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Unit4 Ban Ki-Moon (Speaking at the “Light for Rights” on World AIDS Day held at the Washington Square Park Memorial Arch in New York ): “We are here.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit4 Ban Ki-Moon (Speaking at the “Light for Rights” on World AIDS Day held at the Washington Square Park Memorial Arch in New York ): “We are here."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Ban Ki-Moon (Speaking at the “Light for Rights” on World AIDS Day held at the Washington Square Park Memorial Arch in New York ): “We are here tonight to denounce the discrimination they (people living with HIV/AIDS) face — the fear and stigma, the shame and rejection, the threat of losing their jobs... For too long and in too many places, too many people have been pushed beyond the reach of prevention and treatment, care and support... Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information

4 We must respond by shining the full light of human rights on the challenge... I call on all countries to dismantle legal frameworks that institutionalize discrimination against people living with HIV and people are at most risk of infection.” Cultural information Cultural information 1 Cultural information

5 AIDS, a very serious illness which spreads very fast today, had been one of the most horrible killers of human beings. AIDS is caused by HIV virus. AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cultural information 2 Cultural information Now in the world there is no useful medicine that can cure AIDS, but it spreads only in limited ways. AIDS spread in three basic ways: first, through sexual intercourse; second, through contact with diseased blood; and third from an HIV mother to baby. And people who are intravenous drug users may infect HIV virus too.

6 The actual patterns of spreading of the AIDS virus change from culture. People should do something to solve the problem and prevent the spreading of AIDS in the world. People can do something in these ways: first, a program should be established to educate citizens about AIDS, letting people know what causes it and how it spreads, so that people can know it clearly and prevent it easily, instead of being afraid of it; second, increase scientific technology to fight against AIDS; third, make healthy and civilized social environment, so there will be less sexual intercourse actions, and less drug users. Cultural information 3 Cultural information

7 Although AIDS is very horrible, we shouldn't fear, worry or have prejudices about it, we should confront it and fight against this devil. Cultural information 3 Cultural information

8 1. What is the theme of the text? Text analysis Global Reading-Text analysis1 Text analysis Structural analysis Dealing with AIDS strengthens the bond of friendship and encourages emotional and mature growth.

9 Global Reading-Text analysis2 Text analysis Structural analysis 2. What is the style of the text? Give your reasons. The style of the narrative is colloquial and simple because many simple words, colloquial expressions and concise sentences are used, which are easy and smooth to read. Colloquial words: about, cried, go, let, so, sure, things Simple or colloquial phrases: blew it off, living life up, feel so bad, had the disease, stuck it out, make it through, etc.

10 Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 Text analysis Structural analysis 1. How is this narrative story organized? The narrative is organized in the chronological order with the activities and events related in the true story.

11 2. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Paragraph(s)Main idea This paragraph gives the instructive message of the story, and makes clear the specific date when AIDS became known to the writer. This part provides an account of how the writer came to know the fact that his friend was suffering from AIDS, how he felt, what attitude he adopted, and how others responded to it. Structural analysis 1 Text analysis Structural analysis

12 Paragraph(s)Main idea This part tells us that the writer maintained an active and positive attitude towards his friend. This paragraph mentions the specific date that marked the end of David’s life, describes the writer’s feelings towards David’s death, and tells us how the writer keeps his friend’s memory alive. Structural analysis 2 Text analysis Structural analysis

13 1. Dealing with AIDS strengthens the bond of friendship, encourages emotional and mature growth. Before the sixteenth of October 1995, I was the most carefree person in the world. I had no worries and was just living life up. I never thought that anything could happen to me or my friends. We were invincible. That is, until the word AIDS came into my life. Dealing with AIDS Detailed reading1 Detailed reading

14 2. For 10 years David and I were the best of friends. Then we got to high school and things started to change. We were in different classes, so we didn’t hang out as much. It bothered me but I thought that we were both just growing up, and there were more friends where he came from. Then I began to notice that he wasn’t in school a lot, and was sick more than usual. So I called him and he hung up on me. I didn’t know what to do, so once again I blew it off. Then one day I saw David in the mall and I confronted him as to why we were not friends any more. He pulled me aside and broke down in tears and said that he was dying. I didn’t believe him. Sure, I had heard about AIDS, but that it was a homosexual disease and it didn’t affect young people, so I said that it was a sick joke and left. Detailed reading2 Detailed reading

15 3. When I got home things started to make sense. I ran to my room and cried. David was only 17; he couldn’t die. Then I felt so bad that we had grown so far apart. I called David, asking him to come over so we could talk. When he came over I saw a seriousness in him that I had never seen before. He looked so old, too old for his age. I asked how it had happened. David had had unprotected sex once and now had to pay with his life. I was so angry. I have never felt so powerless in my whole life. When things had gone wrong before this, I could always rely on my parents to make things better. There was nothing that they could do this time. I that to handle it all on my own. Detailed reading3 Detailed reading

16 4. David and I became very close again, and it seemed that I was the only one there for him. David made the decision to tell people about his disease. There was no use in hiding it; sooner or later people would find out. People looked at him as if he had a plague, and our friends from school wanted nothing to do with him. Soon after that they wanted nothing to do with me. All of a sudden I felt that I had the disease. I didn’t know what to do. My whole life was changing so fast that I couldn’t keep up. Detailed reading4.1 Detailed reading

17 Once again I was growing up and realized that our friendship meant everything to me. Also, I couldn’t turn my back on him when he needed me the most. So I stuck it out and lost most of my friends. The ones that still talked with me didn’t come too close in fear that they would catch the disease. The thing was, I didn’t even have AIDS, so why did my friends treat me like this? I was being treated this way because teenagers are not used to dealing with situations like this, and don’t know how to react. So how could I blame them since I would have done the same thing? Detailed reading4.2 Detailed reading

18 5. As time went on, David became very ill. There was nothing that I could do but watch him die. David found out that he had full-blown AIDS. This to me meant death was sure to come and all too quickly. I wasn’t ready to let him die, not yet anyway. There were so many things that I wanted to do and say, but couldn’t find the words. I went to doctor after doctor with him, and saw him go through so much. Everyone said that I must keep a positive attitude for his sake, because attitude means everything. So, in times of stress I was the one that had to keep things together. I pushed all my emotions aside and was strong for him. Detailed reading5 Detailed reading

19 6. My mom had had a trip planned for the whole family for some time now, and still wanted to go. She thought that the trip would do me good; she said that I was not the one that was dying. I couldn’t believe that she said that to me, but to make her happy I went. We were gone for about two weeks, and when I came back the first thing I did was go to see David. That was when I saw AIDS for the first time. I didn’t even recognize him. David had lost weight, had purple lesions all over his body, and was very pale. He couldn’t even get up when he saw me. He was bedridden. I still had to be the strong one and keep everything in. I had brought him stuff from the ocean, his favorite place. We talked about my trip and anything else we could think of. Then he fell asleep because he could no longer stay awake for long periods of time. Detailed reading6 Detailed reading

20 7. On the second of May 1996, David was put in hospital. This gave him the feeling that there was no more hope left, and that he was going to die. I still had to maintain my positive outlook for him. He needed that in me. One day he looked at me and said, “Faye, I am dying; let’s accept that and deal with it. I know what I did was wrong and now I have to deal with it. All I want you to do is to remember me, enjoy life and be careful.” For the first time in front of him, I cried. I knew that it wouldn’t be long before he was gone forever. He shouldn’t have to deal with this at such a young age. Detailed reading7.1 Detailed reading

21 Towards the end of May he became so sick that the hospital staff had a bubble around him, so he wouldn’t catch our bad germs. I hated to see him like that, and every day it became worse. I had come to realize that any day now he would die. At night I would wonder if he would make it through. School was over now, so I spent every hour I could in the hospital. He was everything to me. I felt bad for the time that we had lost and how I wasn’t even going to fight for our friendship. Detailed reading7.2 Detailed reading

22 8. The fifth of June, 1996 marked the end of my best friend David’s life. He went peacefully. That was a comfort all in its own. In a way I was glad that it was over, for he was no longer in pain. All the emotions that I had held in came rushing out as I realized that I would never see David again. His mother said that I had kept him alive and that she was grateful that I was her son’s last friend. It hasn’t been a year yet, but I have done so much since then that I am no longer that carefree teenager. I now educate people about AIDS, which to me is keeping David’s memory alive. Even though David is gone, he is still with me and always will be in mind and spirit. Detailed reading8 Detailed reading

23 Paragraph 1 Questions 1) What does the first sentence of Paragraph 1 tell us? Detailed reading1— Question 1 It points out the significance of dealing with AIDS, which is the theme of the text. Detailed reading

24 Paragraph 1 Questions 2) The last sentence of Paragraph 1 is a sentence fragment. It is actually part of the preceding sentence. Why does the author separate them from each other? Detailed reading1--Quesion 2 By separating them from each other, the writer succeeds in accentuating the two parts of the sentence with more information. It is precisely for the purpose of emphasis that a sentence is divided into two or more than two parts by means of full stops. Detailed reading

25 strengthen vt. to make something stronger or more effective, or to become stronger or more effective Detailed reading1-- strengthen 1 e.g. The wind strengthened during the night. 夜里风刮得更大了。 They have been strengthening their border defense in preparation for war. 他们已加强了边界的防守,作好了战争的准备。 His battle against cancer has strengthened his belief in God. The accident strengthens the case for better safety measures at fairgrounds. Detailed reading

26 Detailed reading1-- strengthen 2 Antonym:weaken vi. Detailed reading Synonym:consolidate Derivations: strength n. strong adj.

