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ENDEMIC DISEASES Group 6 (NIPRD Group) TASKS. WHAT IS ENDEMIC DISEASES? Endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser.

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Presentation on theme: "ENDEMIC DISEASES Group 6 (NIPRD Group) TASKS. WHAT IS ENDEMIC DISEASES? Endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENDEMIC DISEASES Group 6 (NIPRD Group) TASKS

2 WHAT IS ENDEMIC DISEASES? Endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location. Endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location.

3 TEN EXAMPLES OF ENDEMIC DISEASES IN OUR COMMUNITIES 1. Malaria 2. Poliomyelitis 3. Sickle Cell Anemia. 4. Typhoid fever 5. Schistosomiasis 6. Meningococcal meningitis 7. Guinea worm 8. Cholera 9. Elephantiasis 10. Measles

4 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

5 What Is Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease (SCD). It is a serious genetic blood disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. It is a serious genetic blood disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. “Sickle-shaped” means that the red blood cells are shaped like a crescent. “Sickle-shaped” means that the red blood cells are shaped like a crescent. A normal red blood cell is shaped as a round donut while the abnormal red blood cell has a “ C “ form. A normal red blood cell is shaped as a round donut while the abnormal red blood cell has a “ C “ form.

6 What Is Sickle Cell Anemia? (Cont.) The condition causes the production of abnormal hemoglobin that contains portions that stick together after the release of oxygen. The condition causes the production of abnormal hemoglobin that contains portions that stick together after the release of oxygen. This phenomenon produces stiff, sickle shaped red blood cells that do not flow freely through blood vessels. This phenomenon produces stiff, sickle shaped red blood cells that do not flow freely through blood vessels. These sickle shaped cells create clogs in the blood vessels, which prevent the flow of normal hemoglobin and oxygen around the body and result in severe pain or crisis. These sickle shaped cells create clogs in the blood vessels, which prevent the flow of normal hemoglobin and oxygen around the body and result in severe pain or crisis.

7 Sickle Cell Anemia Of an estimated 200,000 children born every year with the disorder in Africa, 150,000 of them are in Nigeria. Of an estimated 200,000 children born every year with the disorder in Africa, 150,000 of them are in Nigeria. A total 100,000 such children die from sickle cell- related complications every year in Nigeria, a number equivalent to 8% of the country's total annual infant death. A total 100,000 such children die from sickle cell- related complications every year in Nigeria, a number equivalent to 8% of the country's total annual infant death. Nigeria is ranked tenth among nations where sickle cell is endemic, causing significant disability, morbidity and mortality. Nigeria is ranked tenth among nations where sickle cell is endemic, causing significant disability, morbidity and mortality.

8 Sickle Cell Trait (carrier state) The person who is carrying the defective gene in their system is called a carrier, but also have some normal hemoglobin (HbA) as well. The person who is carrying the defective gene in their system is called a carrier, but also have some normal hemoglobin (HbA) as well. The person with trait is usually without symptoms of the disease, but mild anemia may occur. The person with trait is usually without symptoms of the disease, but mild anemia may occur.

9 What causes Sickle Cell anemia? Sickle cell is an inherited blood disorder, a result of both parents being carriers and each giving off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception. Sickle cell is an inherited blood disorder, a result of both parents being carriers and each giving off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin (SS) - one from each parent. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin (SS) - one from each parent. Sickle hemoglobin causes red blood cells to develop a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky. Sickle hemoglobin causes red blood cells to develop a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky.

10 What is the Source of Sickle Cell anemia? Both parents being carriers and each giving off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception. Both parents being carriers and each giving off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin—one from each parent. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin—one from each parent.

11 How is Sickle Cell anemia Transmitted? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. Inherited diseases are passed from parents to children through genes. Inherited diseases are passed from parents to children through genes. Each parent being a carrier give off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception to some of their offspring Each parent being a carrier give off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception to some of their offspring The child with sickle cell anemia has 2 genes for sickle hemoglobin and this causes the disease.. The child with sickle cell anemia has 2 genes for sickle hemoglobin and this causes the disease..

12 How is Sickle Cell anemia Transmitted? (Cont.) Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. Inherited diseases are passed from parents to children through genes. Inherited diseases are passed from parents to children through genes. Each parent being a carrier give off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception to some of their offspring Each parent being a carrier give off the abnormal S gene at the time of conception to some of their offspring The child with sickle cell anemia has 2 genes for sickle hemoglobin (SS genes) and this causes the disease. The child with sickle cell anemia has 2 genes for sickle hemoglobin (SS genes) and this causes the disease.

