Social theory Communication theory Media studies Technology theories Neuroscience Etc…
Empiricism (experience) › Knowledge comes from sensory input + experiences that get meshed together into complex associations. › Empirical truths (things are proven to be true). › Learning comes in controlling the environment
Rationalism (reason) › Knowledge is already in the mind. Learning and comes from reflection on what learners know combined + what they observe (aka reasoning). › A priori truths (things are just true based on reason) › Learning comes in making connections with prior knowledge.
The Future? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3ih- sm6hxA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3ih- sm6hxA
Grossly oversimplifies learning Learning is not always tied to behaviours Learning does not require rewards or punishments The mind is not a black box People adapt
Tweet me another behaviourist technology and tell me why you feel it is behaviourist. Don’t forget #edit202!
Emerged in the 1900s as a response to behaviourism: got big in the 50s/60s. Key theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky, Bruner Beyond behaviour and into the “black box” Memory systems are active, organized processors of information Prior knowledge is key in learning
Processing information can over or under load working memory. Things must run smoothly in order for meaningful learning to occur. Key Theorists: Miller, Sweller Example: High falutin’ mumbo jumbo Example: Learning in another language Example: Overstimulation
Working memory is the system which actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind when needed for verbal and nonverbal tasks such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make them available for further information processing. Becker & Morris (1999) It has replaced Atkinson & Shiffrin’s STM
What things look like matter › User Interface › HCI › General Aesthetic How things are organized matter › Navigational structures › Layout of information
Artificial Intelligence Learning theorists and computer scientists often work together in this area.
Ignores the affective and psychomotor Too focused on knowledge; difficult to measure understanding and HOTS The brain is not a computer
Tweet me an example of a web tool or site that has high extraneous load. Label it #edit202 AND #extraneousload
Emerged in the early 1930s Key Theorists: Dewey, Kolb, Montessori, Piaget, Bruner, Jonassen The mind is a rhizome (network) Teacher as facilitator
Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences
“Learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events.... What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind." Jonasson, 1991
Constructivism and Technology Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical Thinking (1996) http://web.missouri.edu/jonassend/ http://web.missouri.edu/jonassend/
Problem-based learning Project-based learning Authentic tasks Discovery learning Case-based learning Collaborative learning Active learning (responsibility on learners) Vygotsky’s Zone of proximal development
Constructionism Learning is most effective when learners create tangible, real-world objects. “Learning by making” Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas (1980) Father of Lego Robotics http://www.papert.org/ http://www.papert.org/
Knowledge is constructed from experience Learning is a personal interpretation of the world Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience
Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity (Merrill, 1991, in Smorgansbord, 1997)
Quest 2 Learn http://q2l.org/ http://q2l.org/ High Tech High http://www.hightechhigh.org/ http://www.hightechhigh.org/ New Tech High http://newtechhigh.org/ http://newtechhigh.org/ Edutopia Schools That Work http://www.edutopia.org/schools-that-work http://www.edutopia.org/schools-that-work
Time consuming Subjective learning Mature learners required Difficult assessment Impractical without prior knowledge Lack of research / empirical evidence
Constructivism is COMPLEX! You can take entire courses on it. This is a very, very simplified version...
Tweet me an example of a good constructivist learning activity you can do in your major/minor area. Tag it #edit202 AND #constructivism
Theory that has emerged since 2006 Learning is the process of creating connections and developing a network Key theorists: George Siemens (http://www.connectivism.ca) and Stephen Downeshttp://www.connectivism.ca Key work: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/co nnectivism.htm http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/co nnectivism.htm
What is Learning to Me? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bV wxDzCTEa8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bV wxDzCTEa8
“At its heart, connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks…
… It shares with some other theories a core proposition, that knowledge is not acquired, as though it were a thing… Knowledge is, on this theory, literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience.” Stephen Downes
“Fast forward to today and connectivism is all the rage. In this digital era, we recognise that there’s simply too much knowledge to take in – and it changes too quickly anyway. So forget about trying to ‘know’ everything; instead, build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.” Ryan Tracey http://ryan2point0.wordpress.com/2009/03/17/ instructivism-constructivism-or-connectivism/
A central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs inside a person. Even social constructivist views, which hold that learning is a socially enacted process, promotes the principality of the individual (and her/his physical presence – i.e. brain-based) in learning. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology). They also fail to describe how learning happens within organizations George Siemens http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities. Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision. George Siemens http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm
Networks are a set of connected notes. Nodes are anything that can be connected to another node. Nodes can include: people, information, data, feelings, images, etc... Learning can exist outside of people It is more important to “know-where” to find things in your network than to “know-how” or “know-what”
Any communication tool: Email Webcam Chat VC Discussion forums
Anywhere we can store data: Databases Intranets Drives WWW Servers
Informal vs. formal learning Is it really a new theory? http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/20 11/02/25/attacks-on-connectivism/ http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/20 11/02/25/attacks-on-connectivism/ http://stranack.ca/2012/08/16/critical- review-of-connectivism-a-learning- theory-for-the-digital-age/ http://stranack.ca/2012/08/16/critical- review-of-connectivism-a-learning- theory-for-the-digital-age/
Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of education. Siemens: Groups are networks.
Connectivism or Constructivism? Which one do you connect with more? Why? Tag it #edit202 and #cvsc
Scenario: Learning Pythagorean Theorem Behaviourist: Practice, practice, practice Cognitivist: Connect to prior knowledge. Show how it works. Constructivist: Give real life application situations where the PT can be applied. Connectivist: Here are 5 links that show how, why and applications of PT.
Scenario: Learning grammar rules Behaviourist: Worksheets! Cognitivist: Use mneumonics to remember rules. Practice in context. Constructivist: Write stories, essays, etc... And correct grammar as you go. Connectivist: Bookmark 5 good grammar sites and find a good grammar checking program.
BCCC3: Tweet me a scenario to discuss. Tag it #edit202 AND #bccc