27 bond n. 1) a close connection joining two or more people Detailed reading1-- bond e.g. Common tastes form a bond between the two men. 共同的爱好使两人结为朋友。 In societies with strong family bonds (= relationships), people tend to live longer. e.g. I invested some money in savings bonds. We entered into a solemn bond. 我们缔结了一份正式合约。 2) an official paper given by the government or a company to show that you have lent them money that they will pay back to you at an interest rate that does not change Detailed reading

28 mature adj. 1) Mature people behave like adults in a way that shows they are well developed emotionally. Detailed reading1-- mature e.g. Oh, grow up! Behave in a more mature way. 噢,别那么不懂事了(表现得成熟些吧)! He’s very mature for his age. e.g.Upon mature reflection, we find the accused guilty. Synonym:ripe 2) A mature decision is one which is made after a lot of careful thought. Detailed reading Derivation:maturity n.

29 carefree adj. having no problems or not being worried about anything Detailed reading1-- carefree e.g. The music of this song sent her carefree and joyous. 这支歌的乐曲使她心旷神怡。 I remember my carefree student days. Synonym:unworried Detailed reading

30 invincible adj. impossible to defeat or prevent from doing what is intended Detailed reading1-- invincible e.g. Our manager has an invincible will. 我们的经理有着坚强的意志。 We have an invincible army. 我们有一支不可战胜的军队。 Synonyms:unbeatable, unconquerable Detailed reading Derivation:invincibility n.

31 Dealing with AIDS strengthens the bond of friendship, encourages emotional and mature growth. Detailed reading1– dealing with aids… Explanation: AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( 获得性免疫缺损综合症 ). Translation: 对付艾滋病能强化人们之间的友谊,培养感情并使人更 加成熟。 Detailed reading

32 Paragraph 2 Question Why did David hang up on the author? Detailed reading2— Question Suffering terribly from AIDS, David realized that he was dying, which would make his friend bitterly sad about his illness. And David did not want to run the risk of giving the infectious disease to his best friend. So he cut off all communication with even his best friend. Detailed reading

33 hang out to spend a lot of time in a place or with someone Detailed reading2– hang out e.g. They normally hang out in the pub. 他们经常在酒吧里鬼混。 Where have you been hanging out these days? 你这些日子里都在什么地方? She used to hang out with her good friends in the woods. Detailed reading

34 confront vt. to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person Detailed reading2– confront 1 e.g. A soldier often has to confront dangers. 士兵常常要身临险境。 They confronted the prisoner with his accusers. 他们让犯人与原告对质。 Comparison: meet: to experience something e.g. I’ve never met that kind of problem/system before. He met his death (= he died) in the icy waters of the South Atlantic. Detailed reading Synonyms:face, encounter, meet meet, encounter, face, confront

35 Detailed reading2– confront 2 encounter: (formal) to meet someone unexpectedly; to meet a difficulty or setback e.g. On their way home they encountered a woman selling flowers. One rainy night the policeman had a chance encounter with a gang of smugglers. 在一个雨夜,那个警察正巧碰上了一伙走私犯。 Detailed reading confront: vt. to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person bravely e.g.We must confront future with optimism.

36 Detailed reading2– confront 3 Derivations: confrontation n. a fight or argument confrontational adj. Detailed reading face: If you face a problem, or a problem faces you, you have to deal with it. e.g. This is one of the many problems faced by working mothers. You’re faced with a very difficult choice there.

37 Detailed reading2– confront 4 Detailed reading e.g. The new system will be confronted with great difficulties at the start. 这种新的制度一开始将会面临很大困难。 Collocation: be confronted with: face a difficulty or something bad

38 Our air-conditioner broke down on the hottest day of this year. 我们的空调在今年最热的那天坏了。 break down 1) to be unable to control your feelings and to start to cry Detailed reading2– break down e.g. He broke down and wept when he heard the news. 他听到这个消息时不禁痛哭起来。 e.g. The telephone system has broken down. 电话系统失灵了。 2) If a machine or vehicle breaks down, it stops working. Detailed reading e.g. 3) to collapse, fail to function or operate

39 affect vt. to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause them to change Detailed reading2-- affect 1 e.g. Both buildings were badly affected by the fire. The divorce affected every aspect of her life. It’s a disease which affects mainly older people. Comparison: affect: It usually refers to something produces negative effect on somebody. Detailed reading Synonym:influence affect, influence

40 Detailed reading2– affect 2 Detailed reading influence: It usually refers to the imperceptible effect on one’s personality, thought or behavior, sometimes it also refers to the effect produced by the natural power. e.g. Don’t let me influence your decision. 不要让我影响你的决定。 e.g. The climate affected his health. 气候影响了他的健康。 He was much affected by the sad news. 这个悲惨的消息使他非常难过。

41 Detailed reading2– affect 3 Derivations: affection n. affective adj. Detailed reading

42 I blew it off. Detailed reading2-- I blew it off. Paraphrase: I didn’t take it seriously. Detailed reading

43 Paragraph 3 Question How did David, the writer’s friend, catch AIDS? Detailed reading3— Question David had had unprotected sex once. Thus, he caught AIDS. Detailed reading

44 make sense to be reasonable or logical or comprehensible Detailed reading3– make sense e.g. Does it make sense to let children play with matches? 让小孩玩火柴有意义吗? His argument does not make sense. 他的争论没有意义。 Detailed reading

45 handle vt. to deal with, have responsibility for, or be in charge of Detailed reading3--handle e.g. He’s not a very good teacher — he doesn’t know how to handle children. 他不是一个好的老师 —— 他不懂得如何对待孩子。 An officer must know how to handle his men. 当军官的应懂得怎样统率士兵。 I thought he handled the situation very well. Some people are brilliant with computers, but have no idea how to handle (= behave with) other people. Detailed reading Synonyms: cope with, deal with

46 When things had gone wrong before this, I could always rely on my parents to made things better. There was nothing that they could do this time. I had to handle it all on my own. Detailed reading3– when thing had… Translation: 在这之前,若事情出了差错,我总是可以向父母求助, 使事情转危为安。这一次他们也无能为力,我不得不自 己来处理应对一切。 Detailed reading

47 Paragraph 4 Questions 1) What attitude did the writer adopt towards David? Detailed reading4--Quesion 1 The writer adopted a friendly attitude towards David. Because their friendship meant everything to David. He couldn’t turn his back on David when he needed him the most. Detailed reading

48 Paragraph 4 Questions 2) How did other people react to David’s illness when it was made known? Detailed reading4--Quesion 2 Other people looked at him as if he had a plague, and the writer’s and David’s friends from school wanted nothing to do with him and even with the writer. Detailed reading

49 keep up to be able to understand or deal with something that is happening or changing very fast Detailed reading4– keep up 1 e.g. I read the papers to keep up with what’s happening in the outside world. I think it’s difficult to keep up with the recent development. Detailed reading Synonym:follow

50 Detailed reading4– keep up 2 Detailed reading 2) to change your ideas, opinions or way of living or working to make them modern e.g. I don’t really like working on a computer, but I have to keep up with the times, I suppose. Collocation: keep up with 1) If someone or something keeps up with someone or something else, they do whatever is necessary to stay level or equal with that person or thing. e.g. He started to walk faster and the children had to run to keep up with him. Wages are failing to keep up with inflation.

51 stick it out to continue to the end of a difficult or unpleasant situation Detailed reading4– stick it out e.g. He hates the job but he’s determined to stick it out because he needs the money. 他讨厌那工作 —— 但因为需要钱,只好横下心来干下去。 I know things are difficult at the moment, but if we just stick it out, I’m sure everything will be OK in the end. Detailed reading

52 blame vt. to say or think that someone or something did something wrong or is responsible for something bad happening Detailed reading4– blame 1 e.g. The driver was not to blame for the accident. 这次事故不能怪司机。 Synonyms:condemn, accuse, find fault with Detailed reading Collocations: blame sb. for sth./ doing sth.: find fault with; censure 指责 blame sth. on sb.: place responsibility for sth. 把 …… 归咎于 ……

53 Detailed reading4– blame 2 Detailed reading Translation: 许多孩子害怕讲英语时犯错误而受责备。 警察把那起交通事故归咎于杰克的粗心驾驶。 Many children are afraid of being blamed for making mistakes in speaking English. The police blamed the traffic accident on Jack’s careless driving.

