What is Phonics ？ A way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationship It is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language
Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships /З:/ bird nurse /i:/ /ε//ε/ tea, bear One-to-many relations Many-to-one relations /d/ d /b/b One-to-one relations PhonemeGrapheme /еІ//еІ/ pain day
Purposes of Phonics Instruction Establishes grapheme-phoneme relationships and the use of graphophonics cues in reading. This is termed the alphabetic principle. Develops word recognition based on their visual and orthographic features. This process is called decoding. Aids in building reading fluency and automaticity.
English Phonics Consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m... Vowels: a, e, i, o, u, ea, oa, igh, ie, oo … Consonant blends and digraphs: dr, st, pl Long vowels: ea, oa, igh, ie, ite, ate, ube … short vowels: a, e, i, o, u R-controlled vowels: ir, ar, or, er, ur … Vowel digraphs: ee, oe, ai, ay … Diphthongs: ou, oi, oy
English Syllable Patterns Closed: Short vowel ending with consonant e.g. bat, tip, pot, bus, beg... Open: Long vowel, no consonant ending e.g. go, we, he, no... Vowel Digraph: vowel spelled with 2+ letters e.g. ea, ee, ai, ay, ie, oa, ui, ue…ue… C-le at the ends of words e.g. cycle, apple, able...
English Syllable Patterns R-controlled vowel e.g. ar, er, ir, ur, or or (al, au, aw) Vowel-consonant-e long vowel pattern VCe :magic e / silent e e.g. ate, ame, ite, ote, ube, use, epe
Step-by step Sequential Skills Development in Phonics 1. Sound Recognition 2. Blending skills Development 3. Phonemic manipulation skills e.g. addition, deletion, segmentation 4. Basic Syllable Rules e.g. word chunking skill 5. Acquisition of Phonics Rules 6. Apply in Context e.g.Spelling and Reading
/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, are short vowels that we use! A vowel is in every word, every word, every word. A vowel is in every word that we read or write. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/, are long vowels that we use! ai ay a-e ee ea ie i-e igh y oa o-e ow ue u-e ew
Phonics Sequence 1. Single consonants 2. Short vowels -ab -ib -ob -ed -ub -ad -id -od -eg -ug -ag -ig -og -en -um -am -in -op -et -un -an -ip -ot -ap -it -at Then generate three-letter words; for example, -ab: cab, dab, gab, jab, lab, nab, tab. b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, qu
Phonics Sequence 3. Beginning blends l blends r blends s blends 3-letter blends bl- br- sc- scr- cl- cr- sk- spl- fl- dr- sm- spr- gl- fr- sn- squ- pl- gr- sp- str- sl- pr- st- tr- sw- Use the beginning blends below with the list of word families above to generate four-and five-letter words; for example, -ap: clap, flap, slap, snap, trap, scrap, strap
Phonics Sequence 4. End blends L blends N blends T blends Others -all -and* -ant -ass -alm -ang* -art -amp* -ill* -ank* -ast -iss -old* -ing* -ift* -oss -oll* -ink* -irt -omp -ell -int -ist -ess* -elp* -ond* -ort -ump* -ull -ong -ost -end* -eft -end -elt -ung* -est* -unk* -ust* Mix beginning consonants and beginning blends with the end-blend word families below to generate four- and five- letter words; for example, -and: band, hand, land, sand, bland, gland, brand, grand, strand.
Phonics Sequence 5. Beginning and end digraphs Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words; for example, -ash: bash, cash, dash, gash, hash, lash, mash, rash, clash, slash, brash, crash, trash, smash, stash, splash. (Note that when ch follows a short vowel, a t or r is added before it.) -ash -ish -osh -esh -ush -ath -ith -otch -etch -utch -atch -itch -oth -erch -urch -arch -irth -orch
Phonics Sequence 6. Long vowels with silent e Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words; for example,-ade: fade, jade, made, wade, blade, glade, grade, spade, shade -ace -ice -ode -ade -ide -oke -age -ife -ole -ake -ile -one -ale -ine -ope -ame -ite -ote -ape -ive -ate
Phonics Sequence 7. Long vowels in two-vowel combinations Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -eek: leek, meek, peek, reek, seek, week, sleek, creek, cheek long a long e long e long o -aid -each -eed -oach -ail -ead -eek -oad -ain -eak -eel -oam -ait -eam -eem -oan -ay -ean -eep -oat -eat -eet
Phonics Sequence 8. Miscellaneous vowel combinations Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -ook: book, cook, hook, look, nook, took, brook, crook, shook -oil -ook -ound -oin -oom -our -oint -oon -ouse -oist -oop -out -oot
Phonics Sequence 9. Vowels controlled by r, l, and w Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- and five-letter words; for example, - ark: bark, dark, hark, lark, mark, park, spark, shark. -ar -ird -ald -aw -ard -irt -alk -awn -arm -or -eld -ew -arn -ord -elt -ow -art -ork -ild -own -er -orn -old -ern -ir -ur
Scheme of P.1 Phonics Short Vowels short a, short e, short i, short o, short u Total: 47 Lessons per school year Consonantsb, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, qu Word Families at, am, ap, an, ank, ad, amp, ack, and, ang, in, it, ip, ig, id, ib, im, ick, ink, ill, ing, int, ot, og, op, ock, od, ob, ox, ost, ong, et, en, ent, ed, eg, est, end, elt, ell, um, ump, ut, ud, ug, ub, ust, uck, ung, up
Scheme of P.2 Phonics BlendsS-Blends, R-Blends, L-blends sp, st, sl, sm, fl, bl, cl, tr, gr, cr, etc Total: 30 Lessons per school year Long VowelsLong a, Long e, Long i, Long o, Long u R-Controlled Vowels or, ur, ir, er Vowel Digraphs ai, ay, ea, oa, ie, ue, ee, oe Consonant Digraphs sh, ch, th, Diphthongsoi, oy, ou, ow, al, au, aw, oo, ew, othersigh,y,
