Presentation on theme: "1 MODEL ACADEMIC CURRICULUM MODULE 9 Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps."— Presentation transcript:
1 MODEL ACADEMIC CURRICULUM MODULE 9 Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps
2 Introduction The 60-step manual assumes that you are an experienced analyst and you are accustomed to providing the kinds of information needed to support police operations. This means that: 1.You use modern computing and know how to access and manipulate comprehensive databases. 2. You know how to use software to map crimes, to identify hot spots, and to relate the results to demographic and other data. 3. You routinely produce charts showing weekly or monthly changes in crime at departmental and beat level, perhaps to support CompStat-style operations.
3 Introduction 4. You are accustomed to carrying out analyses into such topics as the relationship between the addresses of known offenders and local outbreaks of car theft and burglary. 5. You may have carried out some before-and-after evaluations of crackdowns, such as on residential burglaries or car thefts. 6. You have some basic knowledge of statistics and research methodology such as is provided by an undergraduate social science degree.
4 Prepare Yourself 1. Rethink your job or your future job. 2. Be (or become) the local crime expert 3. Know what is effective (and not) in policing (*see chart on next slide)
6 Learn About Problem-Oriented Policing 4. Become a POP expert 5. Be true to POP (*see chart on next slide) 6. Be very crime specific 7. Be guided by SARA - not led astray!
8 Study Environmental Criminology 8.Use the problem analysis triangle 9.Know that opportunity makes the thief 10.Put yourself in the offender's shoes 11.Expect offenders to react 12.Don't be discouraged by the displacement doomsters 13.Expect diffusion of benefits
9 Scan for Crime Problems 14. Use the CHEERS test when defining problems 15. Know what kind of problem you have 16. Study the journey to crime 17. Know how hot spots develop 18. Learn if the rule applies
10 Analyze in Depth 19. Research your problem 20. Formulate hypotheses 21. Collect your own data 22. Examine your data distributions 23. Diagnose your hot spot
11 Analyze in Depth 24. Know when to use high-definition maps 25. Pay attention to daily and weekly rhythms 26. Take account of long-term change 27. Know how to use rates and denominators 28. Identify risky facilities
12 Analyze in Depth 29. Be ready for repeat victimization 30. Consider repeat offending 31. Know the products that are craved by thieves 32. Conduct case control studies 33. Measure association
13 Analyze in Depth 34. Look for crime facilitators 35. Understand the crime from beginning to end 36. Be sure to answer the five "W" (and one "H") questions 37. Recognize that “to err is human”
14 Find a Practical Response 38. Embrace your key role at response 39. Increase the effort of crime 40. Increase the risks of crime 41. Reduce the rewards of crime
15 Find a Practical Response 42. Reduce provocations 43. Remove excuses for crime 44. Find the owner of the problem 45. Choose responses likely to be implemented
16 Assess the Impact 46. Conduct a process evaluation 47. Know how to use controls 48. Consider geographical and temporal displacement 49. Examine displacement to other targets, tactics and crime types
17 Assess the Impact 50. Watch for other offenders moving in 51. Be alert to unexpected benefits 52. Expect premature falls in crime 53. Test for significance
18 Communicate Effectively 54. Tell a clear story 55. Make clear maps 56. Use simple tables 57. Use simple figures
19 Communicate Effectively 58. Organize powerful presentations 59. Become an effective presenter 60. Contribute to the store of knowledge
20 Exercise 1 University Heights is a 100-unit apartment building located next to an industrial complex and strip mall shopping area. In the past 6 months, calls for service have escalated. The problems include drug dealing, gang activity, criminal mischief, shots fired and loud noise. The majority of calls are received from non-English speaking residents. The apartment manager has not been cooperative with police. Tensions between the police and residents is high. You are the supervisor responsible for this area of town. Make a list of information that you would request from crime analysts to better understand the problem. Then, provide some ideas about how you may respond to such a problem.
21 Exercise 2 Three high schools in the city are experiencing an increase in violence, substance abuse, vandalism and truancy. How might crime mapping be used to identify the sources of the problem in these schools? Hint - The “Problem Solving Tips Guide” provides a number of questions for conducting analysis. These will help you determine what questions you have about this problem and what data you may want displayed using mapping.
22 Optional Additional Material on Crime Analysis and Mapping The rest of the slides in this module offer extended material on crime analysis and crime mapping. These slides are considered optional and may or may not be useful for your particular course.
23 Crime Analysis Crime analysis is the systematic collection of information that describes crime trends and patterns. Crime Analysis can benefit Administrative, Investigative, and Patrol functions. Crime Analysis is a “specialized function” in police agencies that require highly trained personnel. While most police agencies have the ability to collect lots of data, they do not always possess the technology or expertise to analyze that data.
24 Types of Crime Analysis Intelligence: Information may include financial and tax information and family and business relationships Criminal Investigation: Involves analysis of serial offenders and geographic profiling. Tactical: Provides information to patrol and investigations on crime patterns and hotspots. Strategic: Explores long-term crime trends Administrative: Focus on economic, social and geographic information
25 Crime Mapping Mapping is one tool that can be used by crime analysts. Mapping can allow a department to identify geographic or temporal patterns. Many larger departments use mapping on a routine basis.
26 Types of Map Information Location: Most important for crime analysis Distance: Not used much Direction: Most useful when considering distance (e.g., serial robber moving around city) Patterns: Most powerful investigative and problem solving tool
27 Then - Jumbo Pin Maps
28 Now - Modern GIS Applications
29 Sample Map of DUI Arrestees
30 Mapping Hot Spots Hot Spot – “A condition indicating some form of clustering in a spatial distribution.” Crime is 6 times more concentrated among places than among people Therefore, it is more important to ask, “where dun it” than “who dun it”