54 There was no use in hiding it; sooner or later people wound find out. Detailed reading4– there was no… Translation: 隐瞒病情没有用,人们迟早会发现真相的。 Detailed reading

55 Also, I could not turn my back on him when he needed me the most. Detailed reading4– also I could not… Paraphrase: When he needs my help, I could not just leave him alone. Translation: 而且,在他最需要我的时候我不能不管他。 Detailed reading

56 Paragraphs 5~7 Questions 1) What did David say to the writer one day in the hospital? Detailed reading5~7-- Quesion 1 David said to the writer one day in the hospital, “Faye, I am dying; let’s accept that and deal with it. I know what I did was wrong and now I have to deal with it. All I want you to do is to remember me, enjoy life and be careful.” Detailed reading

57 Paragraphs 5~7 Questions 2) How did the writer take care of his friend David? Detailed reading5~7-- Quesion 2 The writer maintained an active attitude for the sake of his friend David and showed great concern for him. To be more specific, the writer contained his emotions in front of his friend; he went to see one doctor after another with him, brought him stuff from the ocean — his favorite place; he spent every hour he could accompanying his friend in the hospital, where David was being treated until his last breath. Detailed reading

58 go through to experience a difficult or unpleasant situation Detailed reading5– go through e.g. He’s amazingly cheerful considering all that he’s gone through. 鉴于他经历过的种种遭遇,他的乐天达观令人惊叹。 The country has gone through too many wars. 这个国家经历了太多的战争。 How can she keep smiling after what she’s gone through? 她在经历了这一切之后怎么还能保持满脸笑容? Detailed reading

59 for one’s sake / for the sake of in order to help or bring advantage to someone Detailed reading5– for one’s sake e.g. Don’t inconvenience yourself for my sake. 请不必为我麻烦。 Please do it, for David’s sake. Their parents only stayed together for the sake of the children. Detailed reading

60 stress n. 1) great worry caused by a difficult situation, or something which causes this condition Detailed reading5-- stress e.g. People under a lot of stress may experience headaches, minor pains and sleeping difficulties. I can’t bear the stresses and strains of modern life. 我不能忍受现代生活的压力和紧张。 e.g. During his speech, he laid particular stress on the freedom of the press. 在他的发言中他特别强调了新闻媒体的自由. Synonyms:strain, pressure, tension, emphasis 2) emphasis Detailed reading

61 do sb. good to benefit sb. Detailed reading6– do sb. good 1 e.g. Exercise will do you good. 运动对你会有好处的。 Eat more fruit — it will do you good. 多吃水果,这对你有好处。 A week’s vacation will do you a lot of good. 休假一周对你有很多益处。 Detailed reading

62 Detailed reading6– do sb. good 2 Detailed reading e.g. Smoking does harm to your health. 吸烟对你的身体有害。 Being exposed to sunlight for much time will do harm to one’s skin. Antonym: do harm to sb.: to be harmful to sb.

63 bedridden adj. confined to bed (by illness) Detailed reading6– bed- ridden e.g. I have to stay where I am. From now on I’m bedridden. I’m under doctor’s orders. 我要留在这里,从现在开始我要遵循医嘱卧床休息。 Detailed reading

64 keep sth. in to conceal or hide an emotion; to restrain sth. Detailed reading6– keep sth. in e.g. He could scarcely keep his indignation in. 他愤怒得难以自持。 Hearing the news that she had been admitted by the university, she could hardly keep her excitement in. Detailed reading

65 maintain vt. 1) to continue to have; to keep in existence, or not allow to become less Detailed reading7– maintain 1 e.g. The army has been brought in to maintain order in the region. Mankind have been trying every means to maintain the balance of nature. 人类采用一切手段保持生态平衡。 Anna and Mary maintained their friendship for many years. Despite living in different countries, the two families have maintained close links. Detailed reading

66 Detailed reading7-- maintain 2 e.g. A large house costs a lot to maintain. The roads around the town have been very poorly maintained. Frank maintains his car very well. 弗兰克把自己的车子保养得很好。 2) to keep a road, machine, building, etc. in good condition Detailed reading e.g. Mr. Smith maintains his son at college. 史密斯先生供养念大学的儿子。 3) to support

67 Detailed reading7– maintain 3 Detailed reading Derivation:maintenance n. e.g. He maintains that he once saw a UFO. 他坚持称自己见过飞碟。 4) to express firmly your belief that something is true

68 deal with 1) to take action in order to achieve something or in order to solve a problem Detailed reading7– deal with 1 e.g. How do you intend to deal with this problem? I think we should work out a strategy to deal with this situation. 我想我们应该制订出一项行动计划,来应对这种情况。 e.g. Her new film deals with the relationship between a woman and her sick daughter. The author has tried to deal with (= write about) a very difficult subject. 2) to be about or be on the subject of something Detailed reading

69 Detailed reading7– deal with 2 Synonyms:cope with, handle Detailed reading e.g. The meeting will deal with these problems. 本次会议将就这些问题进行讨论。

70 … the hospital staff had a bubble around him, Detailed reading7-- … the hospital staff… Paraphrase: … the hospital staff put him under a large clear plastic tent. Detailed reading

71 Paragraph 8 Questions 1) How did the writer feel about his friend’s death? Detailed reading8--Quesion The writer had mixed feelings. In a way he was glad that David was no longer in pain. But all the emotions came rushing out as he realized that he would never see David again. Detailed reading 2) How does the writer keep David’s memory alive? The writer educates people about AIDS. It is in this positive way that he keeps David’s memory alive.

72 in a way to a certain extent, but not entirely; in a sense Detailed reading8– in a way 1 e.g. The article is well written in a way. 从某种程度上来说,这篇文章写得不错。 Comparison: in a way: in a sense in no way: not at all, not in the least in the way: being an obstacle Synonyms:to certain degree, to some extent Detailed reading in a way, in no way, in the way

73 Detailed reading8– in a way 2 Translation: 在某种程度上,你犯那个错误我倒感到高兴,因 为它可以对你敲响警钟。 他们毫无相似之处。 告诉那个男孩别挡道碍事。 Detailed reading In a way, I am glad that you made that mistake, for it will serve you as a warning. Tell the boy not to stand in the way. They are in no way similar to each other.

74 hold in to conceal; to hold back; to keep from being perceived by others Detailed reading8– hold in e.g. Shannon became quiet, holding in her hurt and resentment. 香农安静了下来,压抑着自己的伤心和怨恨。 I felt an irresistible desire to hold in my own for a moment the hand Jeffrey Aspern had pressed 我感到一种抑制不住的欲望,想亲手握一下杰弗里 · 阿 斯彭曾紧握过的手。 Synonyms:keep in, constrain Detailed reading

75 grateful adj. showing or expressing thanks, especially to another person Detailed reading8-- grateful 1 e.g. This is Teachers’ Day and a time to be grateful to all teachers. This profession deserves the special recognition and respect. 时逢教师节,是向所有教师表达谢意的日子。这个职 业值得受到特别的重视和尊重。 I am grateful for all your past kindness 承蒙关照,万分感激。 Synonyms:thankful, appreciative Detailed reading Antonym:ungrateful

76 Detailed reading8– grateful 2 Detailed reading Derivations: gratitude n. gratefulness n.

77 keep sth. alive to cause sth. to remain living; to make sth. continue to exist Detailed reading8– keep sth. alive e.g. After years of sophistication, she still kept the old memory of her childhood alive. 在经历了多年的坎坷后,她对孩提时的时光仍然记忆 犹新。 Many local traditions are still kept alive in the place. Synonyms:survive, remain Detailed reading

78 在某种意义上,我很高兴一切结束了,因为他不再痛苦 了。当我意识到再也见不到大卫时,压抑了很久的情感 一下子都爆发了出来。 In a way I was glad that it was over, for he was no longer in pain. All the emotions that I had held in came rushing out as I realized that I would never see David again. Detailed reading8– in a way I was… Detailed reading Paraphrase: To some extend, I feel happy that it came to an end; because he would never suffer from the pain. The floodgate of my long hold emotions was open, as soon as I realized that I would never see David again. Translation:

79 Activity: Sentence Making Directions: You are supposed to make sentences by using the following words as many as possible. Words to be used: Activity1 strengthen, bond, mature, invincible, carefree Detailed reading

80 Activity: Story Making Directions: The class is divided into several groups. Each group is supposed to make a story of a person they happened to know and who was confronted with trouble and finally went through it with great efforts. Words and phrases to be used: Activity4 hang out, confront, break down, affect, make sense, handle, keep up, stick it out, blame Detailed reading

81 Activity: Making a Story Directions: Make a story by group discussion. Use as many of the words and expression in Paragraphs 5~7 as possible. The representative from each group should tell the story in front of the class and will be judged by other groups. Make a story by using the following phrases and expressions: Activity5~7 go through, for one’s sake, stress, do sb. good, bedridden, keep sth. in, maintain, deal with Detailed reading