13 For each pregnancy there is: The Family Connection - Sickle Cell Trait: How It Works If one parent has Sickle Trait (AS) and the other parent has the usual hemoglobin (AA): If one parent has Sickle Trait (AS) and the other parent has the usual hemoglobin (AA): will inherit the trait (AS) and i. A 50% chance that the child will inherit the trait (AS) and ii. a 50% chance that the child will have the usual kind of hemoglobin (AA) (AA) How is Sickle Cell anemia Transmitted? (Cont.) iii. None of the children will have sickle cell disease.

14 i. a 25% chance of inheriting the usual hemoglobin (AA), If both parents have Sickle Cell Trait (AS): If both parents have Sickle Cell Trait (AS): How is Sickle Cell anemia Transmitted? (Cont.) The Family Connection - Sickle Cell Trait: How It Works For each pregnancy there is: ii. a 50% chance of inheriting Sickle Cell Trait (AS), and iii. a 25% risk of inheriting Sickle Cell Disease (SS). iv. These chances are the same for every pregnancy

15 Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia? The signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia are different in each person. The signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia are different in each person. Some people have mild symptoms. Others have very severe symptoms and are often hospitalized for treatment. Some people have mild symptoms. Others have very severe symptoms and are often hospitalized for treatment. The major symptoms include: The major symptoms include: fatigue, fatigue, breathlessness, breathlessness, rapid heart rate, rapid heart rate, delayed growth and puberty, delayed growth and puberty, susceptibility to infections ulcers on the lower legs (in adolescents and adults) susceptibility to infections ulcers on the lower legs (in adolescents and adults) jaundice, jaundice, attacks of abdominal pain, attacks of abdominal pain, weakness, weakness, joint pain, joint pain, fever, fever, vomiting, vomiting, chest pain, chest pain, other pain crisis, other pain crisis, other features other features

16 Prevention & Control of Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia can only occur when two people who carry sickle cell trait have a child together Sickle cell anemia can only occur when two people who carry sickle cell trait have a child together Sickle Cell Anemia awareness campaign should be organized regularly within the community Sickle Cell Anemia awareness campaign should be organized regularly within the community Genetic counseling is recommended for all carriers of sickle cell trait. Genetic counseling is recommended for all carriers of sickle cell trait.

17 Prevention & Control of Sickle Cell Anemia (Cont.) Education for Sickle Cell Anemia is necessary and very vital in this society so as to prevent further increase of people living with Sickle Cell Disease. Education for Sickle Cell Anemia is necessary and very vital in this society so as to prevent further increase of people living with Sickle Cell Disease. People with sickle cell traits i.e. carriers should avoid marrying each other in order to avoid having children with sickle cell anemia. People with sickle cell traits i.e. carriers should avoid marrying each other in order to avoid having children with sickle cell anemia. The sufferer should be properly cared for. The sufferer should be properly cared for. Bone marrow transplant has been effective in curing some persons with sickle cell disease. Bone marrow transplant has been effective in curing some persons with sickle cell disease.

18 Preventing crises of sickle cell anemia  It is important to maintain good oxygen levels and to prevent dehydration.  The following steps can help prevent a sickle cell crisis: Avoid strenuous activities, Avoid strenuous activities, stress, stress, smoking, smoking, high-altitudes, high-altitudes, non pressurized flights, and non pressurized flights, and other events that reduce your oxygen level other events that reduce your oxygen level Always have plenty of fluids with him/herself Always have plenty of fluids with him/herself Avoid too much sun exposure. Avoid too much sun exposure.

19 Preventing infections People with sickle cell anemia need to keep their immunizations up to date to prevent illness. People with sickle cell anemia need to keep their immunizations up to date to prevent illness. Some patients may receive antibiotics to prevent infections. Some patients may receive antibiotics to prevent infections.

20 Prevention & Control of Sickle Cell Anemia There is no cure for Sickle Cell Anemia, but with every discovery and intervention, sufficient counseling and follow-up care, along with current advances in finding a cure, this disease can be managed and controlled, and patients can lead comparatively normal lives. There is no cure for Sickle Cell Anemia, but with every discovery and intervention, sufficient counseling and follow-up care, along with current advances in finding a cure, this disease can be managed and controlled, and patients can lead comparatively normal lives.

