12What is Phonics？A way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationshipIt is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language
13Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships /d/d/b/bOne-to-one relationsPhonemeGraphemeOne-to-many relationsbird/З:/nursepain/еІ/dayMany-to-one relations/i:/tea, bear/ε/
14Purposes of Phonics Instruction Establishes grapheme-phoneme relationships and the use of graphophonics cues in reading. This is termed the alphabetic principle.Develops word recognition based on their visual and orthographic features. This process is called decoding.Aids in building reading fluency and automaticity.
15English Phonics Consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m... Vowels: a, e, i, o, u, ea, oa, igh, ie, oo…Consonant blends and digraphs: dr, st, plLong vowels: ea, oa, igh, ie, ite, ate, ube…short vowels: a, e, i, o, uR-controlled vowels: ir, ar, or, er, ur…Vowel digraphs: ee, oe, ai, ay…Diphthongs: ou, oi, oy
16English Syllable Patterns Closed: Short vowel ending with consonante.g. bat, tip, pot, bus, beg...Open: Long vowel, no consonant endinge.g. go, we, he, no...Vowel Digraph: vowel spelled with 2+ letterse.g. ea, ee, ai, ay, ie, oa, ui, ue…C-le at the ends of wordse.g. cycle, apple, able...
17English Syllable Patterns R-controlled vowele.g. ar, er, ir, ur, or (al, au, aw)Vowel-consonant-e long vowel patternVCe :magic e / silent ee.g. ate, ame, ite, ote, ube, use, epe
18Step-by step Sequential Skills Development in Phonics 1. Sound Recognition2. Blending skills Development3. Phonemic manipulation skillse.g. addition, deletion, segmentation4. Basic Syllable Rules e.g. word chunking skill5. Acquisition of Phonics Rules6. Apply in Context e.g.Spelling and Reading
20aiaya-e/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, are short vowels that we use! A vowel is in every word, every word, every word. A vowel is in every word that we read or write. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/. /ai/, /ee/, /ie/, /oa/, /ue/, are long vowels that we use!eeeaie i-eigh yoao-eowueu-eew
21Phonics Sequence 1. Single consonants 2. Short vowels b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, qu2. Short vowels-ab -ib -ob -ed -ub -ad -id -od -eg -ug -ag -ig -og -en -um -am -in -op -et -un -an -ip -ot -ap -it -atThen generate three-letter words; for example, -ab: cab, dab, gab, jab, lab, nab, tab.21
22Phonics Sequence 3. Beginning blends l blends r blends s blends 3-letter blendsbl- br- sc- scr cl- cr- sk- spl fl- dr- sm- spr gl- fr- sn- squ pl- gr- sp- str sl- pr- st- tr- sw-Use the beginning blends below with the list of word families above to generate four-and five-letter words; for example,-ap: clap, flap, slap, snap, trap, scrap, strap22
23Phonics Sequence 4. End blends Mix beginning consonants and beginning blends with the end-blend word families below to generate four- and five-letter words; for example, -and: band, hand, land, sand, bland, gland, brand, grand, strand.L blends N blends T blends Others -all -and* -ant -ass -alm -ang* -art -amp* -ill* -ank* -ast -iss -old* -ing* -ift* -oss -oll* -ink* -irt -omp -ell -int -ist -ess* -elp* -ond* -ort -ump* -ull -ong -ost -end* -eft -end -elt -ung* -est* -unk* -ust*23
24Phonics Sequence 5. Beginning and end digraphs Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words; for example, -ash: bash, cash, dash, gash, hash, lash, mash, rash, clash, slash, brash, crash, trash, smash, stash, splash. (Note that when ch follows a short vowel, a t or r is added before it.)-ash -ish -osh -esh -ush -ath -ith -otch -etch -utch -atch -itch -oth -erch -urch -arch -irth -orch24
25Phonics Sequence 6. Long vowels with silent e Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- to six-letter words;for example,-ade: fade, jade, made, wade, blade, glade, grade, spade, shade-ace -ice -ode -ade -ide -oke -age -ife -ole -ake -ile -one -ale -ine -ope -ame -ite -ote -ape -ive -ate25
26Phonics Sequence 7. Long vowels in two-vowel combinations Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -eek: leek, meek, peek, reek, seek, week, sleek, creek, cheeklong a long e long e long o -aid -each -eed -oach -ail -ead -eek -oad -ain -eak -eel -oam -ait -eam -eem -oan -ay -ean -eep -oat eat -eet26
27Phonics Sequence 8. Miscellaneous vowel combinations Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four-to six-letter words; for example, -ook: book, cook, hook, look, nook, took, brook, crook, shook-oil -ook -ound -oin -oom -our -oint -oon -ouse -oist -oop -out -oot27
28Phonics Sequence 9. Vowels controlled by r, l, and w Mix beginning consonants, beginning blends, and beginning digraphs with the word families below to generate four- and five-letter words; for example, -ark: bark, dark, hark, lark, mark, park, spark, shark.-ar -ird -ald -aw -ard -irt -alk -awn -arm -or -eld -ew -arn -ord -elt -ow -art -ork -ild -own -er -orn -old -ern -ir -ur28
29Scheme of P.1 Phonics Short Vowels short a, short e, short i, short o, short uTotal:47 Lessonsper school yearConsonantsb, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, ck, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, quWord Familiesat, am, ap, an, ank, ad, amp, ack, and, ang, in, it, ip, ig, id, ib, im, ick, ink, ill, ing, int, ot, og, op, ock, od, ob, ox, ost, ong, et, en, ent, ed, eg, est, end, elt, ell, um, ump, ut, ud, ug, ub, ust, uck, ung, up29
30Scheme of P.2 Phonics or, ur, ir, er Blends S-Blends, R-Blends, L-blendssp, st, sl, sm, fl, bl, cl, tr, gr, cr, etcTotal:30 Lessonsper school yearLong VowelsLong a, Long e, Long i, Long o, Long uR-Controlled Vowelsor, ur, ir, erVowel Digraphsai, ay, ea, oa, ie, ue, ee, oeConsonant Digraphssh, ch, th,Diphthongsoi, oy, ou, ow, al, au, aw, oo, ew,othersigh,y,30
