemes, and tapping their finger for each phoneme. Students then place the picture under the corresponding number. 345

23 2-3 Phoneme Manipulating Phoneme Position Sort  Students will sort cards showing a change of the initial, middle, or final phoneme under part of a segmented picture.

24 Phonics Phonics is defined as the study of the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent. The goal is for children to use the sound-symbol relationship to read and write words. It is important to note that phonics skills progress in difficulty and may require intervention at any stage.

25 Phonics In Kindergarten and first grade, phonics includes six critical skills: letter-recognition, letter-sound correspondence, onset and rime, word study, syllable patterns, morpheme structures. In second and third grade, phonics is separated into letter-sound correspondence, high frequency words, variant correspondences, syllable patterns, and morpheme structures.

26 Phonics Intervention Strategies Kindergarten and First Grade

27 What are the necessary skills for kindergarten and first grade? Letter-recognition is the identification of individual letters by name and/or sound in a variety of contexts. Letter-sound correspondence is making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics). Onset is the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable and rime is the part of a syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. Word study is the process of using strategies to figure out or decode unfamiliar words. Syllable patterns are common or repeated units of speech. Morpheme structures are the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.

28 K-1 Phonics- Letter Recognition Alphabet Arc  Students choose a letter from a container. Students say the letter and match it to the letter shown in the alphabet arc.

29 K-1 Phonics- Letter-Sound Correspondence Touchable Letters and Picture Match  Students will first put a set of tactile letters (sandpaper, clay, felt, etc.) in alphabetical order, saying the name of the letter as they touch it.  Students will then match pictures showing the initial sound with each letter.

30 K-1 Phonics- Onset and Rime Onset and Rime Slide  Students slide a piece of paper with different onset sounds through a window that matches them with the same rime. Students say the word and then write it on the paper. d h r t br gr sl swim

31 K-1 Phonics- Word Study Ex. Silent “E” Changes (Blending)  Students will draw strips of paper, write it on the short vowel side, and then add a final ‘e’ and change it to a long vowel sound. Short vowel soundLong vowel sound manmane planplane cub

32 K-1 Phonics- Syllable Patterns Word Syllable Game  Using any game board and game pieces, students first draw a word card. Students say the word, count the syllables, check with a peer, and then move the same number of spaces as there were syllables in the word. “Playground…move 2!”

33 K-1 Phonics- Morpheme Structures Compound Word Memory  Students turn a set of cards upside down. They select two cards and try to match the pictures and words to form a compound word. If it is a match, the students says the compound word and keeps the cards.

34 Phonics Intervention Strategies Second and Third Grade

35 What are the necessary skills for second and third grade? Letter-sound correspondence is making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics). High frequency words are the most commonly used words in reading and writing. Variant correspondences are letters that have multiple sounds that can be represented by that letter. Syllable patterns are common or repeated units of speech. Morpheme structures are the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.

36 2-3 Letter-Sound Correspondence Initial Sound Memory  Students will shuffle and place cards upside down. Students work to match a picture with the letter that creates the initial sound. mt pf

37 2-3 High Frequency Words WORDO  Play this game like BINGO! Chose a targeted set of 24 high frequency words and have students write them randomly on a blank card. Put a free space in the middle. A student called selects words from cards until a student gets WORDO!

38 2-3 Variant Correspondences Long and Short Sort  Students work with a partner to sort a set of words into a long vowel category and short vowel using the same letter. backsnake fanpaper matshade

39 2-3 Syllable Patterns Add-a-Car  Students will sort words to add to a train engine showing the correct number of syllables. Students are to say the word, tap the syllables, and then place the card by the number of syllables. dinosaurmeasurement dictionaryluminescent

40 2-3 Morpheme Structures Compound Word Concentration  Students turn a set of cards upside down. They select two cards and try to match simple words to form a compound word. If it is a match, the students says the compound word and keeps the cards. light moon Moonlight!