82 Activity: Making Dialogue Directions: Make a dialogue in pairs. Use as many of the words and expressions in Paragraph 8 as possible. Activity8 Detailed reading in a way; hold in; keep sb. alive; grateful

83 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Phrase practice Word / Phrase comparison Synonym / Antonym Word derivation VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

84 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 1 live life up= to have a very enjoyable and exciting time 积极向上地生活 e.g. I was determined to live life up after witnessing the tragedy. 目睹那场悲剧之后,我决定要积极的生活。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

85 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 2 turn one’s back on =to go away from or refuse to be with 拒绝帮助 e.g. I can’t turn my back on friends who are in need of help. 我不能在朋友需要的时候拒绝他们。 They didn’t see each other since he turned his back on her. 自从他拒绝帮助她,他们就再也不联系了。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

86 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 3 stick it out =not to give up 坚持到底 e.g. As long as you stick it out, you will have your day. 只要你坚持到底,你总会成功的。 Be brave, and stick it out! 勇敢一点,坚持到底! VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

87 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 4 go through so much =to experience so much pain and stress 经历辛苦 e.g. Why do you quit now after going through so much? 经历了那么多艰辛,你怎么现在放弃了呢? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

88 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 tighten: if you tighten your grip on something, or if your grip tightens, you hold it more firmly or securely e.g. Stefano’s grip tightened and his tone became colder. Group 1 strengthen: to make something stronger or more effective, or to become stronger or more effective e.g. They have been strengthening their border defenses in preparation for war. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

89 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison1 widen: if you widen something or if it widens, it becomes greater in measurement from one side or edge to the other e.g. The river widens considerably as it begins to turn east. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening lengthen: to make something longer or to become longer e.g.The days lengthened as summer approached. Grammar Group 1

90 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 disturbed: not thinking or behaving normally because of mental or emotional problems e.g.This is a center for emotionally disturbed teenagers. Group 2 bothered: worried or upset e.g. He doesn’t seem too bothered about the things that are written about him in the papers. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

91 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison2 Group 2 troubling: something that is troubling makes you worried or nervous e.g. Some troubling questions remain about the legal status of human cloning. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening worried: when you are worried, you are unhappy because you keep thinking about problems that might happen in the future e.g. If you’re at all worried about his progress, do discuss it with one of his teachers. Grammar

92 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 Group 3 as to: about e.g. He was uncertain as to which road to take. in terms of: if you talk about something in terms of something or in particular terms, you are specifying which aspects of it you are discussing or from what point of view you are considering it e.g. Paris has played a dominant role in France, not just in political terms but also in economic power. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

93 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3 regard: to consider or have an opinion about something or someone e.g. Her parents always regarded her as the cleverest of their children. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening concerned: involved in something or affected by it e.g. I’d like to thank everyone concerned for making the occasion run so smoothly. Grammar Group 3

94 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 influence: to affect the way someone or something develops, behaves, thinks, etc. without directly forcing or ordering them e.g.His writing was greatly influenced by Henry James. impress: if something impresses you, you feel great admiration for it e.g.Cannon’s film impresses on many levels. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

95 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison4 affect: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause them to change e.g.Both buildings were badly affected by the fire. shake: to make someone feel very upset or shocked e.g.The murder shook the whole town. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 4

96 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 handling: the way that someone deals with a situation or person e.g.I admired your delicate handling of the crisis. dealing: the activity of buying, selling, or doing business with people e.g.penalties for drug dealing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5

97 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison5 treat: to behave towards someone or deal with something in a particular way e.g. I treat remarks like that with the contempt that they deserve. manage: to be responsible for controlling or organizing someone or something especially a business e.g.He’s not very good at managing people. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 5

98 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 6 complain: to say that you are annoyed, not satisfied, or unhappy about something or someone e.g. She complained that no one had been at the airport to meet her. criticize: if you criticize someone or something, you express your disapproval of them by saying what you think is wrong with them e.g. His mother had rarely criticized him or any of her children.

99 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison6 blame: to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad e.g.I blame his mother. She does everything for him. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening disapprove: to feel that something or someone is bad, wrong, etc. to not approve e.g.I strongly disapprove of under-age drinking. Grammar Group 6

100 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 outlook: the likely future situation e.g.The outlook for the economy is bleak. future: someone’s future, or the future of something, is what will happen to them or what they will do after the present time e.g. His future as prime minister depends on the outcome of the elections. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 7

101 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison7 view: what you think or believe about something e.g.She has strong views about politics. condition: if you talk about the condition of a person or thing, you are talking about the state that they are in, especially how good or bad their physical state is e.g. You can’t drive in that condition. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 7

102 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 stuff: It is used to refer to a substance or a group of things or ideas, etc., often with a description of their general type or quality or saying who they belong to, without saying exactly what they are e.g. There’s sticky stuff all over the chair. staff: the people who work for an organization e.g. The entire staff has done an outstanding job this year. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Group 8

103 Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison8 means: a way of doing or achieving something e.g. For most people, the car is still their main means of transport. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening matter: physical substance in the universe e.g. Some scientists believe that there is about ten times as much matter in the universe as astronomers have observed. Grammar Group 8

104 unhappy, wretched, miserable, cheerless Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 Give synonyms or antonyms of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used. 1. Dealing with AIDS strengthens the bond of friendship, encourages emotional and mature growth. Synonyms: tighten, intensify, enhance 2. I was the most carefree person in the world. Antonyms: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

105 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 3. My whole life was changing so fast that I couldn’t keep up. Synonyms:quickly, rapidly, swiftly 4. Everyone said that I must keep a positive attitude for his sake, because attitude means everything. Antonyms: negative, doubtful, pessimistic, uncertain VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

106 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 5. She thought that the trip would do me good; she said that I was not the one that was dying. Synonyms:benefit, profit, advantage 6. David had lost weight, had purple lesions all over his body, and was very pale. Antonyms: gain, increase, gather VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

107 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 7. All I want you to do is to remember me, enjoy life and be careful. Synonyms: cautious, alert, watchful 8. The fifth of June, 1996 marked the end of my best friend David’s life. Antonyms:beginning, start, commencement VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

108 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation1 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given word in the brackets. 1. Let’s go for a picnic tomorrow unless the weather forecast is. (favour) unfavourable _______________ 2. A successful business needs good. (organize) organization ______________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

109 3. The ring was not at all valuable; in fact, it was almost. (worth) 4. Your job will be to see that no product leaves this part of the factory. (perfect) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation2 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given word in the brackets. imperfect ____________ worthless ___________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

110 5. The floor of the attic needs if we’re going to make it into a bedroom. (strong) 6. He is of what he has done. (shame) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation3 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given word in the brackets. strengthening ________________ shamed __________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

111 7. She expressed her to me by inviting me to dinner. (grateful) 8. In, he showed great promise, but finally he turned out mediocre. (young) Consolidation Activities- Word derivation4 Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the given word in the brackets. gratitude ___________ youth _______ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

112 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- favour 1 1. favour (n.) favorite (adj.) favorable (adj.) unfavorable ( adj.) unfavorite (adj.) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. What are your favorite sports? 你最喜爱的运动是什么? 好意,喜好,偏爱,特权 流行的,喜爱的 有利的,赞许的,良好的,顺利的, 偏袒的 不宜的,不理想的 最不喜爱的,最讨厌的 He soon won the favour of his boss. 他很快赢得了老板的青睐。 The condition (being) favorable, he may succeed. 条件有利的话,他有可能会成功。

113 When that happens, I organise my defence. 如果这样的话,我的任务就是组织防守。 The army is an extremely complex organism. 军队是一个极其复杂的组织。 In fact, it might help you improve organisational performance. 事实上,它可能帮助你改善组织的表现。 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- organise 2. organise (v.) organism (n.) organisation (n.) organisational (adj.) organiser (n.) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. Grammar 组织,有机化,安排 生物体,有机体 组织,团体,有机体 组织的,编制的 组织者

114 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- worth 1 3. worth (n.) worthy (adj.) worthiness (n.) worthful (adj.) worthwhile (adj.) worthless (adj.) unworthy (adj.) unworthiness (n.) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 价值,财富 有价值的,可尊敬的,值得的, 配得上的 值得,相当,有价值 有价值的,宝贵的 值得(做)的 无价值的,无用的,可鄙的 无价值的,没有优点的 不值得,无价值 e.g. Do not underestimate his worth. 不要低估了他的价值。 His achievements are worthy of record. 他的功业是值得记载的。

115 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- worth 2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. He chucked his money away on a worthless plan. 他把钱白白花在一个毫无价值的计划上。 Such a conduct is unworthy of a decent citizen. 这样的行为不是一个正直公民应有的行为。 A little pain wouldn’t make up for her unworthiness. 一点点疼痛不能补偿她的无价值。

