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Dr. Nancy Sue Laminack Literacy and Evangelism International.

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2 Dr. Nancy Sue Laminack Literacy and Evangelism International

3 PHONICS  Teaches how to pronounce words by using Individual components.  For some learners the phonics approach works best. WHOLE LANGUAGE  Relies on reading comprehension and context  Relies on memorizing the sounds of words  Works well for learners who learn patterns intuitively

4 1.Independent Level ( can read without help from teacher) 2. Instructional Level (can read with help from the teacher) 3. Frustration Level ( text is too difficult and reader can not get meaning from the text)

5  Advocate a combination of both phonics instruction and whole language.  Why? Each has its drawbacks when used exclusively.  When combined: The two theories complement each other  Firm Foundation: Phonics Based  Language Experience: Whole Language Based

6  Consonants:  Blends  Diagraphs  Trigraphs  Vowels  Long  Short  Schwa  R-Controlled  Dipthongs

7  Phonics rules teach how to pronounce English words.  Learner must be taught meaning of words.  Learner acquires meaning when given text suitable to his or her current understanding of pronunciation.

8 PHONIC RULE: EXAMPLE  Two vowels go together:  First one does the talking (it says its name)  The second one does the walking (it is silent)  Rain  Seed  boat EXCEPTIONS TO RULE:  Words such as:  Maul  Boil  Steak  Height SO REMEMBER THESE RULES ARE GENERALIZED BECAUSE ENGLISH IS BORROWED FROM MANY DIFFERENT LANGUAGES.

9  Sometimes rules do not work  Every syllable in every word must have a vowel  /c/ followed by “e, i, or y” has the soft sound as if it is /s/: central, city and cyst  /g/ followed by “e, i, or y” has the soft sound as if it is /j/: gem, gym, and gist  A consonant digraph is two consonants joined together and form one sound  ( ch, sh, th, ph, and wh)

10  When syllable ends in a consonant and has one vowel, the vowel is short (fat, bed, fish, spot, and luck)  When syllable ends in a silent /e/ that is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. (make, gene, kite, rope, and use) When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. (pain, eat, boat, rescue)

11  Diphthongs do not follow this rule. The diphthongs are: oi, oy, ou, ow, au, aw, oo, and many others. These vowels blend together to create a single new sound as in: boy and out  When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. ▪ ( me, I, he, my)  When a vowel is followed by an /r/ that vowel is “r-controlled”  ( ar, or,er,ir, and ur usually sound like er

12  Words that do not follow the rules  Words must be memorized  Words are often called “outlaw words or rule breakers”  Examples: the, are, you, to, do, who, what, was, whom, again, against, says, said, been, of, from, son month, front, some love, other, money and among.

13  A sound made by the free movement of air through the mouth.  The vowels are: a, e, i, o, and u  Each vowel has three sounds: A long sound, a short sound and the schwa sound.  The long sound is the same as its name.  The schwa is the sound of a vowel in an unstressed syllable.(∂) about, item, gallop, and circus

14 LONG VOWEL SOUNDS  (ā) as in ape, snail, ache, train  (ē) as in eat, needle, teach  (ī) as in eye, cry, tile, violin  (ō) as in oh, domino, pillow, boat, toe  (ū) as in you, salute, goose SHORT VOWEL SOUNDS  ( ă ) as in at, apple, taxi, tackle  (ĕ) as in elm, egg, dentist, den  (ĭ) as in it, gift, hit, indian  (ŏ) as in hop, chop, pop, octopus  (ŭ) as in up, cut, subtract, umbrella

15  (ar) sound as in: car, guitar, Arthur  ( ar) sound as in: care, bear, mare, scare, aquarium  *(ur) sound as in: fur, burn, turnip  *(ir) sound as in: bird  (or) sound as in: for, manor, observatory, author, orchard, fork  * (er) sound as in: her, butter, cutter, and mother * Same Sound

16 Y  may substitute for a vowel  May be the only vowel in a word or syllable  Such as in:  (gym, why, my, try, baby) W  May substitute for a vowel  It will always follow:  A (as in: paw)  E (as in: new)  O (as in: grow)

17 Consonants  Some Consonants Have Multiple Sounds: C2 1.can make the hard sound /k/as in: cat, coat, cut, music 2. the /s/ soft sound as in: city, cent, cycle G2 1. can make the hard /g/ sound as in: get, gate, got, gun 2. and the soft /j/ sound as in: gem, gentle, giraffe Speech Sounds (phonemes) Made by partially or completely blocking the vocal air stream Letters (graphemes) that represent such sounds. Most consonants have one sound

18 S2 1.can make the /s/ sound as in: sit 2.and the /z/ sound as in: has X3 can make the sound of: 1. /ks/ as in “box” 2./gs/ as in “exact” 3. /z/ as in “xylophone, xerox

19  Q 2 1. Kw queen 2. K critique “q” is always followed by a “u” and another vowel Y3 1. As in baby 2. As in my 3. As in Yellow

20  “b” as in bat  Hard “c” as in cat  Soft “c” as in city  “d” as in dog  “f” as in fat  Hard “g” as in goat  Soft “g” as in gem  “h” as in hat  “j” as in jam  “k” as in kite  “l” as in lap  “m” as in mad  “n” as in nap  “p” as in park  “q” as in queen  “r” as in race  “s” as in sit  “s” as in has

21  “t” as in tap  “v” as in van  “w” as in wet (can also act as a vowel)  “x” as in box exact and xylophone  “y” as in yet (can also act as a vowel)  “z” as in zip

22 Consonant Blends

23  “bl” as in blend  “cl” as in class  “fl” as in flake  “gl” as in glory  “pl” as in play  “sl” as in sloppy Hear Both Sounds

24 “R” BLENDS  “br” as in brown  “cr” as in crash  “dr” as in drive  “fr” as in freedom  “gr” as in green  “pr” as in pray “S” BLENDS  “sl” as in slogan  “sm” as in smart  “sn” as in snail  “sp” as in special  “st” as in stop

25  “shr” as in shroud  “spl” as in splash  “spr” as in spring  “squ” as in squid  “str” as in strap  “thr” as in throw

26 DIGRAPHS  “ch” as in church  ‘ck” as in chick  “ff” as in cliff  “gh” as in ghost  “gn” as in gnarled  “kn” as in knife  “ll” as in wall  “ng” as in fang  “nk” as in sink ONE SOUND: TWO LETTERS:  “ph” as in phone  “qu” as in quick  “sh” as in shark  “ss” as in floss  “th” as in bath  “th” as in this  “wh” as in which  “wr” as in write  “zz” as in fuzz

27  Trigraphs One Sound Three Letters  “chr” as in chrome  “dge” ad in partridge  “tch as in catch

28  K before n as in know  G before n as in gnat  P before n as in pneumonia  P before s as in psychology  W before r as in write  T before ch as in catch  D before ge as in hedge  T between sl as in whistle  H after k as in khaki  H after r as in rhyme  N after m as in column  Y following a as in may, bay, lay, day, gay, hay,jay,pay

29 Consonants Consonants Blends Consonants Digraphs Consonants Trigraphs Vowels Long Vowels Short Vowels R-controlled vowels Schwa Vowels Diphthongs Vowels

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