41 Fluency Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with appropriate expression. This stage is seen as the bridge between word recognition and comprehension.

42 Fluency In kindergarten and first grade, there are four critical skills in developing fluency: letter recognition, letter-sound correspondence, high frequency words, and oral reading. In second and third grade, there are six skills that contribute to fluency: letter sound correspondence, word parts, words, phrases, chunked text, and connected text.

43 Fluency Intervention Strategies Kindergarten and First Grade

44 What are the necessary skills in kindergarten and first grade? Letter-recognition is the identification of individual letters by name and/or sound in a variety of contexts. Letter-sound correspondence is making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics). High frequency words are the most commonly used words in reading and writing. Oral reading is students reading a selection aloud.

45 K-1 Fluency- Letter Recognition Racing Alphabet Arc  Using an Alphabet Arc, students try to beat their previous time for pulling a letter, saying the letter name, and matching it to its spot on the arc.

46 K-1 Fluency- Letter-Sound Correspondence Fluency Letter Wheel  Students take turns timing one another for a set period of time. During the time period, students spin the wheel, say the letter and the partner places a counter into a cup if the correct letter is said. Students then switch roles and try to improve the number of chips each time or graph their results.

47 K-1 Fluency- High Frequency Words Reading Rally  Students race the clock to read as many of 50 chosen target words during a minute as possible. Students record each try on a reading rally log. Reading Rally! 1 st try ______ words 2 nd try ______ words 3 rd try ______ words

48 K-1 Fluency- Oral Reading Techno Reading  Students listen to a story either on the computer, CD player, or MP3 player. The goal is to listen for intonation and phrasing. At the end of each page, the student is to pause the recording and read it aloud themselves.

49 Fluency Intervention Strategies Second and Third Grade

50 What are the necessary skills in second and third grade? Letter-sound correspondence is making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics). Word parts are common non-word syllables patterns as well as affixes. Words are high frequency words as well as word families. Phrasing is reading text naturally, pausing appropriately with intonation. Chunked text is text broken into natural groups of words. Connected text is reading text in a smooth, connected way.

51 2-3 Letter-Sound Correspondence Letter Sound Speed Race  Students will work with a partner or teacher to say as many sounds correctly in one minute as possible when looking at a sheet of out of order letters. Progress is recorded and the activity is repeated at a later time. Letter Sound Speed Race 1. d b w I p e a t h g 2. n v x q r u p l k d

52 2-3 Word Parts Syllable Spring  Students will work with a partner or teacher to go through as many cards in a stack of common non- word syllables. If the student pronounces the syllable correctly, they keep the card and try to accumulate as many cards as possible in one minute.  Students record their progress each time to chart improvement with practice.

53 2-3 Words Pass-Word  Students work in a small group, sitting in a circle with a stack of cards in the middle. The first student picks a card, says the word if they can and then discards it. If they are unable to say the word or say it incorrectly, they pass it to the next person, who either says it or passes it on. The circle continues until all the cards have been used.

54 2-3 Phrases Add-a-Few  Students work in small groups, each student reads a sentence that progresses by adding a few words each time. After reading the complete sentence, choral read the complete sentence together. My Dad, My Dad, who is a pilot, My Dad, who is a pilot, goes to the airport My Dad, who is a pilot, goes to the airport to fly the plane. Choral Read- My Dad, who is a pilot, goes to the airport to fly the plane.

55 2-3 Chunked Text Students work with a more fluent peer, who first reads a text aloud to them. The text is marked with slashes where students pause to chunk the text. After listening to the fluent peer read the text, the student then reads it back, chunking like their peer.

56 2-3 Connected Text Partner Read  Students can read a self selected or teacher selected text with a partner.  Students alternate who reads each sentence, helping each other with words or phrasing as necessary.

57 Comprehension Comprehension is the skills necessary to understand and extract meaning from written and spoken language. The goal of comprehension strategies is for students to be able to better understand text that they read on their own.

