Students Need to HEAR Syllables Students who struggle to read multisyllabic words often cannot “hear” the syllables Students should first orally segment multisyllabic words Then orally blend multisyllabic words
Focus on VOWELS – Rules to Know EVERY syllable has a vowel sounds Almost every syllable has a vowel letter Most of the time, when two vowels are apart, they are in separate syllables – Exception = silent e Most of the time, when two vowels are together they spell one vowel sound in the syllable – Exeptions = patio, riot, chaos, violet, poem
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns Short Vowels Closed: – These syllables end in a consonant. The vowel sound is generally short. (Examples: rabbit, napkin)
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns R-controlled: Vowel + r – The letter affects the sound of the vowel. The vowel and the r appear in the same syllable. (Examples: bird, turtle)
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns Long Vowels Open: – These syllables end in a vowel. The vowel sound is generally long. (Examples: tiger, pilot)
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns Long Vowels Vowel__silent e: – Two vowels work together – These generally represent long-vowel sounds. (Examples: compete, decide)
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns Vowel team – Many vowel sounds are spelled with vowel digraphs such as ai, ay, ea, ee, oa, ow, oo, oi, oy, ou, ie, and ei. – The vowel digraphs appear in the same syllable. (Examples: boat, explain)
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns Consonant-le: – Usually when le appears at the end of a word and is preceded by a consonant. – The consonant plus le form the final syllable. (Examples: table, little)
Reading Multisyllabic Words – Short Vowels Compound WordsTwo Syllable WordsThree Syllable Words Batman Suntan Catnip Sunset Sunfish Bathtub Shellfish nutshell Napkin Admit Cactus Public Index Panic Comic Publish Fantastic Penmanship Establish Wisconsin Athletic Cosmetic Investment Admonish Accomplish
Reading Multisyllabic Words How many vowels do you see? Are the vowels together or apart? Record the number of syllables Divide the word into syllable Practice reading each syllable, out of order and in order Practice blending the word
Silent e and Diphthongs When students notice the number of vowels, ask them if they think there might be a silent e or a dipthong (vowel team) to consider Words to try – Valentine – Confiscate – Leadership – Prevail
Other Rules Break between two consonants that are the same. Pronounce the consonant once – Rab bit, ten nis, ad dress, slug gish Keep digraphs together – Ac com plish ment, graph ic
Point of Difficulty - Schwa Lazy or reduced vowel with no energy Only occurs in words with more than one syllable Does NOT sound the way it is spelled – Ribbon – Seven Therefore, causes problems with spelling
Spelling Multisyllabic Words Say the word Ask students how many syllables they hear. Draw a line for each syllable Spell each syllable – Consider diphthongs, schwa, silent e
Expository - Defined Expository text: Includes essays, speeches, lab procedures, journals, government documents, newspaper and magazine articles, and directions are some examples Explains something by definition, sequence, categorization, comparison-contrast, enumeration, process, problem-solution, description, or cause-effect. Uses facts and details, opinions and examples.
Expository Writing Expository Writing: – reports of information – essays – book reports – biographies – news paper articles Expository writing is meant to inform the reader!
Before Writing Students need to understand the assignment or prompt. Read it with them! Help them understand the subject of the assignment. They must know the purpose of the assignment. – Informing – Reporting – Persuading Who is the intended audience?
Verb It – Name
Look for Key Assignment Words Analyze Compare Contrast Define Discuss Evaluate Infer Explain Illustrate Prove State Explicitly teach this academic vocabulary Something to consider
Let’s Try Together Many Americans are in disagreement concerning the effectiveness of the death penalty. Research the subject and present both sides of the argument demonstrating understanding of the issues. Explain key positions for both sides of the argument. Differentiate between fact and opinion regarding the effectiveness of the death penalty.
Now Practice in Table Groups Americans are divided regarding the two opposing sides of the issue of the death penalty. Select one perspective and present the position. Support the position with evidence and examples from your reading in order to demonstrate understanding of the position you have chosen. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
What kind of essay are you being asked to write? Persuasive
Standards Trace At your table, take a look at the persuasive writing standards and how they develop over the years. – What vocabulary do YOU need to know and understand? – How does the skill advance? – What do we expect students to be able to produce at the end of each grade?
More Expository Reading Items you will need from Day 4 – “New Jersey Abolishes the Death Penalty” article You will also need: – “Death Penalty Arguments” essay – “Murders Drop in New Jersey…” press release – “RACE…” newspaper article Take time to read through the expository information. Mark up the text as needed.
Why do we need to teach expository writing to all students at all grade levels? 1.Most school writing will be expository writing. 2.Expository writing teaches clear and logical thinking. 3.Expository writing helps students learn content. 4.Expository writing prepares students for the business world.
How Can We Help Students? We built good, elaborate “highways” for students to follow …
But we forgot… They don’t know how to drive!
What does it take to learn something new? 4-14 repetitions to learn something new Students with disabilities need 250-350 repetitions over the years (1.2)
The keys to an effective paragraph: Expository paragraphs need: A title A topic sentence Transitions Good explanations and examples A conclusion
The Five Elements of Expository Writing Organization is the key. Topic sentences and thesis statements are the heart. Transitions are the glue. Examples, evidence, and explanations are the meat. Conclusions tie it all together.
Great Expository Paragraphs Organization is the key.
