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學英文 由 Phonics 開始.

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1 學英文 由 Phonics 開始

2 為甚麼要學拼音開始? 2

3

4 學哪一種英語拼音方法? 例如:IPA, Phonics
4

5 用哪一套模式 學英語拼音? 例如:Jolly Phonics, ABC Pathway… 5

6 教英語拼音的常見毛病? 教咗但教不識的原因 只教sound recognition,不教blending
e.g. /a/ , /m/, /p/ /m/ /ap/, /ma/ /p/, /m//a//p/

7 教英語拼音的常見毛病? 教咗但教不識的原因 只教較簡單的a-z,不懂複合韻母
e.g. a-z 只包涵short vowel a,e,i,o,u,及子音 single Consonants: b, d, f, g, m... 複合韻母例子:ea, ee, ai, oi, igh, oa…

8 教英語拼音的常見毛病? 教咗但教不識的原因 只順序教a-z,沒有系統及層次教授及練習 只要求學生背誦,缺乏訓練聽力分辨能力
多由教師示範拼讀生字,少讓學生分析如何拼讀新字

9 教英語拼音的常見毛病? 教咗但教不識的原因 缺少重温,未能與新學的字音合拼練習 操練方式沉悶,欠多樣化 只重視默串,未能配合閱讀
默串生字未能配合拼音所學

10 教英語拼音的常見毛病? 教咗但教不識的原因 拼讀新字時,未能圖字並茂地建立學生的字庫 重反覆操練(drilling),
輕視趣味和建立學生成功感 拼讀訓練不足,未能發展自動化的拼讀能力

11 怎樣教英語拼音? 11

12 What is Phonics? A way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationship It is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language

13 Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships
/d/ d /b/ b One-to-one relations Phoneme Grapheme One-to-many relations bird /З:/ nurse pain /еІ/ day Many-to-one relations /i:/ tea, bear /ε/

14 Purposes of Phonics Instruction
Establishes grapheme-phoneme relationships and the use of graphophonics cues in reading. This is termed the alphabetic principle. Develops word recognition based on their visual and orthographic features. This process is called decoding. Aids in building reading fluency and automaticity.

15 English Phonics Consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m...
Vowels: a, e, i, o, u, ea, oa, igh, ie, oo… Consonant blends and digraphs: dr, st, pl Long vowels: ea, oa, igh, ie, ite, ate, ube… short vowels: a, e, i, o, u R-controlled vowels: ir, ar, or, er, ur… Vowel digraphs: ee, oe, ai, ay… Diphthongs: ou, oi, oy

16 English Syllable Patterns
Closed: Short vowel ending with consonant e.g. bat, tip, pot, bus, beg... Open: Long vowel, no consonant ending e.g. go, we, he, no... Vowel Digraph: vowel spelled with 2+ letters e.g. ea, ee, ai, ay, ie, oa, ui, ue… C-le at the ends of words e.g. cycle, apple, able...

17 English Syllable Patterns
R-controlled vowel e.g. ar, er, ir, ur, or (al, au, aw) Vowel-consonant-e long vowel pattern VCe :magic e / silent e e.g. ate, ame, ite, ote, ube, use, epe

18 Step-by step Sequential Skills Development in Phonics
1. Sound Recognition 2. Blending skills Development 3. Phonemic manipulation skills e.g. addition, deletion, segmentation 4. Basic Syllable Rules e.g. word chunking skill 5. Acquisition of Phonics Rules 6. Apply in Context e.g.Spelling and Reading

19 Sound recognition http://www.genkienglish.net/phonics.htm
19

20 ai ay a-e /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, are short vowels that we use! A vowel is in every word, every word, every word. A vowel is in every word that we read or write. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/, are long vowels that we use! ee ea ie i-e igh y oa o-e ow ue u-e ew

21 Phonics Sequence 1. Single consonants 2. Short vowels
b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, qu 2.    Short vowels -ab          -ib          -ob          -ed          -ub    -ad          -id          -od          -eg          -ug    -ag          -ig          -og          -en          -um    -am         -in          -op          -et          -un    -an          -ip           -ot    -ap          -it    -at Then generate three-letter words; for example, -ab:  cab, dab, gab, jab, lab, nab, tab. 21

22 Phonics Sequence 3. Beginning blends
l blends           r blends         s blends             3-letter blends bl-                br-              sc-            scr cl-                cr-              sk-                     spl fl-                dr-             sm-                     spr gl-                fr-              sn-                     squ pl-                gr-              sp-                     str sl-                pr-              st-                        tr-             sw- Use the beginning blends below with the list of word families above to generate four-and five-letter words; for example, -ap:  clap, flap, slap, snap, trap, scrap, strap 22