Five Basic types of phonological awareness tasks The ability to hear rhymes and alliteration The ability to do oddity tasks The ability to orally blend words The ability to orally segment words The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
The ability to hear rhymes and alliteration a.rhyme Example: I once saw a cat, sitting next to a dog. I once saw a bat, sitting next to a frog. b. alliteration Example: Six snakes sell sodas and snacks. c. assonance Example: The leaf, the bean, the peach-all were within reach. (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
The ability to do oddity tasks a.rhyme Example: Which word does not rhyme: cat, sat, pig? b. beginning consonants Example: Which two words begin with the same sound: man, sat, sick? c. ending consonants Example: Which two words end with the same sound: man, sat, ten? (Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
The ability to do oddity tasks d. medial sounds (long vowels) Example: Which word does not have the same middle sound: take, late, feet e. medial sounds (short vowels) Example: Which two words have the same middle sound: top, cat, pan? f. medial consonants Example: Which two words have the same middle sound: kitten, missing, lesson?
The ability to orally blend words a. syllables Example: Listen to these word parts. Say the word as a whole. ta … ble --- What ’ s the word? b. onset / rime Example: Listen to these word parts. Say the word as a whole. /p/ … an --- What ’ s the word? c. phoneme by phoneme Example: Listen to these word parts. Say the word as a whole. /s//a//t/ --- What ’ s the word?
The ability to orally segment words a. syllables Example: Listen to this word. table, Say it syllables by syllables. (ta … ble) b. onset / rime Example: Listen to this word. pan, Say the first sound in the word (the onset) and then the rest of the word (the rime).( /p/ … an) c. phoneme by phoneme (counting sounds) Example: Listen to the word. Say the word sound by sound. (/s//a//t/) How many sounds do you hear?
The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks a. Initial sound substitution Example: replace the first sound in mat with /s/. (sat) b. final sound substitution Example: replace the last sound in mat with /p/. (map) c. vowel substitution Example: replace the middle sound in map with /o/. (mop) d. syllable deletion Example: Say baker without the ba. (ker)
The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks e. Initial sound deletion Example: Say sun without the /s/. (un) f. final sound deletion Example: Say hit without the /t/. (hi) g. Initial phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say step without the /s/. (tep) h. final phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say best without the /t/. (bes) i. second phoneme in a blend deletion Example: Say frog without the /r/. (fog)
Phonics Rules 1. Sometimes the rules don't work. 2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel. 3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city". 4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist". 5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh". 6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".
Phonics Rules 7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make, gene, kite, rope, and use". 8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.
Phonics Rules 9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my". 10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der".
aeiouyrwl Magic e aaiauayarawala-e eea great long a head [ E ] eeei veil long a their [ E ] eo Leo [io] leopard [ E ] euey hey long a Valley short i erew screw Long u sew long o iie field long e friend [ E ] igh y iri-e ooaoeoioo food long u book [ U ] ou soup long u touch short u oyorow town [a U ] o-e uueui build short i uru-e
The principles of giving phonemic awareness instruction Systematic & Explicit Phonics Step-by step Sequential Teaching Guide Fun and Easy-to-Learn Phonics Multi-sensory teaching approach in Phonics Parental involvement and support (Reference :
Step-by step Sequential Teaching Revision High- Frequency or Tricky words teaching Paired-work Practice Blending Sound Recognition rhyming letter sounds revision (action) distinguish individual sounds (listening) multi-sensory teaching approach e.g. songs, rhymes, poems, actions, big books, miming or tactile games, etc. spelling/dictation onset and rime, medial sounds, whole word (within 3-5 letters) final blending e.g. /s/ /a/ /t/ /sa/ /t/ /s/ /at/ successive blending e.g. ssssaaaat systematic and explicit approach word wall, word-family posters, blending lines, etc. paired reading blending games word bank identifying sounds in words e.g. f-i-sh Look, Cover, Write and Check Say it as it sounds interactive games, word charts, etc. writing tasks e.g. silly sentence, guided poem or rhyme writing, etc.
Practise Phonics Quiz 1.Spelling Games e.g. sound matching, rhyming game, trace a beginning / ending consonant, discrimination of vowels, choose the right word, word unscramble, spelling a word, etc. (http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml ) 2. Nonsense word checking (Ruth Miskin’s Nonsense Word Test ) (http://www.readinga-z.com/phonics/ ) 3. Sight word recognition (Phonics-Web\Spelling and sight recognition in the National Literacy Strategy.htm) 4.Reading Competency Test (http://www.nrrf.org/readtest.html )