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Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse1 Teaching phonics more effectively in shared book and guided reading lessons: What to do and how to do it Tom Nicholson and.

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Presentation on theme: "Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse1 Teaching phonics more effectively in shared book and guided reading lessons: What to do and how to do it Tom Nicholson and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse1 Teaching phonics more effectively in shared book and guided reading lessons: What to do and how to do it Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse Massey University Auckland

2 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse2 Presentation Overview 1. A research study: Which is better, shared book, phonics, or a combination? 2. How to become well informed about phonics. Learning some useful phonics rules. 3. The tricky bit: How to use phonics in shared book and guided reading 4. Deciding on phonics activities that are appropriate to the different levels of the Ready to Read colour wheel 5. Discussion activities

3 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse3 Research study comparing phonics and shared book Laura Tse – PhD study 2007 – still in progress A pre-post experimental study 6-year-olds High, middle and low progress readers Teaching in small groups of 4 Children randomly assigned to 4 teaching conditions (1) Phonics (2) Shared book (3) Combined (4)Control group-Maths

4 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse4 Reading levels and the colour wheel Reading LevelColourReading Recovery 5-5½Magenta0,1,2 Red3,4,5 Yellow6,7,8 5½ - 6Dark blue9,10,11 Green12,13,14 6-6½Orange15,16 6½ - 7Light blue/Turquoise17,18 7 – 7½Purple19,20 7½ - 8Dark yellow/gold21, ½Emerald/Silver23,24 8 ½ - 9White25,26

5 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse5 Reading levels for older pupils Reading LevelSchool Journals 8-8½Part 1 8½ - 9Parts Part 4 Note: Junior Journals are supposed to be from 6-8 years

6 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse6 Phonics Quiz Reference: Nicholson article in Set: Research Information for Teachers, No.2,, 2007, pp Underline the consonant blends: doubt, known, first, pumpkin, squark, scratch 2. Underline the consonant digraphs: wholesale, psychic, doubt, wrap, daughter, think 3. When is a “ck” used in spelling? 4. What letters signal that a “g” is pronounced /j/? 5. List all the ways you can think of to spell the “long a” sound. 6. List all the ways you can think of to spell the /k/ sound?. 7. What are the six common syllable types in English? 8. When adding a suffix to a word ending in “y”, what is the rule? 9. How can you recognise a word of Greek origin? 10. Account for the double “m” in comment or commitment.

7 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse7 Anglo-Saxon spelling patterns Reference: Nicholson, T. (2005), Phonics handbook. Chichester, England: Wiley & Sons. CONSONANTS SingleBlendsDigraphs b, d, f, g, h, j, etc. (except c, g, s) clap, frog, stand, etc.that, chin, ship, which VOWELS Short-Longr- and l-controlledVowel Digraphs mat-mate hop-hope rip – ripe pet – Pete cut – cute ar – car al - call or – for ur – surf ir – bird er - her ai/ay -sail, say ee– meet, seem ie – piece, thief oi/oy – boil, boy oa -boat au/aw – sauce/law ew – new etc.

8 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse8 Can you count the number of syllables and morphemes in these words? Reference: Nicholson article in Set: Research Information for Teachers, No.2,, 2007, pp Syllables (units of sound) Morphemes (prefix - root word – suffix) salamander crocodile attached unbelievable finger pies gardener psychometrics

9 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse9 Elements of English spelling Reference: Nicholson, T. (2005), Phonics handbook. Chichester, England: Wiley & Sons. Letter-Sound patterns Syllable PatternsMorpheme Patterns Anglo Saxoncap stand that pin/pine car beat tennis sister napkin hundred railroad pigtails like/unlike/likely Romancedirection spatial excellent inter- intro- -ity prediction disruptive admission Greekphysics chemist auto- micro- microscope chronometer physiology

10 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse10 Syllable rules 1-2 Closed syllable VC/CV – e.g., Rabbit Cotton Happen Channel blanket Open syllable V/CV – e.g., Robot Cucumber Dining Pilot But Camel seven Vanish

11 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse11 Syllable rules 3-4 Silent e pattern e.g., Teenage Deride Illustrate r-affected vowel pattern e.g., Artist Turnip Orchard Thirteen

12 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse12 Syllable rules 5-6 Vowel teams pattern e.g., Release Awful Treatment Painter Voucher -LE pattern e.g., bubble Bangle Cattle Stable Ripple Staple

13 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse13 Reference: Nicholson, T. (2005), Phonics handbook. Chichester, England: Wiley & Sons.

14 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse14 Reference: Nicholson, T. (2005), Phonics handbook. Chichester, England: Wiley & Sons.