23 Phonics Sequence 4. End blends
Mix beginning consonants and beginning blends with the end-blend word families below to generate four- and five-letter words; for example, -and:  band, hand, land, sand, bland, gland, brand, grand, strand. L blends             N blends            T blends            Others    -all                 -and*                -ant               -ass    -alm                 -ang*                -art               -amp*    -ill*                  -ank*               -ast                -iss    -old*                 -ing*                -ift*               -oss    -oll*                  -ink*                -irt                -omp    -ell                   -int                  -ist                -ess*    -elp*                 -ond*                -ort               -ump*    -ull                   -ong                 -ost                           -end*                -eft                           -end                 -elt                           -ung*                -est*                           -unk*                -ust* 23

24 Phonics Sequence 5. Beginning and end digraphs
Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words; for example, -ash:  bash, cash, dash, gash, hash, lash, mash, rash, clash, slash, brash, crash, trash, smash, stash, splash.  (Note that when ch follows a short vowel, a t or r is added before it.) -ash          -ish           -osh            -esh            -ush    -ath          -ith           -otch           -etch           -utch    -atch         -itch          -oth            -erch           -urch    -arch         -irth          -orch 24

25 Phonics Sequence 6. Long vowels with silent e
Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words; for example,-ade:  fade, jade, made, wade, blade, glade, grade, spade, shade -ace              -ice              -ode      -ade              -ide              -oke      -age              -ife               -ole      -ake              -ile               -one      -ale               -ine              -ope      -ame             -ite               -ote      -ape              -ive      -ate 25

26 Phonics Sequence 7. Long vowels in two-vowel combinations
Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -eek:  leek, meek, peek, reek, seek, week, sleek, creek, cheek long a          long e              long e              long o    -aid          -each              -eed               -oach    -ail           -ead               -eek               -oad    -ain          -eak                -eel               -oam    -ait          -eam                -eem              -oan    -ay          -ean                 -eep               -oat    eat               -eet 26

27 Phonics Sequence 8. Miscellaneous vowel combinations
Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -ook:  book, cook, hook, look, nook, took, brook, crook, shook -oil                 -ook               -ound    -oin               -oom               -our    -oint               -oon               -ouse    -oist               -oop               -out    -oot 27

28 Phonics Sequence 9. Vowels controlled by r, l, and w
Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- and five-letter words; for example, -ark:  bark, dark, hark, lark, mark, park, spark, shark. -ar               -ird             -ald              -aw    -ard             -irt              -alk              -awn    -arm            -or              -eld              -ew    -arn            -ord             -elt               -ow    -art             -ork             -ild              -own    -er              -orn             -old    -ern            -ir               -ur 28

29 Scheme of P.1 Phonics Short Vowels
short a, short e, short i, short o, short u Total: 47 Lessons per school year Consonants b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, qu Word Families at, am, ap, an, ank, ad, amp, ack, and, ang, in, it, ip, ig, id, ib, im, ick, ink, ill, ing, int, ot, og, op, ock, od, ob, ox, ost, ong, et, en, ent, ed, eg, est, end, elt, ell, um, ump, ut, ud, ug, ub, ust, uck, ung, up 29

30 Scheme of P.2 Phonics or, ur, ir, er Blends
S-Blends, R-Blends, L-blends sp, st, sl, sm, fl, bl, cl, tr, gr, cr, etc Total: 30 Lessons per school year Long Vowels Long a, Long e, Long i, Long o, Long u R-Controlled Vowels or, ur, ir, er Vowel Digraphs ai, ay, ea, oa, ie, ue, ee, oe Consonant Digraphs sh, ch, th, Diphthongs oi, oy, ou, ow, al, au, aw, oo, ew, others igh,y, 30

31 Five Basic types of phonological awareness tasks
The ability to hear rhymes and alliteration The ability to do oddity tasks The ability to orally blend words The ability to orally segment words The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)

32 The ability to hear rhymes and alliteration
Example: I once saw a cat, sitting next to a dog. I once saw a bat, sitting next to a frog. b. alliteration Example: Six snakes sell sodas and snacks. c. assonance Example: The leaf, the bean, the peach-all were within reach. (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)

33 The ability to do oddity tasks
rhyme Example: Which word does not rhyme: cat, sat, pig? b. beginning consonants Example: Which two words begin with the same sound: man, sat, sick? c. ending consonants Example: Which two words end with the same sound: man, sat, ten? (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)

34 The ability to do oddity tasks
d. medial sounds (long vowels) Example: Which word does not have the same middle sound: take, late, feet e. medial sounds (short vowels) Example: Which two words have the same middle sound: top, cat, pan? f. medial consonants same middle sound: kitten, missing, lesson?

