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Los Adjetivos. Adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun or pronoun they modify. Julio es un hombre desenvuelto. –Julio is an outgoing man.

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Presentation on theme: "Los Adjetivos. Adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun or pronoun they modify. Julio es un hombre desenvuelto. –Julio is an outgoing man."— Presentation transcript:

1 Los Adjetivos

2 Adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun or pronoun they modify. Julio es un hombre desenvuelto. –Julio is an outgoing man. Mis amigos son dichosos. –My friends are happy.

3 Adjectives whose masculine form ends in -o have a feminine form ending in -a. El profesor está afligido. –The teacher is upset. La estudiante también está afligida. –The student is also upset.

4 Adjectives that end in -e and most adjectives that end in a consonant have the same masculine and feminine forms. Rigoberta Menchú es una mujer valiente. –R. M. is a courageous woman. Alejandro Sanz es un hombre sensible. –A. S. is sensitive man. Ayer conocimos a un abogado muy capaz. –We met a very capable lawyer yesterday. Violeta Chamorro fue una presidenta tenaz. –V. C. was a tenacious president.

5 Generally, adjectives follow the same rules as nouns to form the plural. mexicano >>>> mexicanos tenaz >>>> tenaces inteligente >>>> inteligentes trabajador >>>> trabajadores

6 Adjectives of nationality that end in a consonant add -a to form feminine. If the adjective ends in -e or -a, the singular has only one form. Adjectives of nationality are not capitalized in Spanish. El comediante español era muy bueno. –The Spanish comedian was very good. La actriz española es maravillosa. –The Spanish actress is marvelous. Óscar Arias es costarricense. –O. A. is Costa Rican. Tengo un amigo vietnamita. –I have a Vietnamese friend.

7 Limiting adjectives (numerals, unstressed possessives, indefinites, demonstratives, interrogatives) usually precede the noun or pronoun they modify, and descriptive or differentiating adjectives (size, color, shape, nationality, etc) are generally placed after the noun. Mi novio es cariñoso. –My boyfriend is affectionate. Julia es una mujer inquieta. –Julia is a restless woman. Tenemos muchos recuerdos agradables de Pablo. –We have many pleasant memories of Pablo.

8 When two adjectives modify a noun, they are placed according to the above rules; when descriptive adjectives follow the noun, they are connected by y. Éstos son tus cuatro amigos rebeldes. –These are your four rebellious friends. Mi única tía generosa vive en Los Ángeles. –My only generous aunt lives in L.A. Nuestros amigos, optimistas y apasionados, creen que es hora de rebelarse. –Our optimistic and passionate friends think it is time to rebel.

9 When descriptive adjectives precede the noun they modify, they usually describe a known or established quality. Las altas montañas de los Andes son impresionantes. –The high andean mountains are impressive. Ana es una joven psicóloga. –Ana is a young psychologist. Rafael es mi peor enemigo. –Rafael is my worst enemy.

10 Notice how these adjectives do not add new information about the nouns they modify. la blanca nieve –The white snow el frío hielo –the cold ice la peligrosa leona –the dangerous lioness el chistoso payaso –the funny clown

11 Some adjectives change spelling before a noun. Bueno, malo, primero, tercero, uno, alguno, and ninguno drop the final -o before a masculine singular noun. Placido Domingo es un buen cantante. –Plácido Domingo is a good singer. El tercer consultorio es para los psicoanalistas. –The third office is for the psychoanalysts.

12 Cualquiera shortens to cualquier before any singular noun. Algún and ningún require a written accent. Cualquier libro sobre la autoestima te servirá. –Any book on self-esteem will be useful to you. Algún pintor dejó esas pinturas en la mesa. –Some painter left those paintings on the table.

13 The adjectives grande, ciento, and santo drop the final syllable in the following cases. Grande becomes gran before a masculine or a feminine noun. The meaning changes to great. Eduardo es un gran hipnotizador. –Eduardo is a great hypnotist. Tiene una oficina grande. –He has a big office.

14 Ciento becomes cien before a noun, in counting, and before the adjective mil. However, it remains ciento when it precedes numerals smaller than one hundred. cien personas deprimidas. –one hundred depressed people cien mil dólares al año –One hundred thousand dollars per year Este año he tenido ciento diez días estresantes. –This year I have had one hundred and ten stressful days.

15 Santo becomes San before the name of all masculine saints except those beginning in Do- or To-. San Juan –Saint John Santo Tomás –Saint Thomas

16 Cambios de sentido Some adjectives change meaning depending on whether they precede or follow the noun they modify

17 Before nounAfter noun certain (particular)cierto/acertain (sure) darndichoso/alucky, happy great, impressivegrande (gran)large half-medio/amiddle, average samemismo/a(the thing) itself another, differentnuevo/abrand new unfortunatelypobrepoor ownpropio/aproper sheerpuro/apure former, long-standingviejo/aold, age

18 Before nounAfter noun several/variousdiferentesdistinct highalto/atall simple simple-minded onlyúnico/aunique formerantiguo/aold/ancient

19 Práctica

20 cualquiera___ estudianteUn estudiante _____ Santo___ Antonio____ Barbara ___ Domingo____ Agustín tercero ___ capítulo____ planta grandeUna ____ personaEl libro ______

21 Sources Conexiones, 3 rd edition


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