58 Comprehension In kindergarten and first grade, comprehension can be improved by focusing on these key skills: sentence structure and meaning, story structure, monitoring for meaning, and main idea/summarizing. In second and third grade, comprehension includes narrative text structure, expository text structure, text analysis, and monitoring for understanding.

59 Comprehension Intervention Strategies Kindergarten and First Grade

60 What are the necessary skills in kindergarten and first grade? Sentence structure and meaning is the students ability to identify sentences and extract meaning from the text. Story structure is a set of conventions that govern different kinds of texts such as characters, plot, settings, or in an informational text, comparison and contrast. Monitoring for meaning is the metacognitive process of checking to see if one is understanding the reading and meaning of words and adjusting reading rate or rereading if necessary. Main idea/summarizing is the key events that tell what most of the story is about.

61 K-1 Comprehension- Sentence Structure and Meaning Name that Story  Students take turns selecting a sentence strip and matching it to a Nursery Rhyme or story shown on a chart, putting the event in the correct order. Build it up with wood and clay. Jack and JillLittle Bo Peep Three Blind MiceTwinkle, Twinkle

62 K-1 Comprehension- Story Structure Character Map  Students choose a character from a readable text and writes words on each of the lines to describe the character. Peter Pan

63 K-1 Comprehension- Monitoring for Meaning Make-and-Check a Prediction  Teacher or students place sticky notes throughout a text. Before reading, students fill out the “I think” column. They then read until the stick note and fill out “I found out”. The process repeats between each sticky note. I THINKI FOUND OUT

64 K-1 Comprehension- Main Idea/Summarizing Story Hand  Students trace their hand and cut it out on construction paper. Students then write or illustrate the title and author on their thumb, main idea on the palm, and a story detail in sequential order on each of the four fingers.

65 Comprehension Intervention Strategies Second and Third Grade

66 What are the necessary skills in second and third grade? Narrative text structure is the common features of text that is written like a story. Narrative text has a plot, characters, and setting. Expository text structure is the features of a text that is written to inform or describe. It may use description, cause and effect, or comparison and contrast. Text analysis is process of extracting semantics and other information from text Monitoring for understanding is the metacognitive process of checking to see if one is understanding the reading and adjusting reading rate or rereading if necessary.

67 2-3 Narrative Text Structure Character Captain  Students choose a character from a narrative text and complete a a “character sketch”. Name Character Trait What they did

68 2-3 Expository Text Structure Book Scavenger Hunt  Students will complete a “scavenger hunt” using an expository text with a partner. Students will have to locate and extract information from the table of contents, index, glossary, diagrams or tables, and captions.

69 2-3 Text Analysis Fact and Opinion Game  Students play a sorting game by reading a statement and determining whether it is a fact or an opinion. Students then place the card in the appropriate pile. Students may check their answers by looking on the back of the card. It snows in Pennsylvania in the winter. Winter is the best season.

70 2-3 Monitoring for Understanding Question Cube  Students will pause occasionally during reading to answer whatever question they roll on the “question cube”.  Questions include: Do you understand what you’ve read so far? What parts were confusing? Summarize what you just read. Can you make any connections between what you read and your life? Predict what may happen next. Discuss any words you did not know. After reading this much, do you have any questions you’d like to explore further?

71 Vocabulary Vocabulary is often examined as oral or reading vocabulary. This refers to a student’s ability to find the meaning and pronunciation of a word necessary for communication.

72 Vocabulary In kindergarten and first grade, vocabulary can be separated into four main areas: word identification/words in context, words that describe/word meaning, word categorization/word knowledge, and word structure/word analysis. In second and third grade, vocabulary can be improved by examining word knowledge, morphemic elements, word meaning, word analysis, and words in context.

73 Vocabulary Intervention Strategies Kindergarten and First Grade

74 What are the necessary skills in kindergarten and first grade? Word identification/words in context is the process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of an unknown word. Words that describe/word meaning is the logical connotation of a word or phrase. Word categorization/word knowledge is putting words into logically divided groups. Word structure/word analysis is the process of using strategies to figure out or decode unfamiliar words.

