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 Social theory  Communication theory  Media studies  Technology theories  Neuroscience  Etc…

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Presentation on theme: " Social theory  Communication theory  Media studies  Technology theories  Neuroscience  Etc…"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Social theory  Communication theory  Media studies  Technology theories  Neuroscience  Etc…

3  Empiricism (experience) › Knowledge comes from sensory input + experiences that get meshed together into complex associations. › Empirical truths (things are proven to be true). › Learning comes in controlling the environment

4  Rationalism (reason) › Knowledge is already in the mind. Learning and comes from reflection on what learners know combined + what they observe (aka reasoning). › A priori truths (things are just true based on reason) › Learning comes in making connections with prior knowledge.

5  Behaviourism  Cognitivism › Cognitive Load Theory  Constructivism

6  Connectivism ???  Others...

7  Key theorists: Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner  The mind is a black box.  Learning is an expected response to a given stimulus; we can’t see what goes on in the black box.

8  Practice Makes Perfect!

9  Stimulus-response (repetition)  Operant conditioning (reinforcement)  Punishment  Consequences  Modelling  Shaping  Cuing  Drill and practice

10  Aka – Direct instruction  Aka - Teacher-directed  Primary mode: Lecture

11  Learning objectives / curriculum  Direct instruction  Behaviour analysis  Classroom management techniques  Choice  Rewards

12  Math Blaster

13  iClickers

14  Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)  Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA)

15  Online Tutorials

16  TED Talks / YouTube

17  Brainpop

18  Foursquare, Huffingtonpost

19  Microquest games (e.g., Robinson)

20  The Future? sm6hxA sm6hxA

21  Grossly oversimplifies learning  Learning is not always tied to behaviours  Learning does not require rewards or punishments  The mind is not a black box  People adapt

22  Tweet me another behaviourist technology and tell me why you feel it is behaviourist. Don’t forget #edit202!

23  Emerged in the 1900s as a response to behaviourism: got big in the 50s/60s.  Key theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky, Bruner  Beyond behaviour and into the “black box”  Memory systems are active, organized processors of information  Prior knowledge is key in learning

24  The mind is a computer.

25  Schema/scaffolding  Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model (Sensory/ST/LT Memory)  Working memory  Meaningful effect  Motivation  Seriality

26  Practice for retention  Organization  Mneumonic devices  Metaphor / Symbolism  ”Memory palace”  Mental maps  Advance organizers

27  Processing information can over or under load working memory.  Things must run smoothly in order for meaningful learning to occur.  Key Theorists: Miller, Sweller  Example: High falutin’ mumbo jumbo  Example: Learning in another language  Example: Overstimulation

28  Chunking  Learning structures  Instructional design  Means-ends analysis (inching closer)  Intrinsic load (difficulty)  Extraneous load (simplicity)  Germane load (schemas/connections)  Error / Fundamental Attribution Error

29  Working memory is the system which actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind when needed for verbal and nonverbal tasks such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make them available for further information processing.  Becker & Morris (1999)  It has replaced Atkinson & Shiffrin’s STM

30  What things look like matter › User Interface › HCI › General Aesthetic  How things are organized matter › Navigational structures › Layout of information

31  Scratch

32  Digital Concept Mapping

33  Prezi

34  Databases

35  Artificial Intelligence  Learning theorists and computer scientists often work together in this area.

36  Ignores the affective and psychomotor  Too focused on knowledge; difficult to measure understanding and HOTS  The brain is not a computer

37  Tweet me an example of a web tool or site that has high extraneous load. Label it #edit202 AND #extraneousload

38  Emerged in the early 1930s  Key Theorists: Dewey, Kolb, Montessori, Piaget, Bruner, Jonassen  The mind is a rhizome (network)  Teacher as facilitator

39  Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment  begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems  learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences

40  “Learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events.... What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind."  Jonasson, 1991

41  Constructivism and Technology  Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical Thinking (1996) 

42  Problem-based learning  Project-based learning  Authentic tasks  Discovery learning  Case-based learning  Collaborative learning  Active learning (responsibility on learners)  Vygotsky’s Zone of proximal development

43  Constructionism  Learning is most effective when learners create tangible, real-world objects.  “Learning by making”  Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas (1980)  Father of Lego Robotics 

44  Knowledge is constructed from experience  Learning is a personal interpretation of the world  Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience

45  Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning  Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity (Merrill, 1991, in Smorgansbord, 1997)

46  Many video games

47  Lego Robotics (Constructionist)

48  Technology as tool: A means to an end  Google Sites  Wikispaces  PB Works  Blogger  Wordpress  Etc...

49  Webquests Bernie Dodge webquest.org webquest.org

50  Quest 2 Learn  High Tech High  New Tech High  Edutopia Schools That Work 

51  Time consuming  Subjective learning  Mature learners required  Difficult assessment  Impractical without prior knowledge  Lack of research / empirical evidence

52  Constructivism is COMPLEX!  You can take entire courses on it.  This is a very, very simplified version...

53  Tweet me an example of a good constructivist learning activity you can do in your major/minor area. Tag it #edit202 AND #constructivism

54  Theory that has emerged since 2006  Learning is the process of creating connections and developing a network  Key theorists: George Siemens (http://www.connectivism.ca) and Stephen Downeshttp://www.connectivism.ca  Key work: nnectivism.htm nnectivism.htm

55  A learning theory for the digital age.

56  What is Learning to Me? wxDzCTEa8 wxDzCTEa8

57  “At its heart, connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks…

58  … It shares with some other theories a core proposition, that knowledge is not acquired, as though it were a thing… Knowledge is, on this theory, literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience.”  Stephen Downes

59  “Fast forward to today and connectivism is all the rage. In this digital era, we recognise that there’s simply too much knowledge to take in – and it changes too quickly anyway. So forget about trying to ‘know’ everything; instead, build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.”  Ryan Tracey instructivism-constructivism-or-connectivism/

60  A central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs inside a person. Even social constructivist views, which hold that learning is a socially enacted process, promotes the principality of the individual (and her/his physical presence – i.e. brain-based) in learning. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology). They also fail to describe how learning happens within organizations  George Siemens

61  Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.  Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.  Learning may reside in non-human appliances.  Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known  Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.  Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

62  Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.  Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision. George Siemens

63  Networks are a set of connected notes.  Nodes are anything that can be connected to another node.  Nodes can include: people, information, data, feelings, images, etc...  Learning can exist outside of people  It is more important to “know-where” to find things in your network than to “know-how” or “know-what”

64  deyFxZw deyFxZw

65  MOOC! 

66  Twitter

67  Social Networking

68  RSS Feeds and Newsreaders

69  Bookmarking Apps

70  Search Engines

71  Any communication tool:   Webcam  Chat  VC  Discussion forums

72  Anywhere we can store data:  Databases  Intranets  Drives  WWW  Servers

73  Informal vs. formal learning  Is it really a new theory?  11/02/25/attacks-on-connectivism/ 11/02/25/attacks-on-connectivism/  review-of-connectivism-a-learning- theory-for-the-digital-age/ review-of-connectivism-a-learning- theory-for-the-digital-age/

74  Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of education.  Siemens: Groups are networks.

75  Connectivism or Constructivism? Which one do you connect with more? Why? Tag it #edit202 and #cvsc

76  technologies.wikispaces.com/Behavioris m,+Cognitivism,+Constructivism+%26+Co nnectivism technologies.wikispaces.com/Behavioris m,+Cognitivism,+Constructivism+%26+Co nnectivism

77  Scenario: Learning Pythagorean Theorem  Behaviourist: Practice, practice, practice  Cognitivist: Connect to prior knowledge. Show how it works.  Constructivist: Give real life application situations where the PT can be applied.  Connectivist: Here are 5 links that show how, why and applications of PT.

78  Scenario: Learning grammar rules  Behaviourist: Worksheets!  Cognitivist: Use mneumonics to remember rules. Practice in context.  Constructivist: Write stories, essays, etc... And correct grammar as you go.  Connectivist: Bookmark 5 good grammar sites and find a good grammar checking program.

79  BCCC3: Tweet me a scenario to discuss. Tag it #edit202 AND #bccc

80 Lorin Anderson

81 Andrew Churches

82

83

84  Technology influences society  Key theorists: Postman, McLuhan,  We are currently in the digital era.  The medium is the message.  Hot (low involvement) and cool (high involvement) media

85  "the study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs.”  The Media Ecology Association

86  Social Construction of Technology  Society and human action influence technology  Key theorists: Bijker, Pinch  Bicycle example  Symmetry  Closure


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