35 The ability to orally blend words
a. syllables Example: Listen to these word parts. Say the word as a whole. ta…ble What’s the word? b. onset / rime the word as a whole. /p/…an --- What’s the word? c. phoneme by phoneme the word as a whole. /s//a//t/ ---

36 The ability to orally segment words
a. syllables Example: Listen to this word. table, Say it syllables by syllables. (ta…ble) b. onset / rime Example: Listen to this word. pan, Say the first sound in the word (the onset) and then the rest of the word (the rime).( /p/…an) c. phoneme by phoneme (counting sounds) Example: Listen to the word. Say the word sound by sound. (/s//a//t/) How many sounds do you hear?

37 The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks
a. Initial sound substitution Example: replace the first sound in mat with /s/. (sat) b. final sound substitution Example: replace the last sound in mat with /p/. (map) c. vowel substitution Example: replace the middle sound in map with /o/. (mop) d. syllable deletion Example: Say baker without the ba. (ker)

38 The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks
e. Initial sound deletion Example: Say sun without the /s/. (un) f. final sound deletion Example: Say hit without the /t/. (hi) g. Initial phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say step without the /s/. (tep) h. final phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say best without the /t/. (bes) i. second phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say frog without the /r/. (fog)

39 Phonics Rules 1. Sometimes the rules don't work.
2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel. 3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city". 4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist". 5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh". 6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck". 39

40 Phonics Rules 7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make, gene, kite, rope, and use". 8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others. 40

41 Phonics Rules 9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my". 10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der". 41

42 a e i o u y r w l ai au ay ar aw al a-e ea ee ei eo eu ey er ew ie igh
Magic e ai au ay ar aw al a-e ea great long a head [E] ee ei veil their eo Leo [io] leopard eu ey hey Valley short i er ew screw Long u sew long o ie field long e friend igh ir i-e oa oe oi oo food long u book [U] ou soup touch short u oy or ow town [aU] o-e ue ui build ur u-e

43 The principles of giving phonemic awareness instruction
Systematic & Explicit Phonics Step-by step Sequential Teaching Guide Fun and Easy-to-Learn Phonics Multi-sensory teaching approach in Phonics Parental involvement and support (Reference :

44 Step-by step Sequential Teaching
multi-sensory teaching approach e.g. songs, rhymes, poems, actions, big books, miming or tactile games, etc. rhyming distinguish individual sounds (listening) letter sounds revision (action) spelling/dictation onset and rime, medial sounds, whole word (within 3-5 letters) systematic and explicit approach identifying sounds in words e.g. f-i-sh interactive games, word charts, etc. final blending e.g. /s/ /a/ /t/ /sa/ /t/ /s/ /at/ Say it as it sounds Look, Cover, Write and Check successive blending e.g. ssssaaaat word bank paired reading word wall, word-family posters, blending lines, etc. writing tasks e.g. silly sentence, guided poem or rhyme writing, etc. blending games

45 Practise Phonics Quiz Spelling Games e.g. sound matching, rhyming game, trace a beginning / ending consonant, discrimination of vowels, choose the right word, word unscramble, spelling a word, etc. (http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml ) 2. Nonsense word checking (Ruth Miskin’s Nonsense Word Test ) (http://www.readinga-z.com/phonics/ ) 3. Sight word recognition (Phonics-Web\Spelling and sight recognition in the National Literacy Strategy.htm) Reading Competency Test (http://www.nrrf.org/readtest.html )

46 拼音教材 letter sound songs http://www.pbs.org/parents/lions/site/map.html
phonics worksheets/ flash cards flip books, phonics wheels, phonics dices, scrapbooks, e-books online

47 拼音教材 big decodable books http://www.readinga-z.com/book.php?id=1112
wall posters /audio posters online phonics games

48 拼音教材 小一 拼音簡報 http://www.kwmwps.edu.hk/My%20Webs/phonics/p1phonics.htm
小二拼音簡報 家長網上資源庫

49 Teach to their strengths Let children taste the fruit of their success !
49


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