15 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse15 The tricky bit: combining phonics with shared book Reading Level ColourPhonics patterns 5-5½MagentaKnows the alphabet RedHas phoneme awareness YellowCan read VC and CVC words 5½ - 6Dark blueKnows 100 frequent sight words Green 6-6½OrangeKnows consonant blends and digraphs 6½ - 7Light blue/TurquoiseKnows silent e rule, doubling rule, r- and l- affected vowels. 7 – 7½PurpleKnows 1-sound vowel digraphs 7½ - 8Dark yellow/goldKnows 2-sound vowel digraphs 8-8 ½Emerald/Silver, Pt 1 Journals Can read compound words, knows Greek spelling patterns 8 ½ - 9White, Pt 1-3 JournalsKnows the 6 syllable rules, knows silent letters 9 and abovePart 4 JournalsKnows Latin prefix and suffix patterns, can read Greek words

16 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse16 5-5½ Magenta – Bubbles Alphabet letters: b High frequency words: my, up, the, down, over CVC patterns: pop (hop, top), hog (dog, log)

17 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse17 5-5½ MagentaOld Tuatara VC and CVC patterns: in, sat, sun, not High frequency words: the, said Old tuatara sat in the sun. He sat and sat and sat. “Asleep,” said the fantail. “Asleep,” said the gull. “Asleep,” said the frog. “Asleep,” said the fly. “Not asleep,” said Old Tuatara.

18 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse18 Title - No, Skipper! 5½ - 6 Green –What to do? The focus could be on a higher level of phonics: Teach the ai-ay pattern (e.g., train) Teach silent e pattern (e.g., side) Skipper was an outside dog. But sometimes Skipper wanted to be an inside dog. He wanted to eat the scraps That fell from Sophie’s high chair (NB: -air in “chair” is not ai pattern) “No!” said Mum. She pointed To the door. “Outside, Skipper!” He wanted to chase Greg’s toy train. … One day the rain came down. It rained and rained and didn’t stop... And his kennel beside the deck was floating away. … In came Skipper, wagging his wet tail…

19 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse19 Title: Greedy Cat’s Door 5½-6 Blue – what to do? Supposed to be just VC and CVC at this stage - in, it, cat, ran, leg, Dad, big, had, Mum, pop, But could go to consonant blends - maybe look at gr-greedy, fr-front, cr-cried, st-stomped, gr-gravy

20 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse20 Title: The hole in the king’s sock Orange on the colour wheel 6-6½ year level Suggest focus on consonant blends and digraphs Could focus on –ck (“sock”, “sticky”, “prickly”, “click”) And –tch (“stitch”) digraphs

21 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse21 Is this an earthquake? 6-6½year level Orange on the colour wheel Suggested focus: The doubling rule: two consonants after the vowel signals the short vowel sound; one consonant signals the long vowel sound Extract from story: “Mum, I can feel our house shaking. Is that an earthquake?” “No, that’s just a truck, a big logging truck, Rumbling and grumbling, Shaking our house.” … Jumping and bumping Trundling and rumbling … “Is that an earthquake?” “No, that’s the wind, Howling and growling, Squeaking and creaking, Blowing our house.”

22 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse22 The great grumbler and the wonder tree 7½ - 8 years Dark yellow/gold on the colour wheel Suggested focus: 2-sound vowel digraphs (oo, ou), doubling rule (dinner, etc) Extract from the story … One day Mr Finch looked at his dinner and sighed. “Oh dear! Mashed potato and gravy!” he said “I grew those potatoes in my own garden,” said Mrs Finch. “Well I don’t like to grumble,” said Mr Finch grumbling, “but I do wish you had grown pumpkins. I would have loved some pumpkin soup.”

23 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse23 Part 4 journals Age years Title: Sister, soldier - Part 4 Journal, No. 1, pp Latin word endings – “tion” e.g., ammunition, examination “ment” e.g., advertisement, arrangement, “ence” e.g., intelligence

24 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse24 Conclusion 1.Our research suggests that it is best to combine the teaching of phonics with shared book teaching 2.You can teach phonics in a shared book lesson but to get the rules in sequence you need to teach them separately as a short lesson and then apply them to reading in shared book lessons: i.e., teach phonics as a mini-lesson and then look for examples of the phonics rule in the shared book 3.Shared book is a great way to revise phonics rules: you can highlight phonics rules as the text features of the shared book (see Ministry of Education folder of Ready to Read notes for some suggestions on teaching phonics) 4.Keep a small list of useful phonics rules that you can highlight whenever you take a shared book lesson 5.Try to highlight phonics rules that are appropriate for the reading level of the children you teach, not too hard or too easy

25 Tom Nicholson and Laura Tse25 References Learning Media (2007). Ready to Read. Teacher support material. Wellington: Author. Nicholson, T. (2007). “How many sounds in ox?” Set: Research Information for Teachers, No.2, pp Nicholson, T. (2006), Phonics handbook. Chichester, England: Wiley & Sons. Nicholson, T. (2005). At the cutting edge. The importance of phonemic awareness in learning to read and spell. Wellington: New Zealand Council fro Educational Research.


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