116 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- perfect 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 4. perfect (adj.) (v.) perfection (n.) perfectness (n.) imperfect (adj.) imperfection (n.) imperfectness (n.) e.g. He needs to perfect his spoken English before going to work in Canada. 他需要把英语口语学好才能到加拿大工作。 Grammar 完美的,完全的,十足的 ; 改进,美化 完美,完善 完全,精通,分毫不差 不完美的,有缺点的,未完成的 不完全,不完备,缺点 不完美,不完备

117 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- perfect 2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. Everyday we should walk on the road of pursuing perfection. 每一天我们都应该走在追求完美的路上。 Flawless as he is, he goes along with an imperfect life. 他是一个完美的人,却过着一种并不完美的生活。

118 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- strong 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening 5. strong (adj.) strength (n.) strengthen (v.) strengthless (n.) e.g. Reliability is our strong point. 可靠性是我们的优点。 We renew our strength in sleep. 我们以睡眠来恢复体力。 You’re too weak; and you'd better strengthen with rich food. 你的身体太虚弱了,得补养补养。 Grammar 强壮的,强烈的,坚强的,浓的 力气,力量,长处,强度 加强,变坚固 无力量的

119 He felt no shame and no regret. 他既不感到羞愧,也不感到遗憾。 Are you not shamed of your shameful behavior? 你不为你的行为可耻而感到羞愧吗 ? He is a shameless liar. 他是一个 “ 无耻 ” 的撒谎者。 Thirty years later, when I recall the memory, I still feel a bit of shamefulness to her. 30 年以后,当我回想起往事,依旧对她有羞愧感。 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- shame 1 6. shame (n. v.) shameful (adj.) shameless (adj.) shamefulness (n.) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. Grammar 羞愧,耻辱 可耻的 无耻的 可耻,不名誉

120 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- grateful 1 7. grateful (adj.) gratitude (n.) gratify (v.) gratification (n.) VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. I am very grateful for all the help. 我感激所有对我的帮助。 He smiled at them with gratitude. 他向他们笑了笑表示谢意。 Does it gratify your curiosity? 这是否满足了你的好奇心? His success is a great gratification to us. 他的成功对我们是一大喜事。 感激的,感谢的 感恩之心 使满足,使高兴 满足,喜悦

121 Celebrations are for young people. 庆祝是属于年轻人的。 My youth and youthful strength fled long ago. 我的青春和青春的活力早已消失。 There is a little pain in our youthhood. 我们的青春中有一点痛楚。 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation- young 1 8. young (adj.) youth (n.) youthful (adj.) youngster (n.) youthhood (n.) youthy (adj.) VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. 年轻的,没有经验的,初期 年轻,初期,青春 年轻的,有青春活力的 年轻人,少年,小伙子,儿童 青春期,少壮期 年轻的,少壮的

122 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Some, any, all, each, every and their compounds Countable and uncountable nouns VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Prepositions

123 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1 1. Some, any, all, each, every and their compounds Some, any, all, each and every can be used together with other words to build new compounds, such as someone, anywhere, everything, etc. But the basic usages of these words don’t change. For example, generally we still use some- in positive sentences, and use any- in non- affirmative contexts or to refer to non-specific, unspecified things. We still use every- to emphasize we are talking about a group as a whole rather than as individuals. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. I was visiting some friends last week. It was impossible to see anything in the dark. Everyone was waiting to hear the results. (= All were waiting to hear the results.)

124 1. I had reason to believe that she would keep my secret. 2. I must get to the shops or other this afternoon. I haven’t got in the house for supper. 3. In a rugby league game side has 13 players. 4. She left her handbag and now she can’t find it. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2 Practice Put in some, any, each, every or one of their compounds. every ______ sometime ___________ somewhere ____________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar anything __________ each _____

125 5.They sought solace in religion from the harshness of their lives. 6.Do you know who would be interested in a position as a receptionist in our office? We need with a really friendly manner. Consolidation Activities- Grammar3 anyone ________ everyday __________ someone __________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

126 My children are a great joy (an attribute) to me. His room, at sixteen dollars a day, was a disappointment (something specific, and something that disappoints people). Sri Lanka produces many teas (many kinds of tea). Consolidation Activities- Grammar4 2. Countable and uncountable nouns Common nouns can be classified into 1) countable nouns and uncountable nouns, or 2) individual nouns, collective nouns, material nouns and abstract nouns. Usually individual nouns and collective nouns are countable while material nouns and abstract nouns are uncountable. But sometimes abstract nouns and material nouns can be countable if they are used in specific sense, for example with an attribute. e.g. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

127 Consolidation Activities- Grammar5 1. The earthquake caused to the district. A. damage B. a damage C. damages D. the damage 2. As everyone knows, warm is comfortable in winter. A. clothes B. clothings C. cloth D. clothing 3. of English is essential for those who apply for the post. A. Good knowledge B. A good knowledge C. Good knowledges D. The good knowledge Practice Choose the best answer. A ____ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar D ____ B

128 Consolidation Activities- Grammar6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 4. Clint will give us on our grammar study. A. an adviceB. some advice C. some advicesD. advices 5. Ten years had elapsed, I found she had. A. a few white hairsB. much white hair C. a little white hairsD. few white hair A ____ B

129 Consolidation Activities- Grammar7 3. Prepositions Prepositions are a class of structural words that indicate various semantic relations between words or expressions. Some adjectives, nouns and verbs can collocate with prepositions to form adjective phrases, noun phrases and verb phrases. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening His parents will be disappointed with her if she fails the exam. I would support a ban on smoking in restaurants. He doesn’t seem to care about the effect smoking has on him. e.g.

130 1. I object being kept waiting. Why are you always late appointments? 2. I have no intention lending Dan any more money. 3. After years of service in the Cairo embassy, M. Lapierre has become extremely adept Middle East diplomacy. 4. There is no doubt that she can produce work that is equal anyone else’s in her class. Consolidation Activities- Grammar8 Practice Insert suitable prepositions in the following sentences. to ___ for ____ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar of ___ at/in ______ to ___

131 Consolidation Activities- Grammar9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar 5. Although he had no criminal record, police are inquiring some of Wilson’s business deals. 6. A lot of Japanese students of English have difficult the pronunciation of “b”s and “v”s. into _____ in ___

132 Consolidation Activities- Grammar “Sometime or other” means sooner or later. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

133 Consolidation Activities- Grammar Each emphasizes that we are thinking of the two sides separately. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

134 Consolidation Activities- Translation1 1. 这个地区的警察知道那些小偷经常出没于哪些地方。 (hang out) If you “hang out” a place, you spend regular time there; If you “hang out” with a person, you often stay with him. The police in this district know where the thieves usually hang out. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Translate the following sentences into English.

135 Consolidation Activities- Translation2 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 我可不想总是和这群人混在一起。 手里有了钱,这孩子去了其他年轻人喜欢去的地方。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I don’t always want to hang out with the group. Having money to burn, the child goes to places where other young people just like them hang out.

136 Consolidation Activities- Translation3 作为孩子,我们和母亲生活在不同的世界里,这是一个母 亲常出现的世界。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar As teenagers we live in a different world from our mothers, a world where mothers hang out on the peripheries.

137 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 2. 这些签署的协议将冲破对自由贸易设置的所有障碍。 (break down) “To break something down” means to change or remove something that prevents people from working together and having a successful relationship with each other. If something breaks down, it fails to work. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar The agreement signed will break down all the barriers to free trade.

138 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 有什么能保证它不会轻易出故障? 当用户工作时,使用工具的数量太多将会影响工作效率。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar What guarantee do I have that it won’t break down easily? The efficiencies break down when the quantity of tools in a user’s working set gets too large.

139 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 有了孩子,夫妻之间就会亲密起来,打破目前彼此之间无 形的隔阂。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Children would bring the husband and wife close together and break down this invisible barrier.

140 Consolidation Activities- Translation7 3. 他是我最好的朋友。既然他需要我的帮助,我可不能对 他置之不理。 (turn one’s back on) If someone turns his back on you, he refuses to help you when you are in need of help. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar He is my best friend. I just cannot turn my back on him now that he needs my help.

141 Consolidation Activities- Translation8 Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 我不能一边嚷着责任心,一边却拒绝帮助困境中的邻居。 我意识到,如果我真想说一口流利的英语,就得完全丢开 死记硬背语法书的老习惯。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar I can’t yell responsibility and turn my back on a neighbor who needs help. I realized that if I really wanted to become fluent in English, I would have to turn my back on all my grammar books.

142 Consolidation Activities- Translation9 他一直对我很好,现在他贫病交加,我可不能不加理会。 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar He’s always been kind to me. I can’t just turn my back on him because he’s ill and poor now.

