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Communicating for Results 9e 9 Key Ideas Defining small group Characteristics of successful problem-solving teams Group formats Small-Group Communication and Problem Solving 1 Copyright Cengage © 2011
Consider this... Groups are like individuals – no two are alike. The better equipped you are to analyze what is happening in and around the group, the more successful and satisfying your group experience will be. Groups are like individuals – no two are alike. The better equipped you are to analyze what is happening in and around the group, the more successful and satisfying your group experience will be. Copyright Cengage © 20112
Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster Read or describe the case study Answer the following questions: What symptoms of groupthink contributed to this disaster? What role did email play in the engineers attempts to communicate? Explain why summary report cites “management practices” as a cause? Associated Press 3Copyright Cengage © 2011 NASA Case Study
Definition of a small group Small-group communication involves a small number of people, usually engaged in face-to-face interaction, actively working together toward a common goal. Small-group communication involves a small number of people, usually engaged in face-to-face interaction, actively working together toward a common goal. Copyright Cengage © 20114
Types of teams Learning groups – sharing and seeking information Self- maintenance groups – inspire desirable attitudes, understanding and communication patterns Problem-solving groups – make decisions regarding a problem Copyright Cengage © 20115
Effective Problem-Solving Teams Well organized Receive periodic training Examine assumptions and opinions Evaluate possible solutions Operate Virtually Avoid groupthink Manage cultural diversity Copyright Cengage © 20116
Groupthink symptoms Illusion of invulnerability Shared stereotypes Rationalization Illusion of morality Copyright Cengage © 20117
Groupthink symptoms Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Direct pressure Mind guarding Copyright Cengage © 20118
Avoiding groupthink Bring in outside experts Ask members to be “critical evaluators” Leader should voice opinions after others Provide “second chance” to rethink choices Copyright Cengage © 20119
Managing cultural diversity Recognize differences Select members for task-related abilities Find purpose that transcends differences Avoid cultural dominance Develop mutual respect Seek high level of feedback Copyright Cengage © 201110 Bob Daemmrich/The Image works
Operating Virtually Computer-mediated communication (CMC) through technology Differences between FTF (face-to-face) teams and CMC teams CMC teams communicate and share less CMC teams outperform FTF teams in tasks where there is a correct answer CMC teams are able to better predict the success of their decisions Copyright Cengage © 201111
Evaluating Arguments Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Copyright Cengage © 201112 When evaluating arguments, people use either: The Central Route The Peripheral Route Elaborate carefully and critically Pay attention to message content Decide quickly and non-critically Pay attention to peripheral cues (such as attractiveness, vocal Quality, gender, personality, etc.
Basic problem-solving procedure Define the problem Research and Analyze the problem Establish checklist of criteria List possible alternatives Evaluate each alternative Select best alternative and discuss implementation Copyright Cengage © 201113
Define Problem Discuss symptoms, seriousness, & impact Write problem in question form: Written for widest range of answers Specific not general Unbiased form Define confusing terms Walter Hodges/Stone/Getty Images 14Copyright Cengage © 2011
List all topics to research & discuss Gather needed information Discuss information & opinions in organized manner Steven Niedorf Photography/The Image Bank/Getty Images 15Copyright Cengage © 2011 Research and Analyze problem
Establish Criteria Establishing a criteria checklist Brainstorm for possible critera Discuss criteria to Reduce the List Divide into groups of musts and wants Assign each want a rank and numerical weight Types of criteria Task criteria Operational criteria Copyright Cengage © 201116
When to establish criteria When the task is complex The topic involves emotional or value judgments Team members have little or no problem- solving experience Copyright Cengage © 201117
Using criteria effectively List all possible criteria Evaluate each criterion to determine importance Reduce the list into workable lengths by combining or eliminating Divide remaining criteria into wants and musts Copyright Cengage © 201118
Listing possible alternatives Brainstorming Avoid negative feedback Strive for longest list possible Strive for creative, unusual ideas Build from previously mentioned ideas Electronic Brainstorming Copyright Cengage © 201119
Listing possible alternatives Brainstorming Electronic Brainstorming Ideas typed on computer by each member Ideas stored for later group viewing Software gives option of concealing identities Generally produces more ideas; sometimes better ideas Very effective with large groups Copyright Cengage © 201120
Listing possible alternatives Brainstorming Electronic Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique (NGT) Ideas generated silently by each member Ideas recorded on board for flip chart Ideas discussed for clarification only Each member privately selects top five ideas Copyright Cengage © 201121
Evaluate each alternative Eliminate unacceptable alternatives Combine similar alternatives Eliminate alternatives that don’t meet the criteria Combine remaining alternatives to want criteria and assign numerical values Calculate totals Copyright Cengage © 201122
Select the best alternative The best solutions are those with the highest totals In case of a tie Select more than one solution Create additional criteria Use consensus Compromise Vote Copyright Cengage © 201123 Nova Development
Selecting a group format Panel Roundtable Forum Symposium 24Copyright Cengage © 2011
Group formats Roundtable – private small group discussion using problem-solving procedure Panel – small group of well-informed individuals discussing a topic or problem in front of a large group Copyright Cengage © 201125
Group formats Symposium – small group of experts in front of a large group using timed presentations. Forum – a panel or discussion in which audience members can participate in the discussion Copyright Cengage © 201126
Communicating for Results 9e 9 Key Ideas Defining small group Characteristics of successful problem-solving teams Group formats Small-Group Communication and Problem Solving 27 Copyright Cengage © 2011
Communicating for Results Seventh Edition Cheryl Hamilton, Ph.D.
Chapter 9: Small-Group Communication and Problem Solving.
Small-Group Communication and Problem Solving
GROUP DECISION MAKING ADVANTAGES BROAD REPRESENTATION TAPS EXPERTISE MORE IDEAS GENERATED EVALUATION OF OPTIONS COORDINATION HIGH ACCEPTANCE DISADVANTAGES.
Consensus Based Decision Making
Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving 11 CHAPTER Chapter Objectives This Multimedia product and its contents are protected.
Groups in Process Decision Making Pitfalls, Foibles, and Techniques.
Copyright c 2006 Oxford University Press 1 Chapter 7 Solving Problems and Making Decisions Problem solving is the communication that analyzes the problem.
Looking ahead - How do teams contribute to organizations? › What are the current trends in the use of teams? › How do teams work? › How do teams make.
Chapter 13 Teams and Teamwork
The Nature of Managerial Decision Making
Discussion: A cooperative exchange of information, opinions, and ideas. One of the best methods for solving problems Group members bring all sides.
Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1.
Team Development Objectives To know the stages in the development of teams To understand team roles To understand about team decisions To learn how to.
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Foundations of Group Behavior
7-1 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Nature of Managerial Decision Making Decision Making The process.
How Teams Work. Task and Maintenance Needs Task Activities – Any activity a team member does that contributes to the group’s performance purpose.
Defective Decision Making & Problem Solving Small Group Communication.
Groups © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Group: “Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common.
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