DEVELOPMENT OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS THROUGH A SYSTEMATIC PHONIC PROGRAMME USING MULTISENSORY APPROACH TEACHERS’ WORKSHOP DAY 2
The teaching is divided into five basic skills: Learning the letter sounds Blending for reading Sight words / Tricky Words Identifying the sounds in the words for writing Learning the letter, word & sentence formation
WHAT IS BLENDING? Blending is the process of saying the sounds in a word and then running them together to make a word. Example: ‘c’ – ‘a’ – ‘t’ is cat Blending is a technique that children need to learn and practice.
PRACTISING BLENDING WITH CHILDREN To start with the teacher should sound the word and see if children can hear it. The sounds must be said quickly emphasising on the first sound for the children to hear the word. Example: b – u – s
Once the children can hear the word, when the teacher says the letter sound, they are ready to try saying the sounds themselves and to listen for the word.
HOW CAN I PRACTISE ‘BLENDING’ WITH MY CHILDREN For blending, children should know the letter sounds well enough. As soon as they see a letter, the sound should come automatically to them. If they pause to think, they loose track of the word. So, it is essential to REVISE the sounds regularly with flash cards, actions and letter games.
For blending words with digraphs, children should understand that the two letters say one sound. Example: The word ‘rain’ has only three sounds.
The way the letter sounds are emphasised are important. The emphasis should be on the first letter. Example: d – o – g
INTRODUCTION OF CVC WORDS AND WORD FAMILIES Let us consider the example of words under the ‘at’ family
m c r h at mat cat rat hat The children join the beginning letter sound to form the word.
The teacher can weave a story using all the ‘at’ words in order to make the children understand in context.
Other CVC words and word families can be introduced in a similar fashion.
OBJECTIVES & LEARNING OUTCOMES Identify the word after blending the sounds Blend the sounds to form a word Able to blend the sounds and read the two letter and three letter CVC words and word families Able to understand the meaning of these CVC words and use them in a sentence. Able to read words with digraph – ai, oa, ie, oo, ee etc
WHAT ARE SIGHT WORDS? Some words cannot be sounded phonetically. So we teach them as sight words. These are high frequency words, which occur often when reading a story. Children look at the word carefully and read the word. It is based on the principle of visual memory. Children have to regularly practise them in order to be fluent in reading.
have now that said like this then there with bedowho EXAMPLES OF SIGHT WORDS
When reading a story, all the sight words should be mastered first.
OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES Read High Frequency words Recognise and read sight words at a glance Read the words in a sentence
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS The ability to hear the sounds is called PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. The main phonic skill for writing is to start with a spoken word, then listen, identify and write the sounds in that word.
For example, the word ‘dog’, if you listen you can hear the sounds d-o-g. If the children know how to write these sounds, they can write the words without help. It is opposite to the skill needed for blending.
The teacher shows a picture of a ‘bag’. She asks, “What is the first sound you hear when you say ‘bag’”? The children answer: ‘b’ The teacher writes ‘b’ next to the picture.
She asks, “bag - What sound do you hear after ‘b’?” The children answer: ‘a’ The teacher writes ‘a’ next to ‘b’.
The teacher repeats the word, this time stressing on the last letter – ‘g’. She asks, “What sound do you hear after ‘a’?” The children answer: ‘g’ The teacher writes ‘g’ next to ‘a’.
This word building should be done regularly in order to help children get used to listening to all the sounds in a word in sequence from left to right.
-b-e-h- cra_h_n_at The children should be taught to listen the sounds in the words and identify -- the beginning sound -- the middle sound -- the ending sound
Is there an ‘s’ in ‘nest’? If yes, where : in the beginning, middle or end?
The aim is for the children to hear the sound and know where it comes in a word – beginning, middle or end.
OBJECTIVES & LEARNING OUTCOMES Decoding Words Identify the beginning, middle and ending sound in words Hearing the sounds in a given word and writing to form the word ie. able to take dictation of the two letter and three letter words.
By teaching the letter sounds, sight words and blending techniques, children understand that there is a code to reading and that most words can be worked out by blending. This knowledge fascinates them and their confidence grows.
The children are exposed to phonic story books for each vowel having controlled vocabulary with CVC and sight words.
The children are exposed to rebus reading. There was a whose name was Tom. He lived with his and in a small near the. Tom had a pet.
THE FONT WE USE.. The font we use is the Sassoon Infant Typeface. This font was developed by Rosemary Sassoon, assisted by Adrian Williams. The advantage of this font is that it has exit strokes to help in joined up writing.
METHODOLOGY: LETTER WRITING IN RED AND BLUE LINE BOOK
The letters are grouped according to the patterns to enable the children to get the formation correct.
Children can be helped in understanding the formation with specific instructions. For eg: for the letter a, the teacher instructs start from the dot on the top blue line, go round, up, come back on the same line and give it a small tail.
OBJECTIVES & LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand Left to right Progression Understand top to bottom direction Position paper correctly in order to write Trace over patterns for writing readiness Write the letters a – z between red and blue lines Able to take dictation of lower case letters Able to match upper and lower case letters Able to develop the return sweep skill
OBJECTIVES & LEARNING OUTCOMES Able to write and take dictation of upper case letters Able to write two letter words and digraphs Write CVC words and word families Understand that letters in a word are close together but without bumping Able to take dictation of CVC words
METHODOLOGY: USE OF FLASH CARDS The teacher uses flash cards to explain how a sentence is formed. Theisred. apple
METHODOLOGY: USE OF THE BLACK BOARD The teacher shows the formation of sentences on the blackboard.
METHODOLOGY: SENTENCE TRANSCRIPTION Children copy sentences from a book or from the black board. The teacher explains that a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. While writing a sentence leave a finger space between words.
METHODOLOGY: MATCH SENTENCE TO THE PICTURE The cat is sleeping. The girl is drinking water. The boy is writing.
Children make sentences with the help of pictures. METHODOLOGY: USE OF PICTURES The boy is reading a book.
METHODOLOGY: PICTURE COMPOSITION WITH HELPING WORDS
METHODOLOGY: MAKING SENTENCES WITH A GIVEN WORD/OBJECT bagI have a red bag. I like my red bag.
OBJECTIVES & LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand left to right progression. Understand top to bottom direction. Positions paper correctly in order to write. Start the sentence with a capital letter and end with a full stop. While writing a sentence, leave a finger space between words. Observe and comprehend a given picture. Able to construct a sentence with simple words/objects. Able to write three or four sentences on a given picture.