143 Consolidation Activities- Translation10 4. 只要你努力工作,你迟早会成功,实现自己的抱负的。 (sooner or later) If something happens sooner or later, it will happen eventually. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar So long as you work hard, you are bound to succeed and realize your ambition sooner or later.

144 Consolidation Activities- Translation11 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Practice : Translate the following sentences into English. 纳税人迟早会认为夜间的警卫是正常的市政职责。 我时刻提心吊胆,唯恐她迟早有一天会看见我正在干最粗 的活儿。 Sooner or later, the taxpayers accepted night policing as a normal municipal charge. I was haunted by the fear that she would, sooner or later, find me out doing the coarsest part of my work.

145 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation Cloze

146 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

147 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Dictation One of the world’s most deadly health problems / is spreading to new places. / The problem is heart disease / and it is affecting more and more people / in developing nations. / For years / heart disease has been the No.1 cause of death / in most industrial nations. / The disease has claimed more lives / than cancer or accidents. / Now the WHO has warned that / heart disease is increasing rapidly / in almost every developing nation. / Why is this happening? / One reason is that / people in developing nations / are living longer. / Another reason is that / many people have changed the way they live. / They now eat more fat and salt / and fewer fruits and vegetables.

148 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills3 Cloze Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate. It has often been said that a little knowledge can be dangerous and so it would seem in relation to SARS. We have been told that there is a new disease which can be (1) by contact with an affected person and which is responsible for 200 plus deaths worldwide. This news has sent a wave of panic through the world which to me seems (2) of proportion. After all more people than that die on the roads every day, but no one suggests we (3) to horse-drawn transport. spread _______ out _____ return ________ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

149 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Now that the WHO is involved, we should assume that doctors all over the world are trying every means to find a (4) and prevention. As SARS is a new form of virus, I understand that it will probably mutate and it does, so it is (5) to become weaker. Also, so far as we know, anyone (6) enough to catch the disease has a very much higher chance of recovery than not. So what is all the panic (7) ? When people don’t really know, they (8) to assume the worst. People worry and panic (9) they know that the hospitals are not likely to be able to cope with a mass influx of highly infectious patients, cure ______ likely _______ unfortunate ______________ about _______ tend ______ because _________

150 yet they don’t know (10) to save themselves or what to do should they become infected. More information is essential. Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills5 how _____ VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

151 Consolidation Activities- Hints1 Here you need a word that collocates with “disease” and means that the disease moves outwards in all directions and gradually reaches or affects a larger area or more people. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar It has often been said that a little knowledge can be dangerous and so it would seem in relation to SARS. We have been told that there is a new disease which can be (1) by contact with an affected person and which is responsible for 200 plus deaths worldwide. This news has sent a wave of panic through the world which to me seems (2) of proportion. After all more people than that die on the roads every day, but no one suggests we (3) to horse-drawn transport. spread _______ out _____ return ________

152 Consolidation Activities- Hints2 Here you need a phrase to mean something is far greater or more serious than it should be. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar It has often been said that a little knowledge can be dangerous and so it would seem in relation to SARS. We have been told that there is a new disease which can be (1) by contact with an affected person and which is responsible for 200 plus deaths worldwide. This news has sent a wave of panic through the world which to me seems (2) of proportion. After all more people than that die on the roads every day, but no one suggests we (3) to horse-drawn transport. spread _______ out _____ return ________

153 Consolidation Activities- Hints3 Here you need a verb to collocate with “to” and mean that people choose to use an old-fashioned way of traveling. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar It has often been said that a little knowledge can be dangerous and so it would seem in relation to SARS. We have been told that there is a new disease which can be (1) by contact with an affected person and which is responsible for 200 plus deaths worldwide. This news has sent a wave of panic through the world which to me seems (2) of proportion. After all more people than that die on the roads every day, but no one suggests we (3) to horse-drawn transport. spread _______ out _____ return ________

154 Consolidation Activities- Hints4 What is doctors’ final aim of treating a disease? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Now that the WHO is involved, we should assume that doctors all over the world are trying every means to find a (4) and prevention. As SARS is a new form of virus, I understand that it will probably mutate and it does, so it is (5) to become weaker. Also, so far as we know, anyone (6) enough to catch the disease has a very much higher chance of recovery than not. So what is all the panic (7) ? cure ______ likely _______ unfortunate ______________ about _______

155 Consolidation Activities- Hints5 Here you need a word to show “probably”. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Now that the WHO is involved, we should assume that doctors all over the world are trying every means to find a (4) and prevention. As SARS is a new form of virus, I understand that it will probably mutate and it does, so it is (5) to become weaker. Also, so far as we know, anyone (6) enough to catch the disease has a very much higher chance of recovery than not. So what is all the panic (7) ? cure ______ likely _______ unfortunate ______________ about _______

156 Consolidation Activities- Hints6 Here you need a word meaning “bad luck” because people catch a disease. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Now that the WHO is involved, we should assume that doctors all over the world are trying every means to find a (4) and prevention. As SARS is a new form of virus, I understand that it will probably mutate and it does, so it is (5) to become weaker. Also, so far as we know, anyone (6) enough to catch the disease has a very much higher chance of recovery than not. So what is all the panic (7) ? cure ______ likely _______ unfortunate ______________ about _______

157 Consolidation Activities- Hints7 Here you need to find a preposition to introduce what something relates to or concerns. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Now that the WHO is involved, we should assume that doctors all over the world are trying every means to find a (4) and prevention. As SARS is a new form of virus, I understand that it will probably mutate and it does, so it is (5) to become weaker. Also, so far as we know, anyone (6) enough to catch the disease has a very much higher chance of recovery than not. So what is all the panic (7) ? cure ______ likely _______ unfortunate ______________ about _______

158 Consolidation Activities- Hints8 Here you need a verb to collocate with “to” and mean an action people usually do. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar When people don’t really know, they (8) to assume the worst. People worry and panic (9) they know that the hospitals are not likely to be able to cope with a mass influx of highly infectious patients, tend ______ because _________ yet they don’t know (10) to save themselves or what to do should they become infected. More information is essential. how _____

159 Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Here you need a word to reveal a cause-result relationship. When people don’t really know, they (8) to assume the worst. People worry and panic (9) they know that the hospitals are not likely to be able to cope with a mass influx of highly infectious patients, tend ______ because _________ yet they don’t know (10) to save themselves or what to do should they become infected. More information is essential. how _____

160 Consolidation Activities- Hints10 Here you need a conjunction to ask about the way in which something happens or is done. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar When people don’t really know, they (8) to assume the worst. People worry and panic (9) they know that the hospitals are not likely to be able to cope with a mass influx of highly infectious patients, tend ______ because _________ yet they don’t know (10) to save themselves or what to do should they become infected. More information is essential. how _____

161 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Making a dialogue Having a discussion

162 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities1 Making a dialogue Suppose you are Faye and you are paying David a visit while he is staying in hospital. Invite one of your fellow students to be David and talk to each other in front of your class. The two of you can recall the good times you spent together in the past, exchange your views concerning AIDS, and you as his best friend should try to help him build up his confidence in his fight against the fatal disease. Probably you could begin your dialogue in this way: Faye: Hi, David. How are you feeling today? I think you look better! David: I know you’re trying to encourage me, Faye. But I’m afraid I’m getting worse. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

163 1) You may use the words and expressions as follows when you recall the good times: Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 For your reference VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar happy, unforgettable, carefree, share same interests, hang out, have fun, help each other, share joys and sorrows, mutual understanding, cherish, friendship 2) You may use the words and expressions as follows when you exchange your views concerning AIDS: infectious, incurable, fatal, destroy, ruin, HIV, virus, plague, germ, immune system, drug, helpless, hopeless, suffer from, lose weight, vulnerable, bedridden, break down, great pressure

164 Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar — 3) You may want to comfort David by using the following words and expressions: take positive attitude, optimistic outlook, strength, courage, be strong, love, hope, invincible, handle, stick out, support, maintain, mature, rely on, help, accompany

165 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities2 Having a discussion In recent years we’ve been threatened by quite a number of seemingly incurable diseases, such as cancer and AIDS. Sit down with four or five of your fellow students to discuss the gloomy situation we human beings have been confronted with in terms of health. Try to explore some reasons and suggest some ways to protect ourselves. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

166 Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 For your reference VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening You may want to mention the gloomy situation as follows: — Some diseases such as AIDS are incurable so far. — We are confronted with new viruses such as H1N1 and SARS and those new viruses spread very quickly and easily.

167 Consolidation Activities- For your reference2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar You may want to give some reasons as follows: — Unhealthy eating habits such as being too fussy about food and having no breakfast. — Other unhealthy habits of life such as drinking and smoking. — Food pollution caused by environmental pollution. — The infection from mother to unborn child.

168 Consolidation Activities- For your reference3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar You may want to give some suggestions as follows: — Doing regular exercises to keep fit. — Remove unhealthy habits. — The government should reinforce monitoring of food safety. — Medical skills should be improved.

