Presentation on theme: "IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES"— Presentation transcript:
1 IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Chapter 2IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
2 IT InfrastructureSet of physical devices and software required to operate enterpriseComputing platforms providing computing servicesTelecommunications servicesData management servicesApplication software servicesPhysical facilities management servicesIT management, education, and other services
3 Evolution of IT infrastructure General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: 1959 to presentIBM first mainframes(1958), DEC minicomputers(1965)Personal computer era: 1981 to presentIBM PC(1981); growth of personal software(80s, 90s)Client/server era: 1983 to presentNetwork may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered); Various types of servers (network, application, Web)Enterprise computing era: 1992 to presentIntegrating disparate networks, applications using Internet standards and enterprise applicationsCloud and mobile computing: 2000 to presentComputing power and software applications supplied over the Internet or other network
6 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution 1. Moore’s Law Law of microprocessing powerComputing power doubles every 18 monthsNanotechnology: Shrinks size of transistors to size comparable to size of a virusLaw of Mass Digital StorageThe amount of data being stored each year doubles
8 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution 2. Metcalfe’s Law Network economicsValue or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network membersAs network members increase, more people want to use it (demand for network access increases)Declining communication costs and the InternetAn estimated 2.3 billion people worldwide have Internet accessAs communication costs fall and approach 0, utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes
9 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution 3 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution 3. Standards and network effectsSpecifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a networkComputer hardware platformsOperating system platformsEnterprise software applicationsData management and storageNetworking/telecommunications platformsInternet platformsConsulting system integration servicesUnleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines as manufacturers focus on the products built to a single standard
11 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends BYOD (Bring your own device)Allowing employees to use personal mobile devices in workplaceConsumerization of ITNew information technology emerges in consumer markets first and spreads to business organizationsForces businesses and IT departments to rethink how IT equipment and services are acquired and managedGrid computingConnects geographically remote computers into a single network to combine processing power and create virtual supercomputerProvides cost savings, speed, agilityVirtualizationAllows single physical resource to act as multiple resources (i.e., run multiple instances of OS)Reduces hardware and power expendituresFacilitates hardware centralization
12 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends-cont’d CLOUD COMPUTING PLATFORM Cloud computing: On-demand (utility) computing services obtained over networkInfrastructure as a servicePlatform as a serviceSoftware as a serviceVirtualized resources provided over the Internet.Access to applications and IT infrastructure anywhere, at any time, and on any device.
13 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trends –cont’d Green computingPractices and technologies for manufacturing, using, disposing of computing and networking hardwareAutonomic computingIndustry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intrudersSimilar to self-updating antivirus software; Apple and Microsoft both use automatic updates
14 Contemporary Software Platform Trends Open-source software:Produced by community of programmersFree and modifiable by userExamples: Apache web server, Mozilla Firefox browser, OpenOffice, LinuxSoftware for the WebJava:HTML/HTML5XMLWeb ServicesSoftware components that exchange information using Web standards and languagesDollar Rent A Car uses Web services to link online booking system with Southwest Airlines’ Web site
16 Contemporary Software Platform Trends-cont’d SOA: Service-oriented architectureSet of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software applicationSoftware developers reuse these services in other combinations to assemble other applications as neededExample: an “invoice service” to serve whole firm for calculating and sending printed invoicesSoftware outsourcing and cloud servicesSoftware packages and enterprise softwareSoftware outsourcingContracting outside firms to develop softwareCloud-based software servicesSoftware as a service (SaaS)Accessed with Web browser over InternetService Level Agreements (SLAs): formal agreement with service providers
18 Contemporary Software Platform Trends MashupsCombinations of two or more online applications, such as combining mapping software (Google Maps) with local contentAppsSmall pieces of software that run on the Internet, on your computer, or on your cell phoneiPhone, AndroidGenerally delivered over the Internet
19 Management IssuesAs firms shrink or grow, IT needs to be flexible and scalableAmount to spend on IT is complex questionRent vs. buy, cloud computing, OutsourcingTotal cost of ownership (TCO) modelAnalyzes direct and indirect costsHardware, software account for only about 20% of TCOOther costs: Installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space, and energy
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