31Five Basic types of phonological awareness tasks The ability to hear rhymes and alliterationThe ability to do oddity tasksThe ability to orally blend wordsThe ability to orally segment wordsThe ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks(Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
32The ability to hear rhymes and alliteration Example: I once saw a cat, sitting next toa dog. I once saw a bat, sittingnext to a frog.b. alliterationExample: Six snakes sell sodas and snacks.c. assonanceExample: The leaf, the bean, the peach-allwere within reach.(Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
33The ability to do oddity tasks rhymeExample: Which word does not rhyme:cat, sat, pig?b. beginning consonantsExample: Which two words begin with thesame sound: man, sat, sick?c. ending consonantsExample: Which two words end with thesame sound: man, sat, ten?(Reference : Explicit Systematic Phonics)
34The ability to do oddity tasks d. medial sounds (long vowels)Example: Which word does not have thesame middle sound:take, late, feete. medial sounds (short vowels)Example: Which two words have thesame middle sound: top, cat, pan?f. medial consonantssame middle sound: kitten,missing, lesson?
35The ability to orally blend words a. syllablesExample: Listen to these word parts. Saythe word as a whole. ta…ble What’s the word?b. onset / rimethe word as a whole. /p/…an ---What’s the word?c. phoneme by phonemethe word as a whole. /s//a//t/ ---
36The ability to orally segment words a. syllablesExample: Listen to this word. table, Sayit syllables by syllables. (ta…ble)b. onset / rimeExample: Listen to this word. pan, Saythe first sound in the word(the onset) and then the rest ofthe word (the rime).( /p/…an)c. phoneme by phoneme (counting sounds)Example: Listen to the word. Say the wordsound by sound. (/s//a//t/)How many sounds do you hear?
37The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks a. Initial sound substitutionExample: replace the first sound in matwith /s/. (sat)b. final sound substitutionExample: replace the last sound in matwith /p/. (map)c. vowel substitutionExample: replace the middle sound in mapwith /o/. (mop)d. syllable deletionExample: Say baker without the ba. (ker)
38The ability to do phonemic manipulation tasks e. Initial sound deletionExample: Say sun without the /s/. (un)f. final sound deletionExample: Say hit without the /t/. (hi)g. Initial phoneme in a blend deletionExample: Say step without the /s/. (tep)h. final phoneme in a blend deletionExample: Say best without the /t/. (bes)i. second phoneme in a blend deletionExample: Say frog without the /r/. (fog)
39Phonics Rules 1. Sometimes the rules don't work. 2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of"s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of"j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one newsound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as onesound and one letter and are never separated. Examples:"ch,sh,th,ph and wh". 6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only onevowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish,spot, luck".39
40Phonics Rules7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is asignal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples:"make, gene, kite, rope, and use".8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel isusually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat,boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don'tfollow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blendtogether to create a single new sound. The diphthongsare: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.40
41Phonics Rules9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel,that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I,o/pen, u/nit, and my".10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable,that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short."R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like"er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar,or/der".41
42a e i o u y r w l ai au ay ar aw al a-e ea ee ei eo eu ey er ew ie igh Magic eaiauayarawala-eeagreatlong ahead[E]eeeiveiltheireoLeo[io]leopardeueyheyValleyshort ierewscrewLong usewlong oiefieldlong efriendighiri-eoaoeoioofoodlong ubook[U]ousouptouchshort uoyorowtown[aU]o-eueuibuilduru-e
43The principles of giving phonemic awareness instruction Systematic & Explicit PhonicsStep-by step Sequential Teaching GuideFun and Easy-to-Learn PhonicsMulti-sensory teaching approach in PhonicsParental involvement and support(Reference :
44Step-by step Sequential Teaching multi-sensory teaching approach e.g. songs, rhymes, poems, actions, big books, miming or tactile games, etc.rhymingdistinguish individual sounds (listening)letter sounds revision (action)spelling/dictation onset and rime, medial sounds, whole word (within 3-5 letters)systematic and explicit approachidentifying sounds in words e.g. f-i-shinteractive games, word charts, etc.final blending e.g. /s/ /a/ /t//sa/ /t//s/ /at/Say it as it soundsLook, Cover, Write and Checksuccessive blending e.g. ssssaaaatword bankpaired readingword wall, word-family posters, blending lines, etc.writing tasks e.g. silly sentence, guided poem or rhyme writing, etc.blending games
45Practise Phonics QuizSpelling Games e.g. sound matching, rhyming game, trace a beginning / ending consonant, discrimination of vowels, choose the right word, word unscramble, spelling a word, etc.(http://www.dyslexia.org/spelling_rules.shtml )2. Nonsense word checking(Ruth Miskin’s Nonsense Word Test )(http://www.readinga-z.com/phonics/ )3. Sight word recognition(Phonics-Web\Spelling and sight recognition in the National Literacy Strategy.htm)Reading Competency Test(http://www.nrrf.org/readtest.html )