169 Consolidation Activities- Writing VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Correlative conjunctions Practice

170 Consolidation Activities- Writing1 Correlative Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions are those conjunctions which are in the form of pair of words. They always join grammatically equal elements (e.g. noun + noun, adjective + adjective, phrase +phrase, clause + clause, etc.). They also lend equal weight to the joined elements, i.e. one joined element is always equal to but never subordinate to the other. When joining singular and plural subjects, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

171 Consolidation Activities- Writing2 The correlative conjunctions include the following: both … and, either … or, neither … nor, not only … but also/not only … but … as well, whether … or, such … as, etc. Such correlative conjunctions can be used properly to complete sentences beautifully. Look at the examples that follow: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar e.g. 1. Both … and … For seeking admission in an American university, you should sit for both GRE and TOEFL.

172 Consolidation Activities- Writing3 e.g. 3. Neither … nor … Neither Peter nor Andrew has passed the test. e.g. 4. Not only … but also … She not only wrote the screenplay for the movie but also acted a role in it. e.g. 2. Either … or … Either John or George must have done this mischief. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar

173 Consolidation Activities- Writing4 e.g. 6. Such … as … I see only such movies as have good songs. e.g. 5. Whether … or … I do not know whether my father is arriving by the 8 o’clock flight or 9 o’clock flight. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. 7. Such … that … Such was the weather the whole of today that I decided to stay indoors.

174 Consolidation Activities- Writing5 e.g. 9. As … so … As you sow, so you reap. e.g. 8. As … as … If you are as intelligent as your father, it will not be difficult for you to run your family business. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening e.g. 10. Hardly … when … Hardly had I sat down for dinner, when the phone rang.

175 Consolidation Activities- Writing6 1. Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is impractical. Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is immoral, too. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is both impractical and immoral. [The original sentences have coordinative relation and by using the correlative conjunctions “both … and” to combine them into one, the new sentence becomes brief and coherent.] Practice Combine the following sentences with appropriate correlative conjunctions.

176 Consolidation Activities- Writing7 2. We are playing football on Saturday. It doesn’t matter it rains or not. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Whether it rains or not, we are playing football on Saturday. [The original sentences have conditional relation and by using the correlative conjunctions “whether … or” to combine them into one, the new sentence becomes brief and coherent.]

177 Consolidation Activities- Writing8 3. The one who criticizes you more is not your enemy. The one who criticizes you more is your friend. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening The one who criticizes you more is not your enemy but your friend. [The original sentences have preference relation and by using the correlative conjunctions “not … but” to combine them into one, the new sentence becomes brief and coherent.]

178 Consolidation Activities- Writing9 4. You can wait for the opportunities to come. You can find opportunities yourself. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening You can either wait for the opportunities to come or find opportunities yourself. [The original sentences have coordinative relation and by using the correlative conjunctions “either … or” to combine them into one, the new sentence becomes brief and coherent.]

179 Consolidation Activities- Writing10 5. Don’t underestimate the power to change yourself. Don’t overestimate your power to change others. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Neither underestimate the power to change yourself nor overestimate your power to change others. [The original sentences have coordinative relation and by using the correlative conjunctions “neither … nor” to combine them into one, the new sentence becomes brief and coherent.]

180 Consolidation Activities- Listening1 Telephone Messages You will hear telephone conversations between a doctor’s receptionist and different patients. Complete the information sheet that the receptionist keeps for the doctor. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

181 Consolidation Activities- Listening2 Patient 1 NAME Walliser ADDRESS, Rosecroft Terrace, Shenley TEL. NO. PROBLEM and ACTION TAKENDoctor to phone back ______________ VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening spots _______ large _______ temperature _______________ High ______ _________ 208 _____ Flat 6 _______ Robert ________

182 Consolidation Activities- Listening3 Patient 2 NAMEHarry ADDRESSHolly Trees,, Hastings TEL. NO. (sister’s) PROBLEM ACTION TAKENDoctor to phone patient at sister’s _________ VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening Broken ________ __________ London _________ 17 ____ James ________ Road ______ arm ______

183 Consolidation Activities- Listening4 Patient 3 NAME Jones ADDRESS Hamilton, Shenley TEL. NO.No phone PROBLEM ACTION TAKENTold him to phone for VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening ambulance _____________ an ____ Heart _______ Drive _______ 16 ____ May _____ attack ________

184 Consolidation Activities- Script2.1 Telephone Messages (R = Receptionist; P = Patient) Call 1 R: Hello. Dr Robinson’s practice. Can I help you? P: Yes, please. I hope so. I’m phoning about my son, Robert. He’s got a high temperature, he’s really very hot and he’s got large spots on his neck and tummy. What should I do? R: I’ll ask the doctor to call you back. But first of all, could you give me your address? P: Yes, it’s Flat 6, 208 Rosecroft Terrace, Shenley. R: And your phone number? VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

185 Consolidation Activities- Script2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening R: And your phone number? P: It’s R: And your name? P: Mary Walliser. That’s W-A-double L-I-S-E-R. R: Right. The doctor will call you back as soon as he can.

186 Consolidation Activities- Script3.1 Telephone Messages (R = Receptionist; P = Patient) Call 2 R: Hello. Dr Robinson’s practice. Can I help you? P: Yes, my name’s Harry James. I’ve been with the doctor for years. R: Yes, Mr. James. What’s your problem? P: It’s my arm. It’s swollen. I think it’s broken. You see, I was putting the kettle on and I slipped on the floor in the kitchen. R: Yes, I see. What’s your address, Mr. James? P: It’s Holly Trees, 17 London Road, Hastings. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

187 Consolidation Activities- Script3.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening R: And do you have a phone there? P: No, I don’t. I’m calling from my sister’s. R: What’s her phone number? P: Hastings R: And will you be staying at your sister’s? P: Yes, the doctor can ring me here. R: Right, he’ll be in touch with you very soon.

188 Consolidation Activities- Script4.1 Telephone Messages (R = Receptionist; P = Patient) Call 3 R: Hello. Dr Robinson’s practice. Can I help you? P: Yes, yes. It’s my wife. I want to speak to the doctor. R: I’m afraid Dr Robinson is not available at the moment. If you give me the details, I’ll ask him to ring you. P: Yes, yes, it’s my wife. I think she’s had a heart attack. She can’t move. She’s got a pain in her chest. She can’t speak. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening

189 Consolidation Activities- Script4.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListening R: I think you’d better ring 999 and get an ambulance immediately. But tell me your name first. P: It’s Jones. My wife’s May Jones. We live at 16 Hamilton Drive, Shenley. R: And your phone number? P: We aren’t on the phone. I’m calling from a phone box. R: Well, Mr. Jones. Ring for an ambulance, and I’ll let the doctor know the situation. P: Yes, thank you, thank you.

190 Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable quotes Lead-in questions Text Questions for discussion

191 Lead-in questions 1. How can we prevent AIDS according to your knowledge? 2. What do you think we can do to improve public awareness of AIDS? Lead-in questions Text IIMemorable quotes

192 AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) 1. The disease known as AIDS is a complicated illness that may involve several phases. It is caused by a virus that can be passed from person to person. AIDS impairs the human body’s immune system — the system responsible for warding off disease — and leaves the victim susceptible to various infections. 2. AIDS was first conclusively identified in the United States in 1981, when 189 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control. Within a decade the disease had spread to virtually all populated areas of the world. Text1 Text IIMemorable quotes

193 In the United States alone there are about 65,000 new cases every year. The origin of the AIDS virus is uncertain, but it may have originated in Central Africa. 3. The first AIDS patients in the Americas and Europe were almost exclusively male homosexuals. Later patients included those who used unsterilized intravenous needles to inject illicit drugs; hemophiliacs (persons with a blood clotting disorder) and others who had received blood transfusions; females whose male sexual partners had AIDS; and the children of such couples. However, since 1989, heterosexual sex was found to be the fastest growing means of transmission of the virus, with 90% of new cases originating from heterosexual sex. Text2 Text IIMemorable quotes

194 Text3 Text IIMemorable quotes 4. Public awareness of the disease gradually built up as high-profile victims began to die: actor Rock Hudson (1985), clothes designer Perry Ellis (1986), choreographer Michael Bennett (1987), photographer Robert Mapplethorpe (1989), and Oscar-winning director Tony Richardson (1991). When basketball superstar Magic Johnson announced in 1991 that he had contracted the AIDS virus, the feeling spread quickly that anyone, not just particular groups of people, could be at risk. This was again confirmed as tennis legend Arthur Ashe announced in 1992 that he had been infected with the virus for several years.