Using Colors to Teach Organization Go Back! Stop! Slow Down Go! Write a topic sentence Give a reason, detail, or fact. Use a transition. Explain. Give an example. Remind the reader of your topic. 2.11
Topic Sentence: Green means “go.” Green asks the writer to decide— – “What am I going to prove?” (reason) – “What am I going to explain?” (detail) – “What information will I share?” (fact)
Reasons/Details/Facts: Yellow means “slow down.” Introduce key concepts to support the topic sentence. The main supporting ideas (reasons, details or facts) for the topic sentence. Look for common patterns or categories in the brainstorming. 2.11
Explain: Red means “stop and explain.” Present evidence. Provide explanation and examples. 2.11
Conclusion: Green means “go back to your topic.” Restate the topic and the position. Do not introduce new information. Use synonyms and leave your reader with something to remember. 2.11
Prewriting Brainstorming Clustering/Webbing Discussing Outlining Circle Map
Respond to the Prompt Americans are divided regarding the two opposing sides of the issue of the death penalty. Select one perspective and present the position. Support the position with evidence and examples from your reading in order to demonstrate understanding of the position you have chosen. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
Steps to Organize Thinking Cluster like topics (may color code) Create a tree map without naming the categories. After seeing the categories decide on a heading for each.
Step 1 Write a topic sentence using the three part topic sentence method. – IDENTIFY THE ITEM – SELECT A VERB – FINISH YOUR THOUGHT High school students can be challenging. Teaching writing requires a lot of planning. The death penalty should be used more often.
For introductions: If After Since Before So that Whenever As long as In order that (to) Even though Although Unless While When Even As if As Until Where Though Even if Because Wherever As soon as
Support and Elaboration can be: Examples Explanations Evidence Events Experiences Expert opinions Effective illustrations
Add in transitions, the glue that holds it all together. in fact obviously clearly certainly in conclusion truly definitely surely to sum up
Write the Introduction The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and give an idea of the essay's focus. Include any background information that the reader may need. Include the thesis statement as well as how you plan to develop the essay.
Begin the introduction with an attention grabber. Startling information Anecdote Dialogue Summary Information Use the Persuasive Essay planner to help guide your writing.
Your thesis statement will have two parts. The first part states the topic. – Kenya's Culture – Building a Model Train Set – Public Transportation The second part states the point of the essay. (Open thesis) – has a rich and varied history – takes time and patience – can solve some of our city's most persistent and pressing problems
Closed Thesis Statements Or in the second part you could simply list the three main ideas you will discuss. – has a long history, blends traditions from several other cultures, and provides a rich heritage. – requires an investment in time, patience, and materials. – helps with traffic congestion, resource management, and the city budget.
Each body paragraph will have the same basic structure. Start by writing down one of your main ideas, in sentence form. If your main idea is "reduces freeway congestion," you might say this: – Public transportation reduces freeway congestion. Next, write down each of your supporting points for that main idea, but leave four or five lines in between each point. In the space under each point, write down some elaboration for that point.
Support and Elaboration can be: Examples Explanations Evidence Events Experiences Expert opinions Effective illustrations
Scaffolding with Sentence Frames Students often lack the academic vocabulary to express themselves clearly and effectively during expository writing. This is especially the case when a student must present concepts, facts, ideas and opinions from other writers and keep the voices straight. Ask students to look at professional articles and identify phrases that signal relationships between and among different ideas and perspectives
Examples of Sentence Frames The issue of ____ has several different perspectives. Experts disagree about _______. Noted researcher _____ argues that_____, while ______ proposes _______. In his most famous article, ______ states ____. According to ______, _________. While some argue _____, others argue _____. Even though there is disagreement on _____, it is clear that ________.
The Conclusion The conclusion brings closure to the reader, summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic. All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic. Even an anecdote can end your essay in a useful way. Make sure that the thesis statement is supported once again and indicate the significance (so what).
Sentence Patterning Chart Marsha Brechtel – GLAD Adapted from McCracken Skill building Patterning Parts of speech
15 minute grammar Silly Sentences Use the sentence patterning chart to create your own silly sentence Illustrate your sentence Reinforce parts of speech and sentence structure Encourage students to play with the pattern Create a display board or class book
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat
Dialogue Steve said good morning good morning said Steve. Steve said good morning then sat down. ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.
Dialogue Steve said, “Good morning.” good morning said Steve. Steve said good morning then sat down. ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.
Dialogue Steve said, “Good morning.” “Good morning,” said Steve. Steve said good morning then sat down. ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.
Dialogue Steve said, “Good morning.” “Good morning,” said Steve. Steve said, “Good morning,” then sat down. ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.
Dialogue Steve said, “Good morning.” “Good morning,” said Steve. Steve said, “Good morning,” then sat down. “Ladies and gentlemen,” said Steve, “good morning.”
Fictional Narrative Writing Assignment Select ONE of the characters from the painting Pretend you ARE that person. Create a story about the character – imagine his or her occupation, family, and daily life in the late 19 th century (1880-1900) France.
Requirements Look at rubric Be sure to: Effectively use dialogue in your narrative. Include a clear plot line. Describe the setting Maintain a consistent point of view
Power Writing Easy editing Students can do their own paper Students can edit another’s paper Model first
Using Rubrics to Assess Writing Help categorize student work Provide a starting point for forming a lesson Offer students a mechanism for planning Can be blind Save time
Writing a Rubric Go back to your goal Revisit the standard Rubistar
“The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery.” Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind Edited by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick
Resources Beers, K. When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do Pilgreen, J. The SSR Handbook: How to Organize and Manage a Sustained Silent Reading Program Schoenbach, R. et. al., Reading for Understanding: A Guide to Improving Reading in Middle and High School Classrooms Tomlinson, C. Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/Index.htm http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108008/chapters/Learning_Thro ugh_Reflection.aspx http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108008/chapters/Learning_Thro ugh_Reflection.aspx http://www.readwritethink.org