21 National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja Contributions of In the Control of Sickle Cell Anemia

22 The Institute was established under the Science and Technology Act of 1980 with the primary objective of developing drugs, biological products and pharmaceutical raw materials from indigenous resources. The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja,

23 The Director General /CEO of NIPRD is Professor Karniyus Gamaniel The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, NIPRD Mandate is: The advancement of indigenous pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to enhance development and commercialization of pharmaceutical raw materials, drugs and biological products that has long been recognized.

24 VISION: The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, To build a Center of Excellence in Research and Development of phytomedicines, pharmaceutical and biological products, drugs and diagnostics towards improving the health and well- being of mankind.

25 MISSION: The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, To apply appropriate modern science and technological resources to stimulate local production of drugs through effective collaboration with the industry and experts within and outside Nigeria; To apply appropriate modern science and technological resources to stimulate local production of drugs through effective collaboration with the industry and experts within and outside Nigeria; Develop herbal and phytomedicines to pilot stage for commercialisation; Develop herbal and phytomedicines to pilot stage for commercialisation; Develop quality standards for phytomedicines, drugs and diagnostics for the purpose of control and regulation; Provide quality assurance services on all drugs used in healthcare delivery; Develop quality standards for phytomedicines, drugs and diagnostics for the purpose of control and regulation; Provide quality assurance services on all drugs used in healthcare delivery; Provide safety data and essential information on herbal and other drugs towards achieving self-sufficiency in the production and control of essential drugs in such a way that would guarantee the overall health of Nigerians and mankind in general. Provide safety data and essential information on herbal and other drugs towards achieving self-sufficiency in the production and control of essential drugs in such a way that would guarantee the overall health of Nigerians and mankind in general.

26 FUNCTIONS: The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, Undertake research and development work on drugs, biological products including vaccines and pharmaceutical raw materials from indigenous natural resources and by synthesis using appropriate science and technology methodologies. Undertake research and development work on drugs, biological products including vaccines and pharmaceutical raw materials from indigenous natural resources and by synthesis using appropriate science and technology methodologies. Conduct appropriate investigations and consequent applications in the areas of evaluation, preservation, purification, standardization, safety and rational utilization of traditional medicine. Conduct appropriate investigations and consequent applications in the areas of evaluation, preservation, purification, standardization, safety and rational utilization of traditional medicine. Develop methodologies for quality assessment of biological products, orthodox and herbal medicines including their raw materials. Develop methodologies for quality assessment of biological products, orthodox and herbal medicines including their raw materials. Serve as reference centre for research work on the biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, storage and stability of imported and locally manufactured drugs and biological products. Serve as reference centre for research work on the biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, storage and stability of imported and locally manufactured drugs and biological products.

27 FUNCTIONS (Cont.): The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, Conduct research and development work into pharmaceutical biotechnology, nutrition, cosmetics and environmental science for improved quality of life and the conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Conduct research and development work into pharmaceutical biotechnology, nutrition, cosmetics and environmental science for improved quality of life and the conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Establish and operate a quality assurance laboratory for pharmaceutical raw materials and products. Establish and operate a quality assurance laboratory for pharmaceutical raw materials and products. Promote and sponsor staff development; through training courses, workshops, and fellowship within and outside Nigeria. Promote and sponsor the local development and production of drugs, vaccines pharmaceutical machinery, devices and accessories. Promote and sponsor staff development; through training courses, workshops, and fellowship within and outside Nigeria. Promote and sponsor the local development and production of drugs, vaccines pharmaceutical machinery, devices and accessories. Promote the pilot production unit of the Institute into a limited liability business venture. Promote the pilot production unit of the Institute into a limited liability business venture. Transfer pharmaceutical products and machinery technologies to private sector industries, and render consultancy and extension services to such and other organizations. Transfer pharmaceutical products and machinery technologies to private sector industries, and render consultancy and extension services to such and other organizations.