195 Text4 Text IIMemorable quotes 5. The AIDS virus. American researchers initially named the virus that causes AIDS the human T-lymph tropic virus, type III or HTLV-III. After researchers discovered in the late 1980s that there were several forms of the AIDS virus, the original virus was renamed the human immunodeficiency virus type I, or HIV-I. 6. The virus enters the bloodstream and destroys certain white blood cells, called T-lymphocytes, that play a key role in the functioning of the immune system. The virus can also infect other types of cells in the body, including the immune-system cells known as macrophages. Unlike T- lymphocytes, however, macrophages are not killed by the virus.

196 Text5 Text IIMemorable quotes In fact, research has suggested that macrophages may carry the AIDS virus to healthy brain cells, to the lymphatic system, and to other healthy cells in the body. 7. What happens after infection. Most people recently infected by AIDS virus look and feel healthy. In some people the virus may remain inactive, and these people act as carriers, remaining apparently healthy but still able to infect others. After a few years, some people may develop AIDS-related complex, or ARC. Its symptoms may include fever, fatigue, weight loss, skin rashes, a fungal infection of the mouth known as thrush, lack of resistance to infection, and swollen lymph nodes.

197 Sometimes the symptoms of ARC disappear, but the condition frequently goes on to become AIDS. Though it can take up to 20 years after the virus is contracted for AIDS to fully manifest itself, the average time is one to two years. 8. The AIDS virus causes so much damage to the immune system that the body becomes susceptible to a variety of opportunistic infections — infections that are less harmful to people with normal immune system but take advantage of the breakdown in an AIDS sufferer’s immune system to produce devastating and eventually lethal diseases. Among the most frequently occurring opportunistic infections are tuberculosis and a type of pneumonia caused by microorganism Pneumocystis carinii. Text6 Text IIMemorable quotes

198 Text7 Text IIMemorable quotes AIDS sufferers are also more likely to develop certain tumors, particularly Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare form of cancer. The AIDS virus may also attack the nervous system and cause brain and eye damage. The average life expectancy for an AIDS victim from the onset of symptoms is one to five years. 9. How AIDS is spread. AIDS is transmitted by direct contamination of the bloodstream with body fluids that contain the AIDS virus, particularly blood and semen from an HIV-infected person. The virus is usually transmitted through various forms of sexual intercourse, the transfusion of virus-contaminated blood, or the sharing of HIV-contaminated intravenous needles.

199 Text8 Text IIMemorable quotes 10. The AIDS virus cannot penetrate intact bodily surfaces, such as skin, and quickly perishes outside the human body. Consequently, AIDS is not spread by casual physical contact or by sneezing. The virus has been found in tears and saliva, but it exists there in such low concentrations that transmission from these body fluids is extremely rare. There are no known cases of AIDS transmission by insects such as mosquitoes or by domestic animals. Studies show that the virus is usually passed to an infant close to or during delivery, rather than moving across the placenta during pregnancy. Recently infected mothers can transmit the virus to their children via breast milk.

200 The United States Congress approved guidelines recommending that health care workers who perform invasive procedures be tested for the AIDS virus but the testing and disclosure of results would be voluntary; no restrictions would be placed on those who tested positive. 11. There are several ways to reduce the spread of AIDS through sexual contact. These include practicing abstinence – no intercourse – or practicing safe sex. Practicing safe sex means either participating only in a monogamous, or mutually exclusive, relationship in which both people are free of HIV infection, or using latex condoms whenever engaging in intercourse. Text9 Text IIMemorable quotes

201 Centers for Disease Control (Paragraph 2): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the United States Public Health Service. Text2 – centers for disease control Text IIMemorable quotes

202 intravenous needles (Paragraph 3): needles used for the injection into a vein Text2 – intravenous needles Text IIMemorable quotes

203 hemophiliacs (Paragraph 3): 血友病患者 Text3 –hemophiliacs Text IIMemorable quotes

204 Rock Hudson (Paragraph 4): American actor noted for his good looks and movie roles during the 1950s and 1960s and popular television series in the 1970s. Hudson was one of the first known Hollywood celebrities to die of AIDS-related complications. Text4 –rock hudson Text IIMemorable quotes

205 Magic Johnson (Paragraph 4): byname of Earvin Johnson, Jr., American basketball player. In the fall of 1991 Johnson announced that he had tested positive for the virus that causes AIDS. Text4– magic johnson Text IIMemorable quotes

206 Arthur Ashe (Paragraph 4): American tennis player, the first black winner of a major men’s singles championship. In April 1992 he revealed that he had become infected with the virus that causes AIDS, probably through a tainted blood transfusion. Text4– arthur ashe Text IIMemorable quotes

207 HTLV (Paragraph 5): acronym for human T-cell lymphotropic virus 艾滋病病毒 Text5- HTLV Text IIMemorable quotes

208 macrophages (Paragraph 6): 巨噬细胞 Text6- macrophages Text IIMemorable quotes

209 thrush (Paragraph 7): 鹅口疮 Text7- thrush Text IIMemorable quotes

210 Pneumocystis carinii (Paragraph 8): 卡氏肺袍子虫 Text8 – pneumocystis carinii Text IIMemorable quotes

211 Kaposi’s sarcoma (Paragraph 8): 卡波济氏肉瘤:一种多 病灶恶性新生血管增值症 Text8 – kaposi’s sarcoma Text IIMemorable quotes

212 semen (Paragraph 9): reproductive fluid of males 精液 Text9 - semen Text IIMemorable quotes

213 saliva (Paragraph 10): colorless liquid secreted into the mouth by glands 唾液 Text10 - seliva Text IIMemorable quotes

214 placenta (Paragraph 10): organ in the womb of pregnant mammals nourishing the foetus ( 胚胎,胎儿 ) through umbilical cord ( 脐带 ) and eliminating its waste products 胎盘 Text10 - placenta Text IIMemorable quotes

215 invasive procedures (Paragraph 10): a series of actions in which the surgeon make usually large incisions Text10 – invasive procedures Text IIMemorable quotes

216 abstinence (Paragraph 11): the state of refraining from food, alcohol, etc., but in this text esp. from sex Text11 - abstinence Text IIMemorable quotes

217 monogamous (Paragraph 11): in the practice or state of being married to one person at a time Text11 - monogamous Text IIMemorable quotes

218 latex condoms (Paragraph 11): contraceptive sheaths made of rubber and worn by men Text11 – latex condoms Text IIMemorable quotes

219 Questions for discussion Questions for discussion1 1.What is the function of the human body’s immune system? The system is responsible for fighting disease-causing substances that have entered the body. Text IIMemorable quotes 2. What fact about the disease AIDS is the public aware of? The disease is spreading quickly and anyone can be at risk.

220 Questions for discussion2 It destroys central white blood cells that are essential for human immune system. 3. How does the virus damage the human immune system? Text IIMemorable quotes Some people may act as carriers, remaining healthy but still able to infect others. The average time for AIDS to fully manifest itself is one to two years. 4. What happens after one contracts the AIDS virus? Questions for discussion

221 Questions for discussion3 5. What is an opportunistic infection? An infection that normally does not cause diseases but produces devastating and eventually lethal diseases when the body is unable to fight off infection, as in AIDS and certain other diseases. Text IIMemorable quotes 6. How is AIDS spread? Scientists have identified three ways that HIV infections spread: sexual intercourse with an infected person, contact with contaminated blood, and transmission from an infected mother to her child. Questions for discussion

222 Questions for discussion4 7. Why should health care workers who perform invasive procedures be tested for the AIDS virus? Since their part of the body is entered, they are more likely to contract disease. Text IIMemorable quotes 8. What should we do to protect ourselves from AIDS? (This is an open question for students to answer.) Questions for discussion

223 Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes1 Appreciate the rhetoric device used in “Joy and Temperance and Repose Slam the door on the doctor’s nose.” Text IIMemorable quotes

224 Memorable Quotes1 Text IIMemorable quotes Guidance: Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910) founded the Christian Science movement. She advocated Christian Science as a spiritual practical solution to health and moral issues. According to Christian Science, mortal mind refers to a belief that life, substance, and intelligence are of matter. In the sentence “Joy and Temperance and Repose Slam the door on the doctor’s nose”, personification is applied. Here “Joy and Temperance and Repose” is the subject of the sentence which actually describes a state of mind that helps one to keep healthy.

225 Memorable Quotes Memorable Quotes2 manifest: to show or demonstrate clearly 1. Disease is the experience of so-called mortal mind. It is fear made manifest on the body. — Mary Baker Eddy e.g. The problem of governance manifested itself in the economic crisis. Text IIMemorable quotes Disease is the expression of thought externalized which believes that the mind would eventually die. The fear of the death is shown in the form of disease on the body.

226 To keep joyful, self-restrained and peaceful is to keep doctor away. slam the door in someone’s nose: (slam the door in someone’s face) an idiom with the figurative meaning of suddenly withdrawing an opportunity from someone. 2. Joy and Temperance and Repose Slam the door on the doctor’s nose. — Elizabeth Cady Stanton His bad manners in the interview effectively slammed the door in his face for future employment. Memorable Quotes3 e.g. Text IIMemorable quotes

227 Notation type here


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