75 K-1 Vocabulary- Word Identification/Words in Context Sentence Sticks  Students will choose one stick out of each cup labeled Who, What, and Where. These sticks will contain targeted vocabulary words. They will then use these words and additional words written on cards to create a sentence. Peers will evaluate if the sentence makes sense. Who?What?Where?

76 K-1 Vocabulary- Words that Describe/Word Meaning About Me  Students select words from a pile until they find three to complete the sentence “I am ______, ________, and _______.” They then illustrate it with a self portrait. I am fun, adventurous, and kind.

77 K-1 Vocabulary- Word Categorization/Word Knowledge Multiple Meaning Train  Students will select and write a word with multiple meaning on the train engine, on each of the next two cards, they are to write a definition for the two definitions of the word.

78 K-1 Vocabulary- Word Structure/Word Analysis Add-a-Part  Students will work with a partner to brainstorm words by adding a part (-ed, -es, -s, etc.). Student selects a base word card and a suffix card. If it is a word, students list it, if not the other student gets a turn. toy-esfish-ed “Toyes? No, your turn.”“Fished. Yes!”

79 Vocabulary Intervention Strategies Second and Third Grade

80 What are the necessary skills in second and third grade? Word knowledge is the pool of words students bring to a text with them. Morphemic elements are the meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, ex. “man” cannot be divided into a smaller meaningful part. Word meaning is the logical connotation of a word or phrase. Word analysis is the process of using strategies to figure out or decode unfamiliar words. Words in context is the process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of an unknown word using clues from the surrounding words.

81 2-3 Word Knowledge Synonym or Antonym BINGO  Students will write pre-selected words on their BINGO card. When the caller reads a word, students cover a synonym for the word on their card. The game can also be played with antonyms.

82 2-3 Morphemic Elements Build-a-Word  Students start with a base list of words. They then take turns selecting an affix and trying it with the base word. If it is a word, they list it and move on. Students try to make as many words as possible. peace arm-fulPEACEFUL! patient loud

83 2-3 Word Meaning Word Watchers  Students keep a laminated book mark and wipe- off marker in their desk. When reading, students note interesting, unknown, funny, or confusing words and the page number.  When meeting as a group or with the teacher, students can discuss these words and how this improved or hindered their enjoyment of reading the story.

84 2-3 Word Analysis Categories  Students work with a group to come up with several categories for words. Once the categories are determined, students must find three words that fit the category. Check with peer evaluation. animalsthings in your desk relativeslunches dogpencil aunt sandwich tigerpapers father

85 2-3 Words in Context Erase-a-Word  Students will write several descriptive sentences about their day. Before switching with the partner, students will erase one crucial word in each sentence. After switching with a partner, students try to use context clues to insert a word that makes sense in the context of the sentence. Charles was _____ the day his dog died. sad?

86 Best Practices in Reading Instruction These classroom practices will help all students, in addition to struggling readers. Differentiated Instruction  Changing your pace, level, and kind of instruction in response to the learners’ needs, styles, or interests. Flexible Grouping  Creating instructional groups and prescribing specific activities that respond to students’ learning needs.

87 References Bank Street College of Education. 2 December http://www.bnkst.edu/literacyguide/sterms.html Heacox, Diane. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing, Merriam-Webster Online. 22 November http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ Nebraska Department of Education. 3 December http://www.nde.state.ne.us/READ/FRAMEWORK/glossary/general_u-z.html New Horizons for Learning 5 November Routman, Regie. Reading Essentials-The Specifics You Need to Teach Reading Well. New Hampshire: Heinemann, SIL International. 25 November http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/ Utah Education Network. 3 December http://www.uen.org/k-2educator/word_lists.shtml WordNet- A Lexical Database for the English Language 22 November All images, unless cited are from Microsoft Office PowerPoint clip art or Google Images.


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