28 FUNCTIONS (Cont.): The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, Establish and maintain relevant laboratories, clinics, medicinal plant gardens in strategic ecological zones of Nigeria as may be' necessary for the performance of the functions. Establish and maintain relevant laboratories, clinics, medicinal plant gardens in strategic ecological zones of Nigeria as may be' necessary for the performance of the functions. Compile and publish relevant data resulting from the performance of the functions of the Institute. Compile and publish relevant data resulting from the performance of the functions of the Institute. Sponsor such national and international conferences, workshops, and symposia, as may be considered appropriate. Sponsor such national and international conferences, workshops, and symposia, as may be considered appropriate. Patent and register new products and processes with appropriate national bodies, international organizations, and selected countries. Patent and register new products and processes with appropriate national bodies, international organizations, and selected countries. Enter into commercial and other appropriate agreements with relevant national and multinational corporations regarding the marketing and utilization of the Institute's products and services. Enter into commercial and other appropriate agreements with relevant national and multinational corporations regarding the marketing and utilization of the Institute's products and services. Liaise with higher institutions, government organizations, multinational bodies and other relevant establishments within and outside Nigeria in the pursuance of the mandate of the Institute. Liaise with higher institutions, government organizations, multinational bodies and other relevant establishments within and outside Nigeria in the pursuance of the mandate of the Institute.

29 FUNCTIONS (Cont.): The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, Liaise with higher institutions, government organizations, multinational bodies and other relevant establishments within and outside Nigeria in the pursuance of the mandate of the Institute. Liaise with higher institutions, government organizations, multinational bodies and other relevant establishments within and outside Nigeria in the pursuance of the mandate of the Institute. Establish and develop drug information system, collate and synthesize relevant research information for drug manufacturing industries and research centres. Establish and develop drug information system, collate and synthesize relevant research information for drug manufacturing industries and research centres. Among Projects Undertaken by the Institute are: Screening of medicinal plants for activity against tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Among Projects Undertaken by the Institute are: Screening of medicinal plants for activity against tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. National CD4 baseline counts study. National CD4 baseline counts study. Development of phytomedicine for the management of sickle cell disease. Development of phytomedicine for the management of sickle cell disease. Development of anti-malaria phytomedicine. Development of anti-malaria phytomedicine. Development of an immune booster, a phytomedicine for the management of persons with HIV/AIDS. Development of an immune booster, a phytomedicine for the management of persons with HIV/AIDS.

30 Contribution of NIPRD to the Control of Sickle Cell Anemia The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan or NICOSAN™ - a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia. Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan or NICOSAN™ - a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia. The development of this novel drug from traditional medicinal knowledge serves as a means to improve public health. The development of this novel drug from traditional medicinal knowledge serves as a means to improve public health.

31 Contribution of NIPRD to the Control of Sickle Cell Anemia The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, NICOSAN™ is a non - toxic, phytopharmaceutical product composed of extracts from four tropical plants; seeds, stems, fruits and leaves. Each plant is indispensable in the creation of NICOSAN™. NICOSAN™ is a non - toxic, phytopharmaceutical product composed of extracts from four tropical plants; seeds, stems, fruits and leaves. Each plant is indispensable in the creation of NICOSAN™. Outside of Africa the medicine is known as HEMOXIN™ and was previously identified as Niprisan and Nix Outside of Africa the medicine is known as HEMOXIN™ and was previously identified as Niprisan and Nix Some of these plants are cultivated within Nigeria, while others are found in the wild both within and outside of Nigeria. Some of these plants are cultivated within Nigeria, while others are found in the wild both within and outside of Nigeria.

32 Contribution of NIPRD to the Control of Sickle Cell Anemia The National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Abuja, NICOSAN™ is a safe and efficacious phytomedicine for the management of SCD. It may have just paved the way for ending the misery and pain of millions suffering with SCD NICOSAN™ is a safe and efficacious phytomedicine for the management of SCD. It may have just paved the way for ending the misery and pain of millions suffering with SCD The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups.

33 Thank you

34 REFERENCES newborn/scell/how.htm %3A%2F%2Fallafrica.com%2Fstories%2F html&ei=qnYETvqCLo6WOqjM4aI B&usg=AFQjCNERWQcCszhRKLJFyywBpTBCkP96Pg %3A%2F%2Fallafrica.com%2Fstories%2F html&ei=qnYETvqCLo6WOqjM4aI B&usg=AFQjCNERWQcCszhRKLJFyywBpTBCkP96Pg managementndm/programme-components/sickle-cell-disease.html managementndm/programme-components/sickle-cell-disease.html e.html e.html


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